propoxur

Summary

Summary: A carbamate insecticide.

Top Publications

  1. Sánchez Arroyo H, Koehler P, Valles S. Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on propoxur pharmacokinetics in Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae). J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:1209-16 pubmed
    Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) on propoxur pharmacokinetics were examined in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.)...
  2. Pai H, Wu S, Hsu E. Insecticide resistance in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) from hospitals and households in Taiwan. Int J Environ Health Res. 2005;15:33-40 pubmed
    ..RR ranges of chlorpyrifos, propoxur and cypermethrin in the hospitals were 2.04 - 28.80, 2.86 - 30.86 and 1.95 - 14...
  3. Sanil D, Shetty N. The effect of sublethal exposure to temephos and propoxur on reproductive fitness and its influence on circadian rhythms of pupation and adult emergence in Anopheles stephensi Liston-a malaria vector. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..was undertaken to investigate the effects of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides namely, temephos and propoxur respectively, on the life history of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Culicidae) under laboratory conditions...
  4. Fourie L, Stanneck D, Horak I. The efficacy of collars impregnated with flumethrin and propoxur against experimental infestations of adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2003;74:123-6 pubmed
    ..25%) and propoxur (10%), was compared against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on experimentally infested, kennelled dogs...
  5. Corbel V, Chandre F, Darriet F, Lardeux F, Hougard J. Synergism between permethrin and propoxur against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. Med Vet Entomol. 2003;17:158-64 pubmed
    To see if synergism occurs between carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, we tested permethrin and propoxur as representatives of these two classes of compounds used for mosquito control...
  6. Brooke B, Kloke G, Hunt R, Koekemoer L, Temu E, Taylor M, et al. Bioassay and biochemical analyses of insecticide resistance in southern African Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res. 2001;91:265-72 pubmed
    ..The data suggested that this mechanism was also conferring cross-resistance to the carbamate insecticide propoxur.
  7. Institoris L, Siroki O, Undeger U, Basaran N, Banerjee B, Desi I. Detection of the effects of repeated dose combined propoxur and heavy metal exposure by measurement of certain toxicological, haematological and immune function parameters in rats. Toxicology. 2001;163:185-93 pubmed
    ..was used for detection the effects of a 4 weeks repeated low dose combined oral exposure of male Wistar rats with propoxur and the heavy metals arsenic or mercury...
  8. Ostrea E, Reyes A, Villanueva Uy E, Pacifico R, Benitez B, Ramos E, et al. Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:669-75 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age.
  9. Pennetier C, Corbel V, Hougard J. Combination of a non-pyrethroid insecticide and a repellent: a new approach for controlling knockdown-resistant mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:739-44 pubmed
    ..the efficacy of a mixture of a repellent (N,N-diethyl toluamide [DEET]) and a non-pyrethroid insecticide (propoxur) was investigated under laboratory conditions against both pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yadav C, Kumar V, Suke S, Ahmed R, Mediratta P, Banerjee B. Propoxur-induced acetylcholine esterase inhibition and impairment of cognitive function: attenuation by Withania somnifera. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2010;47:117-20 pubmed
    b>Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate) is widely used as an acaricide in agriculture and public health programs. Studies have shown that sub-chronic exposure to propoxur can cause oxidative stress and immuno-suppression in rats...
  2. Meuling W, Franssen A, Brouwer D, van Hemmen J. The influence of skin moisture on the dermal absorption of propoxur in human volunteers: a consideration for biological monitoring practices. Sci Total Environ. 1997;199:165-72 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of skin moisture on the dermal uptake of the pesticide propoxur. The study was conducted in human volunteers under controlled temperature conditions (30 degrees C) and ..
  3. Corbel V, Stankiewicz M, Bonnet J, Grolleau F, Hougard J, Lapied B. Synergism between insecticides permethrin and propoxur occurs through activation of presynaptic muscarinic negative feedback of acetylcholine release in the insect central nervous system. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27:508-19 pubmed
    ..enzyme) was unlikely to occur in the SLAB strain since the level of synergy recorded between permethrin and propoxur was unchanged in the presence of piperonyl butoxide and tribufos, two inhibitors of oxidases and esterases, ..
  4. Eraslan G, Kanbur M, Silici S, Cem Liman B, Altinordulu S, Soyer Sarica Z. Evaluation of protective effect of bee pollen against propoxur toxicity in rat. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:931-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Groups 2-4 were administered 100mg/kg/bw/day bee pollen, 20mg/kg/bw/day propoxur, and 100mg/kg/bw/day bee pollen plus 20mg/kg/bw/day propoxur by gavage for 14 days, respectively...
  5. Corrion M, Ostrea E, Bielawski D, Posecion N, Seagraves J. Detection of prenatal exposure to several classes of environmental toxicants and their metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in maternal and umbilical cord blood. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005;822:221-9 pubmed
    ..blood from mother-infant dyads from an area of high pesticide use in the Philippines showed detectable levels of propoxur, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) in maternal and ..
  6. Hertzberg R, Pan Y, Li R, Haber L, Lyles R, Herr D, et al. A four-step approach to evaluate mixtures for consistency with dose addition. Toxicology. 2013;313:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach is demonstrated with neurotoxicity data on carbamate mixtures. ..
  7. Bisset J, Rodriguez M, Fernández D. Selection of insensitive acetylcholinesterase as a resistance mechanism in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:1185-9 pubmed
    A sample of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, with a high level of propoxur resistance compared with the reference susceptible Rockefeller strain (12.60 x at the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] and 18...
  8. Díaz P, Alvarez Gavilán Y, de Armas Rodríguez Y, Bisset Lazcano J. [Determination of insecticide-resistance and resistance mechanisms of Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2007;59:159-65 pubmed
    ..pyrethroids (cypermethrin and lambda-cyalothrine) and to organophosphorate malathion but susceptible to carbamate propoxur. The values of alpha and beta esterases, acetylcholinesterase and gluthatione-S-transferase were estimated in ..
  9. Li S. [Differences of acetylcholinesterase level in variety classes and strains of Culex pipiens pallens]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;38:511-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the diversity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in variety classes and strains of Culex pipiens pallens and provide a basis for the insecticide-resistance detection of mosquito by biochemical method...
  10. Dik B, Uslu U. [Cuclotogaster heterographus (Mallophaga: Lipeuridae) infestation on ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Konya]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2006;30:125-7 pubmed
    ..were put into a large cartoon-box, the bottom of which was covered with a white paper and were treated with propoxur for a few minutes...
  11. Ostrea E, Villanueva Uy E, Bielawski D, Posecion N, Corrion M, Jin Y, et al. Maternal hair--an appropriate matrix for detecting maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy. Environ Res. 2006;101:312-22 pubmed
    ..where a preliminary survey indicated significant use at home and on the farm of the following compounds: propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon, and transfluthrin...
  12. Suke S, Pathak R, Ahmed R, Tripathi A, Banerjee B. Melatonin treatment prevents modulation of cell-mediated immune response induced by propoxur in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2008;45:278-81 pubmed
    The effect of melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, in attenuation of propoxur (2-isopropoxy phenyl N-methyl carbamate)-induced modulation of cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was studied in rats...
  13. Maran E, Fernandez Franzón M, Font G, Ruiz M. Effects of aldicarb and propoxur on cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in CHO-K1 cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1592-6 pubmed publisher
    Cytotoxic effects of aldicarb, its sulfone and sulfoxide, and propoxur, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells were determined...
  14. Leva P, Katsoyiannis A, Barrero Morero J, Kephalopoulos S, Kotzias D. Evaluation of the fate of the active ingredients of insecticide sprays used indoors. J Environ Sci Health B. 2009;44:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After spraying, the fate of the active ingredients [propoxur, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and pyrethrin insecticides] was monitored over 40 minutes, with and without ventilation...
  15. Riaz M, Poupardin R, Reynaud S, Strode C, Ranson H, David J. Impact of glyphosate and benzo[a]pyrene on the tolerance of mosquito larvae to chemical insecticides. Role of detoxification genes in response to xenobiotics. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;93:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..benzo[a]pyrene on their subsequent tolerance to the chemical insecticides imidacloprid, permethrin and propoxur, detoxification enzyme activities and transcription of detoxification genes was investigated...
  16. Klunker R. [The appearance of insecticide resistance in Blattella germanica in the German Democratic Republic]. Angew Parasitol. 1990;31:79-93 pubmed
    ..in the laboratory, susceptibilities were measured against lindane, pyrethrin + PBO, trichlorfon, dichlorvos, and propoxur, the most used insecticides against cockroaches in our country...
  17. Dik B, Uslu U. [Mallophaga species observed in white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linnaeus) in Turkey]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32:71-6 pubmed
    ..put in a big carton-box, the bottom of which was covered with a white paper and the pelicans were treated with propoxur for a few minutes...
  18. Mwanza J, Lyke D, Hertzberg R, Haber L, Kohrman Vincent M, Li R, et al. Cholinesterase inhibition and depression of the photic after discharge of flash evoked potentials following acute or repeated exposures to a mixture of carbaryl and propoxur. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:332-46 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we reported that acute treatment with propoxur or carbaryl decreased the duration of the photic after discharge (PhAD) of flash evoked potentials (FEPs)...
  19. Tan X, Yang X, Huang Q, Li N, Hao W, Huang J. [Study of three methods on joint toxicity of diazinon, propoxur and bisphenol A on proliferation of mouse RAW264.7 cell]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2011;40:191-5 pubmed
    To investigate possible joint toxic effects of diazinon, propoxur and bisphenol A (BPA) on proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro.
  20. Li C, Dong Y, Song F, Zhang X, Gu W, Zhao T. Company amplification of estalpha2/estbeta2 and correlation between esterase gene copy number and resistance to insecticides in the field Culex pipiens pallens strains collected from Beijing, China. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:539-45 pubmed
    ..Field samples showed resistance to dichlorvos and propoxur. Low levels of resistance to phoxim were detected compared with the laboratory-susceptible strain...
  21. Karunaratne S. Insecticide cross-resistance spectra and underlying resistance mechanisms of Sri Lankan anopheline vectors of malaria. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1999;30:460-9 pubmed
    ..Adult and larval bioassays were carried out to obtain log-probit mortality lines for malathion, propoxur, permethrin and chlorpyrifos. Respective LD50 values were 4.45%, 0.002%, 0.16% and 0.001% for An...
  22. Diaz C, Perez M, Rodriguez M, Calvo E, Bisset J, Fresneda M. [Resistance to insecticides in Blattella germanica species strains from Santiago de Cuba]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2000;52:24-30 pubmed
    ..insecticides, namely, 3 organophosphate compounds (malathion, chlorpyrifos and pirimiphos-methyl), one carbamate (propoxur) and 1 pyrethroid (cypermethrin, deltamethrin and lambdacialotrine) of three field-collected strains of Blattella ..
  23. Li C, Guo X, Zhang Y, Dong Y, Xing D, Yan T, et al. Identification of genes involved in pyrethroid-, propoxur-, and dichlorvos- insecticides resistance in the mosquitoes, Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Trop. 2016;157:84-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of these genes is a vital first step for more detailed investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes. ..
  24. Corbel V, Raymond M, Chandre F, Darriet F, Hougard J. Efficacy of insecticide mixtures against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:375-80 pubmed
    The efficacy of insecticide mixtures of permethrin (pyrethroid) and propoxur (carbamate) was tested by larval bioassays on two strains of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), one resistant to pyrethroids and the other resistant to carbamates...
  25. Diaz C, Alvarez Y, de Armas Y, Bisset J. [Adaptation of methods for quantification of the effect of esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase in Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2006;58:241-7 pubmed
    ..To this end, all the parameters that allow finding out if a strain is susceptible or resistant to each mechanism were set...
  26. Hassan M, Widaa S, Osman O, Numiary M, Ibrahim M, Abushama H. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:46 pubmed publisher
    ..No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here...
  27. LaFiura K, Bielawski D, Posecion N, Ostrea E, Matherly L, Taub J, et al. Association between prenatal pesticide exposures and the generation of leukemia-associated T(8;21). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;49:624-8 pubmed
  28. Kuo H, Lee H. Volatility of propoxur from different surface materials commonly found in homes. Chemosphere. 1999;38:2695-705 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the volatilization rates of propoxur from different surface materials commonly found in homes, and to conduct field measurements under ventilated and non-ventilated conditions...
  29. Xavier M, Vallejo B, Marazuela M, Moreno Bondi M, Baldini F, Falai A. Fiber optic monitoring of carbamate pesticides using porous glass with covalently bound chlorophenol red. Biosens Bioelectron. 2000;14:895-905 pubmed
    An optical fiber biosensor for the determination of the pesticides propoxur (Baygon) and carbaryl, two of the most commonly used carbamate insecticides in vegetable crops, is described...
  30. Tomita T, Hidoh O, Kono Y. Absence of protein polymorphism attributable to insecticide-insensitivity of acetylcholinesterase in the green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:325-33 pubmed
    ..and the resistant strain Nakagawara, whose methylcarbamate-insensitive AChEs show 10(2) or more I(50) ratio for propoxur, were compared...
  31. Singh S, Parthasarathy S, Sud A, Wanchu A, Bambery P. Acute pancreatitis following propoxyfur (Baygon) ingestion. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:78-9 pubmed
    ..We report a young male who developed acute cholinergic crisis and acute pancreatitis following propoxyfur (Baygon) ingestion and recovered completely with conservative management...
  32. Corbel V, Stankiewicz M, Pennetier C, Fournier D, Stojan J, Girard E, et al. Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet. BMC Biol. 2009;7:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the molecular target site for deet and the consequences of its interactions with carbamate insecticides on the cholinergic system...
  33. Suke S, Kumar A, Ahmed R, Chakraborti A, Tripathi A, Mediratta P, et al. Protective effect of melatonin against propoxur-induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44:312-5 pubmed
    Effect of melatonin in attenuation of propoxur induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response was studied in rats...
  34. Votanopoulos K, Lee T, Dominguez E, Choi Y, Sweeney J. Propoxur induced pancreatitis after inhalation of baygon pesticide. Pancreas. 2007;34:379-80 pubmed
  35. Weill M, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Lutfalla G, Negre V, Pasteur N, et al. Insecticide resistance: a silent base prediction. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R552-3 pubmed
  36. Darriet F, N Guessan R, Hougard J, Traore Lamizana M, Carnevale P. [An experimental tool essential for the evaluation of insecticides: the testing huts]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2002;95:299-303 pubmed
    ..gambiae. This experimental method must be extended to other sites in order to finalize ever more selective and appropriate means of control against nuisance and disease-vector mosquitoes...
  37. Bouvier G, Blanchard O, Momas I, Seta N. Pesticide exposure of non-occupationally exposed subjects compared to some occupational exposure: a French pilot study. Sci Total Environ. 2006;366:74-91 pubmed
    ..The organophosphates dichlorvos and fenthion, the carbamate propoxur and the herbicides atrazine and alachlor were detected in more than 20% of the air samples...
  38. Kuo H, Shyu S, Wang T. Genotoxicity of low dose N-nitroso propoxur to human gastric cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1619-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Propoxur is among the most popular insect control agents in subtropical countries such as Taiwan...
  39. Sun L, Lee H. Stability studies of propoxur herbicide in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2003;1014:153-63 pubmed
    ..The degradation behavior of propoxur, selected as a model pesticide belonging to the N-methylcarbamate group, in various aqueous matrices (Milli-Q ..
  40. OLAH G, Vigo G, Ortiz L, Rózsa L, Brightsmith D. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We compare this new technique to two other methods for removing bots from macaw chicks and find the new method the most suitable. ..
  41. Lin C, Wei L, Wang T. The delayed genotoxic effect of N-nitroso N-propoxur insecticide in mammalian cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:928-34 pubmed
    The N-nitroso derivative of an extensively used insecticide, propoxur, consistently induced dose-responsive chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-W8) cells...
  42. Yeebiyo Y, Dengela D, Tesfaye A, Anshebo G, Kolyada L, Wirtz R, et al. Short persistence of bendiocarb sprayed on pervious walls and its implication for the indoor residual spray program in Ethiopia. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:266 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the effect of pH and wall type on the residual life of the carbamates bendiocarb and propoxur as measured by the standard World Health Organization (WHO) cone bioassay test...
  43. Shahid M, Takamiya M, Stegmaier J, Middel V, Gradl M, Klüver N, et al. Zebrafish biosensor for toxicant induced muscle hyperactivity. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23768 pubmed publisher
    ..TgBAC(hspb11:GFP) zebrafish embryos provide a quantitative measure of muscle hyperactivity and represent a robust whole organism system for detecting chemicals that affect motor function. ..
  44. Ostrea E, Villanueva Uy E, Bielawski D, Birn S, Janisse J. Trends in long term exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids in young children in the Philippines. Environ Res. 2014;131:13-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in long term pesticide exposure in children through the analysis of pesticides in their hair...
  45. Limsuwan S, Priess B, Tansakul N, Nau H, Kietzmann M, Hamscher G. Penetration studies of propoxur and phoxim from eggshell into whole egg after experimental exposure and application in henhouses. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6401-5 pubmed
    The penetration of propoxur and phoxim from eggshell into whole egg was investigated in vitro by spraying eggs directly and in vivo after application of the compounds in henhouses...
  46. Salem A. Analysis of some chlorophenoxy acids and carbamate herbicides in water and soil as amide derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr Sci. 2007;45:131-9 pubmed
    ..43% to 8.61% were obtained using a mixed component calibration curves. SPE from water samples and soil samples showed low recoveries. The reason is attributed to the weak sorption capabilities of soil and Al(2)O(3)...
  47. Suma R, Sarin R, Saiprakash P, Ramakrishna S. Simple liquid chromatographic method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of propoxur and its major metabolite isopropoxy phenol in rat blood and urine using solid-phase extraction. J Anal Toxicol. 2005;29:728-33 pubmed
    ..paper describes the development and validation of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of propoxur and isopropoxy phenol (IPP, a major metabolite) in both blood and urine of rat using reversed-phase high-..
  48. Mutero A, Pralavorio M, Bride J, Fournier D. Resistance-associated point mutations in insecticide-insensitive acetylcholinesterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5922-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that recombination between resistant alleles preexisting in natural populations is a mechanism by which insects rapidly adapt to new selective pressures...
  49. Xiao L, Dou W, Li Y, Wang J. Comparative studies of acetylcholinesterase purified from three field populations of Liposcelis entomophila (enderlein) (psocoptera: liposcelididae). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2010;75:158-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro studies of AChE suggest that five inhibitors (aldicarb, eserine, BW284C51, omethoate, and propoxur) all possess strong inhibitory effects with eserine having the strongest inhibitory effect against purified AChE...
  50. Ngoula F, Watcho P, Bouseko T, Kenfack A, Tchoumboue J, Kamtchouing P. Effects of propoxur on the reproductive system of male rats. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007;11:125-32 pubmed
    The reproductive toxicity of propoxur (2-isopropoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate), a carbamate pesticide, was investigated in adult male Wistar rats exposed to 0, 1.73, 2.6, and 5.2 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 successive days...
  51. Liang Y, Wang H, Long D, Wu Y. Applying biofluid metabonomic techniques to analyze the combined subchronic toxicity of propoxur and permethrin in rats. Bioanalysis. 2012;4:2897-907 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, metabolic changes in the biofluid of rats after 90-day oral treatment with propoxur, permethrin and a combination of these two pesticides were investigated.
  52. Ratovonjato J, Duchemin J, Duplantier J, Rahelinirina S, Soares J, Rahalison L, et al. [Plague control in Madagascar: evaluation of the efficacy of Kartman baitboxes in urban areas]. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar. 2003;69:41-5 pubmed
    ..The rodenticide used was Baraki (difethialone 25 ppm) and the insecticide was a powder of Propoxur 3%...
  53. Sumer S, Diril N, Izbirak A. [The mutagenicity of some insecticides in the Salmonella/microsome test system]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 1990;24:103-10 pubmed
    The mutagenic effects of 4 insecticides, i.e., bioallethrin, tetramethrin, propoxur, lethane and three commercial formulation of insecticides i.e...