ziram

Summary

Summary: An industrial fungicide with low mammalian toxicity, although it does possess an irritant capacity for skin and mucous membranes.

Top Publications

  1. Sook Han M, Shin K, Kim Y, Kim S, Lee T, Kim E, et al. Thiram and ziram stimulate non-selective cation channel and induce apoptosis in PC12 cells. Neurotoxicology. 2003;24:425-34 pubmed
    ..Among the dithiocarbamates, we investigated thiram and ziram in a neuronal-like pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells...
  2. Taylor T, Tucker T, Whalen M. Persistent inhibition of human natural killer cell function by ziram and pentachlorophenol. Environ Toxicol. 2005;20:418-24 pubmed
    b>Ziram is a currently used agricultural fungicide. It is also used as an additive in the production of latex gloves. Because of these uses, there is a potential for human exposure to this compound...
  3. Li X, Mao B, Dong Y, Li Y, Zhan M, Bai Y, et al. Effects of Ziram on Rat and Human 11?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Isoforms. Chem Res Toxicol. 2016;29:398-405 pubmed publisher
    b>Ziram is a widely used fungicide for crops. Its endocrine disrupting action is largely unknown...
  4. Taylor T, Whalen M. Ziram activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and decreases cytolytic protein levels in human natural killer cells. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011;21:577-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor formation and viral infection may increase if NK cytotoxic function is disrupted. Ziram (zinc dithiocarbamate) is used as an accelerating agent in the production of latex and to protect various fruits ..
  5. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Kawada T. Effect of ziram on natural killer, lymphokine-activated killer, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:475-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Ziram is a carbamate pesticide, which is widely used throughout the world as a fungicide in agriculture and as an accelerating agent in latex production. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ziram at 0...
  6. Hemavathi E, Rahiman M. Effect of Ziram, Thiram, and Dithane M-45 on bone marrow cells of mice-assessed by micronucleus test. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1996;56:190-6 pubmed
    ..Erythrocyte micronucleus represents the consequence of chromosomal aberrations induced during preceding mitotic division of erythrocytes (Matter and Grauwiler, 1974)...
  7. Hemavathi E, Rahiman M. Toxicological effects of ziram, thiram, and dithane M-45 assessed by sperm shape abnormalities in mice. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993;38:393-8 pubmed
    The three commonly used dithiocarbamate fungicides ziram, thiram, and dithane M-45 were investigated for their mutagenic and carcinogenic potency using sperm shape abnormalities in mice...
  8. Lafleur J, Senkbeil S, Jensen T, Kutter J. Gold nanoparticle-based optical microfluidic sensors for analysis of environmental pollutants. Lab Chip. 2012;12:4651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ?g L(-1) and 16 ?g L(-1) could be obtained for the heavy metal mercury and the dithiocarbamate pesticide ziram, respectively...
  9. Enomoto A, Harada T, Maita K, Shirasu Y. Epiphyseal lesions of the femur and tibia in rats following oral chronic administration of zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram). Toxicology. 1989;54:45-58 pubmed
    A 24-month chronic feeding toxicity study with zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) was performed on Fischer 344 rats of both sexes (80 animals/sex per group) at dietary levels of 0, 20, 200, or 2000 ppm...

More Information

Publications48

  1. Matei A, Trombetta L. Exposure of rat hippocampal astrocytes to Ziram increases oxidative stress. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016;32:579-88 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ziram (zinc-bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate)) is an agricultural dithiocarbamate fungicide that is used to treat a variety ..
  2. Malik A, Sharma V, Sharma V, Rao A. Column preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of ziram and zineb in commercial samples and foodstuffs using (1,2'-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN)-naphthalene as adsorbate. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:7763-7 pubmed
    A procedure has been developed for the determination of zinc(II) bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate) (ziram) and zinc(II) ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (zineb) after preconcentration on a column using naphthalene-(1,2'-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (..
  3. Kaniwa M, Isama K, Nakamura A, Kantoh H, Itoh M, Ichikawa M, et al. Identification of causative chemicals of allergic contact dermatitis using a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis. Application to cases from industrial rubber products. Contact Dermatitis. 1994;30:20-5 pubmed
  4. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Kawada T. Mechanism of ziram-induced apoptosis in human natural killer cells. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2012;25:883-91 pubmed
    We previously found that ziram, a dithiocarbamate fungicide, significantly inhibited natural killer (NK) activity in a dose-dependent manner...
  5. van Wezel A, van Vlaardingen P. Environmental risk limits for antifouling substances. Aquat Toxicol. 2004;66:427-44 pubmed
    ..e. the compounds Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB...
  6. Ardito G, Bigatti P, Lamberti L. Increased frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in "in vitro" lymphocyte cultures treated with the fungicides thiram and ziram. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1997;73:1-7 pubmed
    The two fungicides analysed in this paper, Thiram (TH) and Ziram (ZI) are among the most common residues found in fruit and vegetables sold in Italy...
  7. López Paz J, Catalá Icardo M. Flow injection-photoinduced-chemiluminescence determination of ziram and zineb. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;625:173-9 pubmed publisher
    A simple, sensitive and rapid method for the determination of the pesticides ziram and zineb was described...
  8. Malik A, Kapoor J, Rao A. Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric determination of ziram, zineb and ferbam in commercial samples and foodstuffs using phenylfluorone. J Environ Monit. 2000;2:367-71 pubmed
    A procedure has been developed for the determination of ziram, zineb and ferbam dithiocarbamate pesticides by converting ziram and zineb into a zinc-phenylfluorone complex and ferbam into an iron phenylfluorone complex, which are then ..
  9. Scarabelli L, Giannoni P, Malfatto C, Bolognesi C, Cesarone C. Relationship between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and DNA damage induced by zinc dithiocarbamates in mouse and rat liver. Mutat Res. 1993;302:1-6 pubmed
    ..The two pesticides Zineb and Ziram, belonging to this chemical class, induced an increase in single-strand DNA breaks, as measured by the alkaline ..
  10. van Och F, Vandebriel R, Prinsen M, De Jong W, Slob W, van Loveren H. Comparison of dose-responses of contact allergens using the guinea pig maximization test and the local lymph node assay. Toxicology. 2001;167:207-15 pubmed
    ..The nature of the data provided in the LLNA makes it likely that benchmarks as defined with this test are more reliable than that defined in the GPMT. However, further validation with human data is necessary...
  11. Thangavel P, Nivedhitha H, Ramaswamy M. Comparative study on individual and combined effects of dimecron and ziram on carbohydrate metabolites in liver, muscle, heart, and blood of a freshwater teleost, Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;72:365-72 pubmed
  12. Crebelli R, Zijno A, Conti L, Crochi B, Leopardi P, Marcon F, et al. Further in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity assays with thiram and ziram fungicides: bacterial reversion assays and mouse micronucleus test. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1992;12:97-112 pubmed
    The fungicides thiram and ziram have been assayed in a battery of nine bacterial strains of different genetic specificity...
  13. Tripathy N, Majhi B, Dey L, Das C. Genotoxicity of ziram established through wing, eye and female germ-line mosaic assays and the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1989;224:161-9 pubmed
    The genotoxicity of ziram (zinc-dimethyl dithiocarbamate, CAS No. 137-30-4), a carbamate fungicide, is studied in the wing, eye and female germ-line mosaic assays and the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster...
  14. Taylor T, Whalen M. Effects of ziram on tumor-cell-binding capacity, cell-surface marker expression, and ATP levels of human natural killer cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2009;25:447-55 pubmed publisher
    Human natural killer (NK) cells are central in immune defense against tumor and virally infected cells. Ziram is used as an accelerating agent in latex production and as an agricultural fungicide...
  15. Geier J, Lessmann H, Rothe A, Uter W, Brasch J, Schnuch A. Patch testing with zinc dibenzyldithiocarbamate. A multicentre study of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology and the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;48:209-11 pubmed
  16. Corsini E, Viviani B, Birindelli S, Gilardi F, Torri A, Codecà I, et al. Molecular mechanisms underlying mancozeb-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;212:89-98 pubmed
    ..The modulatory effect observed was not limited to mancozeb but also other EBDTCs, namely zineb and ziram, showed similar inhibitory effects...
  17. Crnogorac G, Schwack W. Determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and stable isotope dilution assay. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21:4009-16 pubmed
    ..03 mg kg(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries from grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes, and rucola, spiked in the range of 0.01-0.9 mg kg(-1), averaged between 90 and 100%...
  18. Ringli D, Schwack W. Selective determination of thiram residues in fruit and vegetables by hydrophilic interaction LC-MS. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30:1909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..by the penicillamine buffer to the DMD anion, thus resulting in false-positive findings of DMD fungicides like ziram. Therefore, an alkaline sulfite buffer was applied for surface extraction, quantitatively transforming thiram into ..
  19. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Kawada T. Mechanism of ziram-induced apoptosis in human T lymphocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:615-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Ziram as a dithiocarbamate fungicide is widely used throughout the world in agriculture. We previously found that ziram significantly inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in a dose-dependent manner...
  20. Shaddock J, Robinson B, Casciano D. Effect of pretreatment with hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers on the genotoxicity of four rat carcinogens in the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay. Mutagenesis. 1990;5:387-91 pubmed
    ..DNA repair responses in ARO- and 3-MC-pretreated cultures, while 2,4-, 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, and ziram were negative for unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultures from both pretreatments...
  21. Vryzas Z, Papadakis E, Papadopoulou Mourkidou E. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)-acid hydrolysis of dithiocarbamates for trace analysis in tobacco and peaches. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:2220-6 pubmed
    ..residues of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (maneb, zineb, and mancozeb) and N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (thiram and ziram) fungicides in dry tobacco leaves and peaches...
  22. Zenzen V, Fauth E, Zankl H, Janzowski C, Eisenbrand G. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effectiveness of zinc dimethyl and zinc diisononyldithiocarbamate in human lymphocyte cultures. Mutat Res. 2001;497:89-99 pubmed
    The mutagenic and cytotoxic effectiveness of the vulcanisation accelerators zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ZDMC; ziram) and zinc diisononyldithiocarbamate (ZDINDC; arbestab Z) was tested in lymphocyte cultures of five healthy probands...
  23. Cassella A, Cassella R, Garrigues S, Santelli R, de Campos R, de la Guardia M. Flow injection-FTIR determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides. Analyst. 2000;125:1829-33 pubmed
    ..transform infrared spectrometric procedure has been developed for the determination the dithiocarbamate pesticides Ziram and Thiram in solid samples...
  24. Mosesso P, Turchi G, Cinelli S, Di Chiara D, Fiore M, Palitti F. Clastogenic effects of the dithiocarbamate fungicides thiram and ziram in Chinese hamster cell lines cultured in vitro. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1994;14:145-55 pubmed
    We report here the results obtained using the dithiocarbamate fungicides thiram and ziram to investigate the induction of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells both in the absence and presence of S9 ..
  25. van Och F, Slob W, De Jong W, Vandebriel R, van Loveren H. A quantitative method for assessing the sensitizing potency of low molecular weight chemicals using a local lymph node assay: employment of a regression method that includes determination of the uncertainty margins. Toxicology. 2000;146:49-59 pubmed
    ..The approach performed in this study is a way to accurately assess the potency of sensitizing chemicals and thus a possibility for classification...
  26. Martin C, Myers K, Chen A, Martin N, Barajas A, Schweizer F, et al. Ziram, a pesticide associated with increased risk for Parkinson's disease, differentially affects the presynaptic function of aminergic and glutamatergic nerve terminals at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Exp Neurol. 2016;275 Pt 1:232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Environmental toxins, such as the dithiocarbamate fungicide ziram, significantly increase the risk of developing PD and the attendant spectrum of both motor and non-motor symptoms...
  27. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Kawada T. Carbamate pesticide-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human natural killer cells. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2014;28:23-32 pubmed
    We previously found that ziram, a carbamate fungicide, significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis in human NK-92MI, a natural killer cell line...
  28. Hemavathy K, Krishnamurthy N. Genotoxicity studies with Cuman L in Drosophila melanogaster. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1989;14:252-3 pubmed
    ..The three concentrations of Cuman L, of 20, 40, and 60 microliters/100 ml, induced significant (P less than 0.01) increases in SLRLs but failed to induce any translocations...
  29. Hemavathy K, Krishnamurthy N. Cytogenetic effects of Cuman L, a dithiocarbamate fungicide. Mutat Res. 1988;208:57-60 pubmed
    ..01) increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations in the germ cells. A significant increase (P less than 0.01) in the percentage of micronuclei in the erythrocytes was also induced by the three doses...
  30. Franekic J, Bratulić N, Pavlica M, Papes D. Genotoxicity of dithiocarbamates and their metabolites. Mutat Res. 1994;325:65-74 pubmed
    ..The mutagenicity spectra of ziram, thiram, zineb S-65 and ETU were determined by employing a battery of test systems included the bacterium ..
  31. Tinkler J, Gott D, Bootman J. Risk assessment of dithiocarbamate accelerator residues in latex-based medical devices: genotoxicity considerations. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998;36:849-66 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that the use of ZDBC as a vulcanization accelerator in the manufacture of latex gloves, rather than ZDEC, ZDMC or their precursors, would reduce or remove the health concerns arising from accelerator residues...
  32. Wilson S, Dzon L, Reed A, Pruitt M, Whalen M. Effects of in vitro exposure to low levels of organotin and carbamate pesticides on human natural killer cell cytotoxic function. Environ Toxicol. 2004;19:554-63 pubmed
    ..Two specific carbamates used in agriculture are ziram and maneb; ziram also is used as an additive in rubber products including latex gloves...
  33. Wang A, Costello S, Cockburn M, Zhang X, Bronstein J, Ritz B. Parkinson's disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Employing our geographic information system model, we estimated ambient exposures to the pesticides ziram, maneb, and paraquat at work places and residences from 1974 to 1999...
  34. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Kawada T. Ziram induces apoptosis and necrosis in human immune cells. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:355-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Ziram as a dithiocarbamate fungicide is widely used throughout the world in agriculture and as an accelerating agent is used in latex production...
  35. Chou A, Maidment N, Klintenberg R, Casida J, Li S, Fitzmaurice A, et al. Ziram causes dopaminergic cell damage by inhibiting E1 ligase of the proteasome. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:34696-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we measured the relative toxicity of ziram (a UPS inhibitor) and analogs to dopaminergic neurons and examined the mechanism of cell death...
  36. Kim G, Shim J, Kang M, Moon S. Preparation of a highly sensitive enzyme electrode using gold nanoparticles for measurement of pesticides at the ppt level. J Environ Monit. 2008;10:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..integrated into a continuous flow system and was tested to detect pesticides, such as 2,4-D, atrazine, and ziram. Under the optimized conditions of the flow system, the electrode performed reasonably according to the inhibition ..
  37. Malik A, Rao A. Spectrophotometric determination of ziram in a commercial sample and wheat by extraction of its copper dimethyldithiocarbamate complex into molten naphthalene. J AOAC Int. 2002;85:146-8 pubmed
    ..Beer's law is obeyed for concentrations of 0.63 x 10(-3) to 17.2 x 10(-3) g/L in the final solution. The method is sensitive and was applied to the determination of ziram in a commercial sample and in wheat grain.
  38. De Jong W, Tentij M, Spiekstra S, Vandebriel R, Van Loveren H. Determination of the sensitising activity of the rubber contact sensitisers TMTD, ZDMC, MBT and DEA in a modified local lymph node assay and the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate pretreatment on local lymph node responses. Toxicology. 2002;176:123-34 pubmed
    ..For 10% and 20% SDS, inducing approximately a SI of 20 in the LLNA, no induction of cytokines was observed...
  39. Assini R, Fracchiolla F, Ravalli C, Nava C. [Allergic diseases caused by pesticides: 3 case reports]. Med Lav. 1994;85:321-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in order to reduce the number of new cases of pesticide allergy, a more severe control also of subjects exposed to low doses is proposed...