thiram

Summary

Summary: A dithiocarbamate chemical, used commercially in the rubber processing industry and as a fungicide. In vivo studies indicate that it inactivates the enzyme GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE. It has mutagenic activity and may induce chromosomal aberrations.

Top Publications

  1. Elskens M, Penninckx M. Thiram and dimethyldithiocarbamic acid interconversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a possible metabolic pathway under the control of the glutathione redox cycle. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:2857-62 pubmed
    ..of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with sublethal concentrations of either dimethyldithiocarbamic acid or thiram [bis(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide]...
  2. Meyer A, Strajhar P, Murer C, Da Cunha T, Odermatt A. Species-specific differences in the inhibition of human and zebrafish 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 by thiram and organotins. Toxicology. 2012;301:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, assessment of the effects of thiram and several organotins on the activity of zebrafish 11?-HSD2 showed weak inhibition by thiram and no inhibition by ..
  3. Cereser C, Boget S, Parvaz P, Revol A. An evaluation of thiram toxicity on cultured human skin fibroblasts. Toxicology. 2001;162:89-101 pubmed
    b>Thiram is widely used in agriculture as a fungicide and, to a lesser extent, as a vulcanizing agent in the rubber industry...
  4. Mandon C, Diaz Latoud C, Arrigo A, Blum L. Dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram detection: comparison of bioluminescent and fluorescent whole-cell bioassays based on hsp22 stress promoter induction. J Biotechnol. 2006;124:392-402 pubmed
    ..Well characterized toxicants, cadmium chloride and thiram (a dithiocarbamate fungicide), were used to optimize the detection conditions such as time-course conditions, cell ..
  5. Grosicka E, Sadurska B, Szumiło M, Grzela T, Łazarczyk P, Niderla Bielinska J, et al. Effect of glutathione depletion on apoptosis induced by thiram in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5:1945-56 pubmed
    Fungicide thiram, which is also known as an inducer of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), was used as a model compound of thiuram chemicals, and its cellular effects were investigated in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells...
  6. Dan H, Simsa Maziel S, Hisdai A, Sela Donenfeld D, Monsonego Ornan E. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during impairment and recovery of the avian growth plate. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:3544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined the expression of 4 members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (MMP-2, -3, -9, and -13) in thiram-induced TD lesions and in the process of recovery from TD, by in situ hybridization analysis and quantitative real-..
  7. Rana I, Shivanandappa T. Mechanism of potentiation of endosulfan cytotoxicity by thiram in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:40-4 pubmed publisher
    Cytotoxicity of the two pesticides, thiram and endosulfan, have been studied in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Thiram cytotoxicity was much lower than that of endosulfan with LC(50) (1h exposure) of 4.02 and 1.12mM, respectively...
  8. Sook Han M, Shin K, Kim Y, Kim S, Lee T, Kim E, et al. Thiram and ziram stimulate non-selective cation channel and induce apoptosis in PC12 cells. Neurotoxicology. 2003;24:425-34 pubmed
    ..Among the dithiocarbamates, we investigated thiram and ziram in a neuronal-like pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells...
  9. Geier J, Lessmann H, Uter W, Schnuch A. Occupational rubber glove allergy: results of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 1995-2001. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;48:39-44 pubmed
    ..Thioureas and 1,3-DPG are not widely used in rubber glove production, and play only a minor role in rubber glove contact allergy. Most of the positive reactions to 1,3-DPG are probably false-positive, irritant reactions...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Grosicka Maciag E, Kurpios D, Czeczot H, Szumiło M, Skrzycki M, Suchocki P, et al. Changes in antioxidant defense systems induced by thiram in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22:28-35 pubmed
    ..of antioxidant defence systems in protection against oxidative damage of lipids and proteins induced by fungicide thiram during in vitro exposure was investigated in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells with normal, depleted, and ..
  2. Rath N, Huff W, Huff G. Thiram-induced changes in the expression of genes relating to vascularization and tibial dyschondroplasia. Poult Sci. 2007;86:2390-5 pubmed
    ..b>Thiram, a carbamate pesticide, when fed to young broiler chicks induces TD with high regularity and precision...
  3. Singh B, Sharma D, Gupta A. In vitro release dynamics of thiram fungicide from starch and poly(methacrylic acid)-based hydrogels. J Hazard Mater. 2008;154:278-86 pubmed
    ..This article discusses the swelling kinetics of polymer matrix and release dynamics of thiram (fungicide) from hydrogels for the evaluation of the diffusion mechanism and diffusion coefficients...
  4. Garbrecht M, Krozowski Z, Snyder J, Schmidt T. Reduction of glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding by the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 inhibitor, Thiram. Steroids. 2006;71:895-901 pubmed
    ..b>Thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) specifically inhibits HSD2 activity by oxidizing cysteine residues located in the ..
  5. Knudsen B, Lerbaek A, Johansen J, Menne T. Reduction in the frequency of sensitization to thiurams. A result of legislation?. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54:170-1 pubmed
  6. Rath N, Richards M, Huff W, Huff G, Balog J. Changes in the tibial growth plates of chickens with thiram-induced dyschondroplasia. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133:41-52 pubmed
    ..Chicks aged 7 days were fed either a control diet or one containing thiram 100 ppm for 48 h to induce TD...
  7. Santovito A, Cervella P, Delpero M. Chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes treated with the fungicide, Thiram. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2012;35:347-51 pubmed publisher
    In vitro effects of different concentrations of Thiram were tested on human lymphocytes to determine, by means of the chromosome aberrations (CAs) assay, whether this fungicide could induce clastogenic damage...
  8. Cereser C, Boget S, Parvaz P, Revol A. Thiram-induced cytotoxicity is accompanied by a rapid and drastic oxidation of reduced glutathione with consecutive lipid peroxidation and cell death. Toxicology. 2001;163:153-62 pubmed
    The toxic effect of thiram, a widely used dithiocarbamate fungicide, was investigated in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Cell survival assays demonstrated that thiram induced a dose-dependent decrease in the viable cell recovery...
  9. Saunders H, Watkins F. Allergic contact dermatitis due to thiuram exposure from a fungicide. Australas J Dermatol. 2001;42:217-8 pubmed
    ..The fungicide contained tetramethylthiuram disulphide, a thiuram chemical. Thiurams are widely recognized as a cause of rubber-glove allergy; however, they are also used extensively in fungicides...
  10. Tunçeli A, Bag H, Türker A. Spectrophotometric determination of some pesticides in water samples after preconcentration with Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on sepiolite. Fresenius J Anal Chem. 2001;371:1134-8 pubmed
    A sensitive and selective method for the preconcentration and determination of carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, linuron, and thiram was developed. The column sorption method was used for the preconcentration studies...
  11. Gougoulias N, Vagelas I, Vasilakoglou I, Gravanis F, Louka A, Wogiatzi E, et al. Comparison of neem or oregano with thiram on organic matter decomposition of a sand loam soil amended with compost, and on soil biological activity. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:286-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility of having an effect on soil properties was the aim of this investigation. Moreover, thiram, a common widely used chemical pesticide, was used for comparison.
  12. Huyghebaert B, Mostade O, Pigeon O, Galoux M, Oger R. Rinsing and management of pesticides' containers. Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 2002;67:47-58 pubmed
    ..As bags containing powder (WG or WP) container not be rinsed, it is necessary to empty them completely. It is however difficult to reach the 1000 ppm residue limit...
  13. Sepúlveda C, García C, Damonte E. Inhibition of arenavirus infection by thiuram and aromatic disulfides. Antiviral Res. 2010;87:329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible involvement of the RING finger motif of arenavirus Z protein as target for the thiuram disulfide is discussed...
  14. Vryzas Z, Papadakis E, Papadopoulou Mourkidou E. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)-acid hydrolysis of dithiocarbamates for trace analysis in tobacco and peaches. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:2220-6 pubmed
    ..analysis of residues of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (maneb, zineb, and mancozeb) and N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (thiram and ziram) fungicides in dry tobacco leaves and peaches...
  15. Chu F, O Brian C. PKC sulfhydryl targeting by disulfiram produces divergent isozymic regulatory responses that accord with the cancer preventive activity of the thiuram disulfide. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005;7:855-62 pubmed
    ..The implication of these findings is that PKC-regulatory effects of thiuram disulfides may offer a useful pharmacological guide for development of disulfiram analogues with superior cancer preventive activity...
  16. Farkas S, Nagy K, Jia Z, Harkany T, Palkovits M, Donohou S, et al. The decrease of dopamine D?/D? receptor densities in the putamen and nucleus caudatus goes parallel with maintained levels of CB? cannabinoid receptors in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary autoradiographic study with the selective dopamine D?/D? ant. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87:504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The precise explanation of this conundrum requires further studies with simultaneous examination of the central cannabinoid and dopaminergic systems in PD using higher sample size...
  17. Leis Dosil V, Campos Dominguez M, Zamberk Majlis P, Suárez Fernández R, Lazaro Ochaita P. Erythema multiforme-like eruption due to carbamates and thiuram. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2006;34:121-4 pubmed
    ..Several cases have been reported, most of which have been due to contact with plants, metals or topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its mechanism is still unclear, but it seems to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction...
  18. Cassella A, Cassella R, Garrigues S, Santelli R, de Campos R, de la Guardia M. Flow injection-FTIR determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides. Analyst. 2000;125:1829-33 pubmed
    ..infrared spectrometric procedure has been developed for the determination the dithiocarbamate pesticides Ziram and Thiram in solid samples...
  19. Wallenhammar L, Ortengren U, Andreasson H, Barregard L, Bjorkner B, Karlsson S, et al. Contact allergy and hand eczema in Swedish dentists. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;43:192-9 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of contact allergy to acrylates was below 1% in the population of responding dentists, and in most cases did not have serious medical, social or occupational consequences...
  20. Tian W, Li J, Qin P, Wang R, Ning G, Qiao J, et al. Screening of differentially expressed genes in the growth plate of broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia by microarray analysis. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:276 pubmed publisher
    ..We induced TD using tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram) for 1, 2, and 6 days and determined DEGs with chicken Affymetrix GeneChip assays...
  21. Filipe O, Costa C, Vidal M, Santos E. Influence of soil copper content on the kinetics of thiram adsorption and on thiram leachability from soils. Chemosphere. 2013;90:432-40 pubmed publisher
    This work aimed to assess the influence of soil copper content on the sorption processes of thiram, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, most of the times together with copper...
  22. Gismera M, Sevilla M, Procopio J. Flow and batch systems for copper(II) potentiometric sensing. Talanta. 2007;74:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0 x 10(-7) M for on-line analysis. The potentiometric sensor is applied to copper(II) determination in real samples in static and flow measurements. In both analysis modes, successful results are obtained...
  23. Hemavathi E, Rahiman M. Effect of Ziram, Thiram, and Dithane M-45 on bone marrow cells of mice-assessed by micronucleus test. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1996;56:190-6 pubmed
    ..Erythrocyte micronucleus represents the consequence of chromosomal aberrations induced during preceding mitotic division of erythrocytes (Matter and Grauwiler, 1974)...
  24. van Och F, Vandebriel R, Prinsen M, De Jong W, Slob W, van Loveren H. Comparison of dose-responses of contact allergens using the guinea pig maximization test and the local lymph node assay. Toxicology. 2001;167:207-15 pubmed
    ..The nature of the data provided in the LLNA makes it likely that benchmarks as defined with this test are more reliable than that defined in the GPMT. However, further validation with human data is necessary...
  25. Peters T, Fulton R, Roberson K, Orth M. Effect of antibiotics on in vitro and in vivo avian cartilage degradation. Avian Dis. 2002;46:75-86 pubmed
    ..b>Thiram, a fungicide known to induce experimental tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), was given at 20 ppm...
  26. Stoker T, Jeffay S, Zucker R, Cooper R, Perreault S. Abnormal fertilization is responsible for reduced fecundity following thiram-induced ovulatory delay in the rat. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:2142-9 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have shown that a single i.p. injection of 50 mg/kg of thiram, a dithiocarbamate fungicide that decreases norepinephrine synthesis, on proestrus (1300 h) suppresses the LH ..
  27. Singh B, Sharma D, Kumar R, Gupta A. Development of a new controlled pesticide delivery system based on neem leaf powder. J Hazard Mater. 2010;177:290-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the effect of composition of the beads on the release dynamics of fungicide (thiram), beads were prepared by varying the amount of NLP and crosslinker...
  28. Rastegarzadeh S, Abdali S. Colorimetric determination of thiram based on formation of gold nanoparticles using ascorbic acid. Talanta. 2013;104:22-6 pubmed publisher
    A novel optical method for the determination of thiram has been developed using surface plasmon resonance peak of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)...
  29. Gibbon K, McFadden J, Rycroft R, Ross J, Chinn S, White I. Changing frequency of thiuram allergy in healthcare workers with hand dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:347-50 pubmed
    ..Healthcare workers (clinical, allied/paramedical professions and ancillary workers) may have prolonged contact with natural rubber latex devices, particularly in the form of natural rubber latex gloves...
  30. Gallo R, Massone C, Parodi A, Guarrera M. Allergic contact dermatitis from thiurams with pemphigus-like autoantibodies. Contact Dermatitis. 2002;46:364-5 pubmed
  31. Moore J, Potter A. Pin1 inhibitors: Pitfalls, progress and cellular pharmacology. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:4283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude by outlining some open questions regarding the target validation of Pin1 and the prospects for identification of improved inhibitors in the future. ..
  32. Uter W, Hegewald J, Pfahlberg A, Lessmann H, Schnuch A, Gefeller O. Contact allergy to thiurams: multifactorial analysis of clinical surveillance data collected by the IVDK network. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010;83:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyse the association between occupation (represented by job title) and contact allergy to thiuram vulcanising agents based on data of a clinical registry (IVDK, www.ivdk.org )...
  33. Le Coz C. [Hypersensitivity to thiuram mix]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2004;131:1012-4 pubmed
  34. Filipe O, Vidal M, Duarte A, Santos E. Influence of fulvic acids and copper ions on thiram determination in water. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7347-54 pubmed publisher
    The literature concerning the application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) to the concentration of thiram (bis(dimethyldithiocarbamoyl) disulfide) from natural waters is scarce, the available results being contradictory or with no ..
  35. Martins J, Soares M, Saker M, OlivaTeles L, Vasconcelos V. Phototactic behavior in Daphnia magna Straus as an indicator of toxicants in the aquatic environment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007;67:417-22 pubmed
    ..benzo(b)fluoranthene, mercury (II) chloride, dimethoate, lindane, linuron, MCPA, TBTO, carbon tetrachloride, thiram, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and arsenic trioxide...
  36. Kosann M, Brancaccio R, Cohen D. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in an obstetrics and gynecology resident. Am J Contact Dermat. 2003;14:217-8 pubmed
  37. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Kawada T. Carbamate pesticide-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human natural killer cells. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2014;28:23-32 pubmed
    ..NK-92CI cells were treated with ziram, thiram, maneb or carbaryl at 0.031-40 microM for 2-24 h in the present study...
  38. Silverberg N. The "Jewelry Addict": Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Repetitive Multiple Children's Jewelry Exposures. Pediatr Dermatol. 2016;33:e103-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides an overview of jewelry allergies and the potential allergens requiring screening. ..
  39. Waseem A, Yaqoob M, Nabi A. Photodegradation and flow-injection determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides in natural water with chemiluminescence detection. Anal Sci. 2009;25:395-400 pubmed
    ..and rapid flow-injection method is reported for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides (maneb, nabam and thiram) based on chemiluminescence detection...
  40. Bosch Raventós S, Jimeno Jiménez N. [For patients undergoing surgery, a reduction of risks and an increase in comfort by means using the Nobecutan aerosol]. Rev Enferm. 2010;33:44-8 pubmed
    ..This study is an observational study of patients who undergo spinal column surgery. At the beginning of their surgical procedure, Nobecutan aerosol was applied to the affected area...
  41. Stathi P, Christoforidis K, Tsipis A, Hela D, Deligiannakis Y. Effects of dissolved carboxylates and carbonates on the adsorption properties of thiuram disulfate pesticides. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:221-7 pubmed
    The adsorption of thiram and disulfiram onto alpha-Al2O3 and montmorillonite clay has been studied in the presence of small carboxylate anions, bicarbonate, formate, and oxalate...
  42. Nguyen S, Dang T, Macpherson C, Maibach H, Maibach H. Prevalence of patch test results from 1970 to 2002 in a multi-centre population in North America (NACDG). Contact Dermatitis. 2008;58:101-6 pubmed publisher
  43. Lopez Antia A, Ortiz Santaliestra M, Mougeot F, Mateo R. Experimental exposure of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) to seeds coated with imidacloprid, thiram and difenoconazole. Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:125-38 pubmed publisher
    ..42 pairs) were fed for 10 days in spring (prior to breeding) with wheat treated with difenoconazole (fungicide), thiram (fungicide) or imidacloprid (insecticide), using two doses for each pesticide (the one recommended, and its double ..
  44. Filipe O, Vidal M, Scherer H, Schneider R, Duarte A, Esteves V, et al. Effect of long term organic amendments on adsorption-desorption of thiram onto a luvisol soil derived from loess. Chemosphere. 2010;80:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..of this work was to assess the influence of soil organic amendments on the sorption properties of the fungicide thiram. The organic amendments studied were organic household compost (COM), sewage sludge from municipal water treatment ..
  45. Lee Y, Wang Y, Duh Y, Yuan H, Lim C. Identification of labile Zn sites in drug-target proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:14028-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The comprehensive set of labile Zfs provides new drug targets and guidelines to redesign Zn-ejecting compounds with improved specificity. ..
  46. Gupta M, Amma M. Alterations in hepatic biochemistry of mice intoxicated with MIC, carbaryl and thiram. J Appl Toxicol. 1993;13:33-7 pubmed
    The effect of different doses of methyl isocyanate (MIC), carbaryl and thiram on liver microsomal mixed-function oxygenases (MFO) was studied in adult Swiss Portan mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for different durations...
  47. Xu X, Mathieu C, Berthelet J, Duval R, Bui L, Busi F, et al. Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 Is Inhibited by the Dithiocarbamate Pesticide Thiram. Mol Pharmacol. 2017;92:358-365 pubmed publisher
    b>Thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) is a representative dithiocarbamate (DTC) pesticide used in both the field and as a seed protectant...
  48. Bergendorff O, Persson C, Lüdtke A, Hansson C. Chemical changes in rubber allergens during vulcanization. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;57:152-7 pubmed
    ..Instead, thiurams are often converted to dithiocarbamates or to products formed by addition to mercaptobenzothiazole structures, if these have been used together with thiurams as accelerators...
  49. Siegel P, Fowler J, Storrs F, Sasseville D, Pratt M, Bledsoe T, et al. Allergen content of patient problem and nonproblem gloves: relationship to allergen-specific patch-test findings. Dermatitis. 2010;21:77-83 pubmed
    ..The accuracy of the identification of allergen-source material and level of allergen in that allergen-source material is not known...
  50. Waseem A, Yaqoob M, Nabi A. Determination of thiram in natural waters using flow-injection with cerium(IV)-quinine chemiluminescence system. Luminescence. 2010;25:71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram based on the chemiluminescence reaction of thiram with ceric sulfate and quinine in aqueous sulfuric acid...
  51. Cycoń M, Piotrowska Seget Z. Changes in bacterial diversity and community structure following pesticides addition to soil estimated by cultivation technique. Ecotoxicology. 2009;18:632-42 pubmed publisher
    ..i./kg soil), diuron (1.5, 7.5 and 150 mg a.i./kg soil) and thiram (3.5, 17.5 and 350 mg a.i...
  52. Miri S, Pourpak Z, Zarinara A, Zarinara A, Heidarzade M, Kazemnejad A, et al. Prevalence of type I allergy to natural rubber latex and type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives in operating room staff with glove-related symptoms. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2007;28:557-63 pubmed
    ..Based on this study, we recommend eliminating powdered latex gloves from the operating rooms of the 13 studied general hospitals and support the substitution of powder-free latex gloves...
  53. van Och F, Slob W, De Jong W, Vandebriel R, van Loveren H. A quantitative method for assessing the sensitizing potency of low molecular weight chemicals using a local lymph node assay: employment of a regression method that includes determination of the uncertainty margins. Toxicology. 2000;146:49-59 pubmed
    ..The approach performed in this study is a way to accurately assess the potency of sensitizing chemicals and thus a possibility for classification...