maneb

Summary

Summary: Manganese derivative of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. It is used in agriculture as a fungicide and has been shown to cause irritation to the eyes, nose, skin, and throat.

Top Publications

  1. Patel S, Singh V, Kumar A, Gupta Y, Singh M. Status of antioxidant defense system and expression of toxicant responsive genes in striatum of maneb- and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in mouse: mechanism of neurodegeneration. Brain Res. 2006;1081:9-18 pubmed
    ..the incidences of PD in the rural environments and hypothesized the involvement of pesticides such as paraquat and maneb in neurodegeneration...
  2. Thiruchelvam M, Richfield E, Goodman B, Baggs R, Cory Slechta D. Developmental exposure to the pesticides paraquat and maneb and the Parkinson's disease phenotype. Neurotoxicology. 2002;23:621-33 pubmed
    ..This study hypothesized that paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) exposure during critical periods of development could permanently change the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) ..
  3. Uversky V. Neurotoxicant-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease: understanding the role of rotenone, maneb and paraquat in neurodegeneration. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;318:225-41 pubmed
    ..Parkinsonism is initiated via the exposure of animals to such agricultural chemicals as rotenone, paraquat, and maneb. Suggested neurotoxicity mechanisms of these chemicals are considered, and the major lessons learned from the ..
  4. Wills J, Credle J, Oaks A, Duka V, Lee J, Jones J, et al. Paraquat, but not maneb, induces synucleinopathy and tauopathy in striata of mice through inhibition of proteasomal and autophagic pathways. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30745 pubmed publisher
    ..The agrichemicals maneb and paraquat selectively target dopaminergic neurons, leading to parkinsonism, through ill-defined mechanisms...
  5. Fei Q, Ethell D. Maneb potentiates paraquat neurotoxicity by inducing key Bcl-2 family members. J Neurochem. 2008;105:2091-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraquat (PQ) and MPTP cause the selective degeneration of these neurons in vivo, and combining PQ with maneb exacerbates that pathology...
  6. Cicchetti F, Lapointe N, Roberge Tremblay A, Saint Pierre M, Jimenez L, Ficke B, et al. Systemic exposure to paraquat and maneb models early Parkinson's disease in young adult rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;20:360-71 pubmed
    ..Paraquat (PQ--herbicide) and maneb (MB--fungicide) are among the compounds suspected to induce neuronal degeneration and motor deficits ..
  7. Li X, Matsumoto K, Murakami Y, Tezuka Y, Wu Y, Kadota S. Neuroprotective effects of Polygonum multiflorum on nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration induced by paraquat and maneb in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005;82:345-52 pubmed
    ..PME (PME-II), on the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by a combination of paraquat and maneb (PQMB) were investigated in male C57BL/6 mice...
  8. Norris E, Uryu K, Leight S, Giasson B, Trojanowski J, Lee V. Pesticide exposure exacerbates alpha-synucleinopathy in an A53T transgenic mouse model. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:658-66 pubmed
    ..transgenic mice (M83), which develop alpha-synuclein neuropathology, were treated with the pesticides paraquat and maneb (either singly or together), and their effects were analyzed...
  9. Grosicka Maciąg E, Kurpios Piec D, Szumiło M, Grzela T, Rahden Staron I. Protective effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against maneb induced oxidative and apoptotic injury in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1020-5 pubmed publisher
    The role of antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) in protection against cellular changes triggered by maneb during in vitro exposure was investigated in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Barlow B, Lee D, Cory Slechta D, Opanashuk L. Modulation of antioxidant defense systems by the environmental pesticide maneb in dopaminergic cells. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:63-75 pubmed
    ..b>Maneb (MB) is a dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicide that has specifically been implicated to have adverse effects on ..
  2. Yadav S, Gupta S, Srivastava G, Srivastava P, Singh M. Role of secondary mediators in caffeine-mediated neuroprotection in maneb- and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in the mouse. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:875-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Maneb and paraquat are known to induce Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotype, however, caffeine offers neuroprotection...
  3. Desplats P, Patel P, Kosberg K, Mante M, Patrick C, Rockenstein E, et al. Combined exposure to Maneb and Paraquat alters transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis-related genes in mice models of Parkinson's disease. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Concurrent exposure to Paraquat (PQ) and Maneb (MB) in rural workers increases the risk for PD and exposure of adult mice to MB/PQ results in dopamine fiber loss ..
  4. Gupta S, Patel S, Yadav S, Singh A, Singh S, Singh M. Involvement of nitric oxide in maneb- and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in mouse: is there any link with lipid peroxidation?. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1206-13 pubmed publisher
    The study aimed to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in maneb (MB)- and paraquat (PQ)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotype in mouse and its subsequent contribution to lipid peroxidation...
  5. Kachroo A, Irizarry M, Schwarzschild M. Caffeine protects against combined paraquat and maneb-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Exp Neurol. 2010;223:657-61 pubmed publisher
    ..caffeine alters dopaminergic neuron loss induced by exposure to environmentally relevant pesticides (paraquat and maneb) over 8weeks...
  6. Cicchetti F, Drouin Ouellet J, Gross R. Environmental toxins and Parkinson's disease: what have we learned from pesticide-induced animal models?. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent advances in the predominant models employing the insecticide Rotenone, the herbicide Paraquat and the fungicide Maneb, discuss their scientific merit and evaluate their relevance in the study of PD pathogenesis.
  7. Costello S, Cockburn M, Bronstein J, Zhang X, Ritz B. Parkinson's disease and residential exposure to maneb and paraquat from agricultural applications in the central valley of California. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169:919-26 pubmed publisher
    ..They generated estimates for maneb and paraquat exposures incurred between 1974 and 1999...
  8. Patel S, Singh K, Singh S, Singh M. Gene expression profiles of mouse striatum in control and maneb + paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype: validation of differentially expressed energy metabolizing transcripts. Mol Biotechnol. 2008;40:59-68 pubmed publisher
    The present study was undertaken to investigate the gene expression patterns of the striatum of control and maneb + paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotype in mouse to identify the differentially expressed transcripts...
  9. Singhal N, Srivastava G, Patel D, Jain S, Singh M. Melatonin or silymarin reduces maneb- and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in the mouse. J Pineal Res. 2011;50:97-109 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress is reported as one of the most widely accepted mechanisms of maneb (MB)- and paraquat (PQ)-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration leading to the Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotype...
  10. Thrash B, Uthayathas S, Karuppagounder S, Suppiramaniam V, Dhanasekaran M. Paraquat and maneb induced neurotoxicity. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2007;50:31-42 pubmed
    ..Parkinsonian symptoms are seen following exposure to the herbicide paraquat, and the fungicide maneb. Furthermore, evidence clearly shows that neurodegeneration develops in environments where workers are co-exposed ..
  11. Ishido M. Melatonin inhibits maneb-induced aggregation of alpha-synuclein in rat pheochromocytoma cells. J Pineal Res. 2007;42:125-30 pubmed
    ..of melatonin was shown to prevent cultured neural cells from apoptosis induced by endocrine-disrupting chemical, maneb. The neurotoxicity of the fungicide, maneb (1 microg/mL), on the PC12 cells was elicited through apoptotic cell ..
  12. Cory Slechta D, Thiruchelvam M, Barlow B, Richfield E. Developmental pesticide models of the Parkinson disease phenotype. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1263-70 pubmed
    ..Combined exposures to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) and the fungicide maneb (MB), both of which adversely affect dopamine systems, administered from postnatal days 5-19, produced selective ..
  13. ROEDE J, Hansen J, Go Y, Jones D. Maneb and paraquat-mediated neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin system. Toxicol Sci. 2011;121:368-75 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological and in vivo studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) and cause dopaminergic cell loss, respectively...
  14. Thiruchelvam M, Prokopenko O, Cory Slechta D, Richfield E, Buckley B, Mirochnitchenko O. Overexpression of superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase protects against the paraquat + maneb-induced Parkinson disease phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22530-9 pubmed
    ..role of oxidative stress as a mechanism of the dopaminergic neurotoxicity produced by the combined paraquat and maneb model of the Parkinson disease phenotype...
  15. Barlow B, Richfield E, Cory Slechta D, Thiruchelvam M. A fetal risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Dev Neurosci. 2004;26:11-23 pubmed
    ..Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were treated on gestational days 10-17 with saline or the pesticides maneb (MB, 1 mg/kg) or paraquat (PQ, 0.3 mg/kg)...
  16. Srivastava G, Dixit A, Yadav S, Patel D, Prakash O, Singh M. Resveratrol potentiates cytochrome P450 2 d22-mediated neuroprotection in maneb- and paraquat-induced parkinsonism in the mouse. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:1294-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated the neuroprotective potential of Cyp2d22, a mouse ortholog of human CYP2D6, in maneb- and paraquat-induced parkinsonism and the mechanisms involved therein along with the effects of resveratrol on ..
  17. Thiruchelvam M, McCormack A, Richfield E, Baggs R, Tank A, Di Monte D, et al. Age-related irreversible progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the paraquat and maneb model of the Parkinson's disease phenotype. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:589-600 pubmed
    ..by exposing C57BL/6 mice that were 6 weeks, 5 months or 18 months old to the herbicide paraquat, the fungicide maneb or paraquat + maneb, a combination that produces a Parkinson's disease phenotype in young adult mice...
  18. Shukla Y, Arora A. Transplacental carcinogenic potential of the carbamate fungicide mancozeb. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2001;20:127-31 pubmed
  19. Bertini S, Del Carratore R, Giorgi M, Bronzetti G, Della Croce C. Genotoxic and mono-oxygenase system effects of the fungicide maneb. Arch Toxicol. 2000;74:415-20 pubmed
    The in vivo effects of a commercial preparation of maneb on mono-oxygenase activities of hepatic microsomes of basal and induced rats were examined...
  20. Domico L, Zeevalk G, Bernard L, Cooper K. Acute neurotoxic effects of mancozeb and maneb in mesencephalic neuronal cultures are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27:816-25 pubmed
    ..b>Maneb (MB), a widely used Mn-containing ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide, has been implicated in selective ..
  21. Saint Pierre M, Tremblay M, Sik A, Gross R, Cicchetti F. Temporal effects of paraquat/maneb on microglial activation and dopamine neuronal loss in older rats. J Neurochem. 2006;98:760-72 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of combined systemic exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) and the fungicide maneb (MB) in 6-month-old rats, an animal model of Parkinson's disease resulting from environmental toxin exposure...
  22. Patel S, Sinha A, Singh M. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in striatum of maneb-and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in mouse. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29:578-85 pubmed
    Behavioral, phenotypic and biochemical changes induced by maneb+paraquat (MB+PQ) in experimental animals have shown their role in the etiologies of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, MB+PQ induced neuronal damage at genome and proteome ..
  23. Casalone E, Bonelli E, Polsinelli M. Effects of mancozeb and other dithiocarbamate fungicides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of mitochondrial petite mutants in dithiocarbamate tolerance. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2010;55:593-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that petite cells, arising by exposure to sub-inhibitory MZ concentration, are not induced by fungicides but are spontaneous mutants already present in the population before the contact with the fungicide...
  24. Altinok I, Capkin E, Boran H. Influence of bioassay volume, water column height, and octanol-water partition coefficient on the toxicity of pesticides to rainbow trout. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;86:596-600 pubmed publisher
    Effects of water volume and water column height on toxicity of cypermethrin, carbaryl, dichlorvos, tetradifon, maneb, captan, carbosulfan endosulfan and HgCl? to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, 3.2 ± 0...
  25. Ahmad I, Shukla S, Kumar A, Singh B, Patel D, Pandey H, et al. Maneb and paraquat-induced modulation of toxicant responsive genes in the rat liver: comparison with polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:566-79 pubmed publisher
    ..CYPs play pro-oxidant role and GSTs offer protection in maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ)-induced brain and lung toxicities...
  26. Prakash J, Yadav S, Chouhan S, Singh S. Neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera root extract in maneb-paraquat induced mouse model of parkinsonism. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:972-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The mice were divided into three groups; the first group served as control, the second group was given maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) and the last group was administered MB-PQ along with Ws root extract for 3, 6 and 9 weeks...
  27. Khan P, Sinha S. Vitamin C mediated amelioration of pesticide genotoxicity in murine spermatocytes. Cytobios. 1994;80:199-204 pubmed
    ..In Endosulfan- and Mancozeb-treated groups, no further amelioration was achieved beyond the double dose of vitamin C, and the damage frequency did not come down to the control level. The possible mechanism of this effect is discussed...
  28. Azizi S, Chaichi M, Asemi N. A study of some sorbents for adsorption of mancozeb residue from soil of tobacco fields of Mazandaran, Iran by analytical methods. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2008;73:833-40 pubmed
    ..The adsorption capacity decreases as pH increases and the adsorption effect for 0.1 g of sorbents at pH=5 were obtained in the order: (mixture of sorbents) > (synthetic zeolite type A) > (extracted Humic Acid)...
  29. Cecconi S, Paro R, Rossi G, Macchiarelli G. The effects of the endocrine disruptors dithiocarbamates on the mammalian ovary with particular regard to mancozeb. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:2989-3004 pubmed
    ..The possibility that the female germ cell (the oocyte) could be a specific target of mancozeb suggests a role for this fungicide as probable inductor of infertility also in exposed human populations...
  30. Miles M, Kemmitt G, Valverde P. Results from two years of field studies to determine Mancozeb based spray programmes with minimal impact on predatory mites in European vine cultivation. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:285-93 pubmed
    ..6 kg a.i./ha as part of a spray programme caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of predatory mites which in turn was compatible with Integrated Pest Management programmes and the conservation of predatory mites...
  31. Miles M, Kemmitt G, Bakker F, Aldershof S. The impact of mancozeb on entomofauna communities in apple orchards. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2008;73:409-17 pubmed
    ..At a lower rate of mancozeb representing potential off-field deposits at 3 m due to drift effects were virtually absent on predatory mites in and to all other taxa present...
  32. Vinaya K, Kavitha R, Ananda Kumar C, Benaka Prasad S, Chandrappa S, Deepak S, et al. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl) propyl)piperidine derivatives against pathogens of Lycopersicon esculentum: a structure-activity evaluation study. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the synthesized new compounds 8b, 8d, 8g, 8h, 8i, and 8j were showed significant potent antimicrobial activities compared to the standard drugs chloramphenicol, mancozeb...
  33. Giroud N, Dorge S, Trouve G. Mechanism of thermal decomposition of a pesticide for safety concerns: case of Mancozeb. J Hazard Mater. 2010;184:6-15 pubmed publisher
    ..MnSO(4) is then oxidized in Mn(3)O(4) during the last step (step 4) between 650°C and 950°C. At 950°C, carbon recovery is close to 95%. Sulphur recovery is close to 98% with an equal partition between SO(2) and CS(2)...
  34. Auger P, Kreiter S, Mattioda H, Duriatti A. Side effects of mancozeb on Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in vineyards: results of multi-year field trials and a laboratory study. Exp Appl Acarol. 2004;33:203-13 pubmed
    ..Even though toxicity of mancozeb increased in controlled conditions, a significant correlation was established between field and laboratory results...
  35. Mills P, Yang R, Riordan D. Lymphohematopoietic cancers in the United Farm Workers of America (UFW), 1988-2001. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:823-30 pubmed
    ..Agricultural risk factors for lymphohematopoietic cancers (LHC) in Hispanic farm workers in California were examined in a nested case-control study embedded in a cohort of 139,000 ever members of a farm worker labor union in California...
  36. Calviello G, Piccioni E, Boninsegna A, Tedesco B, Maggiano N, Serini S, et al. DNA damage and apoptosis induction by the pesticide Mancozeb in rat cells: involvement of the oxidative mechanism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;211:87-96 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the proapoptotic effect of Mancozeb suggests its possible relevance in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, often related to the exposition of pesticides...
  37. Calçada D, Vinga S, Freitas A, Oliveira A. Quantitative modeling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLR1 regulatory network using an S-system formalism. J Bioinform Comput Biol. 2011;9:613-30 pubmed
    ..Overall, the modeling approach obtained partial success when trained on the nonmutant datasets, although further work is required if one wishes to obtain more accurate prediction of the time courses. ..
  38. Zakharov S, Csomor J, Urbanek P, Pelclova D. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis After Exposure to Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Mancozeb. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;118:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater emphasis on the hazardous properties of these products is necessary to ensure non-professional users are aware of the necessity of protective clothing during mixing, loading, application and early re-entry into treated fields. ..
  39. Gollamudi S, Johri A, Calingasan N, Yang L, Elemento O, Beal M. Concordant signaling pathways produced by pesticide exposure in mice correspond to pathways identified in human Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36191 pubmed publisher
    ..Pesticide exposure is a major risk factor for PD, and paraquat (PQ), pyridaben (PY) and maneb (MN) are amongst the most widely used pesticides...
  40. Kontou S, Tsipi D, Tzia C. Kinetics of maneb degradation during thermal treatment of tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:1212-9 pubmed
    The kinetics of maneb degradation in tomato homogenates at high temperatures and at two pH values (4 and 9) and the rate of formation of the toxic metabolite, ethylenethiourea (ETU), were studied...
  41. Boran H, Altinok I, Capkin E. Histopathological changes induced by maneb and carbaryl on some tissues of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Tissue Cell. 2010;42:158-64 pubmed publisher
    Acute toxicity of the pesticides, maneb and carbaryl, to juvenile rainbow trout were evaluated under static-renewal test conditions. Actual concentrations of maneb ranged from 0.10mg/L to 2.00mg/L and carbaryl ranged from 0.20mg/L to 3...
  42. Wang A, Costello S, Cockburn M, Zhang X, Bronstein J, Ritz B. Parkinson's disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Employing our geographic information system model, we estimated ambient exposures to the pesticides ziram, maneb, and paraquat at work places and residences from 1974 to 1999...
  43. Nordby K, Andersen A, Irgens L, Kristensen P. Indicators of mancozeb exposure in relation to thyroid cancer and neural tube defects in farmers' families. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31:89-96 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate associations of indicators of mancozeb exposure with thyroid cancer and neural tube defects in farmers' families...
  44. Wilson S, Dzon L, Reed A, Pruitt M, Whalen M. Effects of in vitro exposure to low levels of organotin and carbamate pesticides on human natural killer cell cytotoxic function. Environ Toxicol. 2004;19:554-63 pubmed
    ..Two specific carbamates used in agriculture are ziram and maneb; ziram also is used as an additive in rubber products including latex gloves...
  45. Deveci E. Histopathological effects of organometallic maneb on testis in rats: a light and electron microscopic study. Toxicol Ind Health. 2006;22:395-8 pubmed
    b>Maneb is a dithiocarbamate fungicide that contains manganese. Dithiocarbamates are considered to be chemicals of low toxicity...
  46. Zeevalk G, Bernard L, Guilford F. Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cells. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular GSH and provide neuroprotection in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using paraquat plus maneb (PQMB) in rat mesencephalic cultures...
  47. Sobotka T, Brodie R, Cook M. Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects in rats of postnatal exposure to low dietary levels of maneb. Dev Psychobiol. 1972;5:137-48 pubmed
  48. Ritz B, Manthripragada A, Costello S, Lincoln S, Farrer M, Cockburn M, et al. Dopamine transporter genetic variants and pesticides in Parkinson's disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:964-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Research suggests that independent and joint effects of genetic variability in the dopamine transporter (DAT) locus and pesticides may influence Parkinson's disease (PD) risk...
  49. Xu H, Chen R, Cai X, He D. [Effects of co-exposure to paraquat and maneb on system of substantial nigra and striatum in rats]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2011;29:33-8 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of exposure of paraquat and maneb on the behavior, the morphology and electrical activity of the Substantia nigra and striatum, and to discuss the relationship between this two pesticides and Parkinson's disease.
  50. Swarcewicz M, Gregorczyk A. The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils. Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:3077-84 pubmed publisher
  51. Qin S, Qiao X, Wang X, Zhao L. [Determination of 4 dithiocarbamate residues in 22 matrices by gas chromatography]. Se Pu. 2010;28:1162-7 pubmed
    ..2 mg/kg (S/N = 10) for the 4 dithiocarbamate residues in the 22 matrices. This method is simple, fast, accurate, reproducible, and suitable for the determination of the 4 dithiocarbamate residues in the matrices mentioned in this paper...
  52. Jacobsen P, Axelstad M, Boberg J, Isling L, Christiansen S, Mandrup K, et al. Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;34:237-50 pubmed publisher
    ..As no significant effects were seen following single compound exposure at the doses included in the highest mixture dose, these results indicate cumulative adverse effects of the pesticide mixture...
  53. Tomasi T, Ashcraft J, Britzke E. Effects of fungicides on thyroid function, metabolism, and thermoregulation in cotton rats. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:1709-15 pubmed
    ..In addition, there was no difference between the treated and control animals in any of the metabolic parameters measured. It is concluded that wild rodents exposed to these compounds are not energetically compromised...