carbaryl

Summary

Summary: A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.

Top Publications

  1. Söderpalm Berndes C, Onfelt A. The action of carbaryl and its metabolite alpha-naphthol on mitosis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Indications of the involvement of some cholinester in cell division. Mutat Res. 1988;201:349-63 pubmed
    b>Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate) is a spindle-disturbing agent. A number of effects probably contribute to this activity...
  2. Nunes G, Marco M, Ribeiro M, Barcelo D. Validation of an immunoassay method for the determination of traces of carbaryl in vegetable and fruit extracts by liquid chromatography with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A. 1998;823:109-20 pubmed
    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for carbaryl quantitation in crop extracts was validated by liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detection (DAD)...
  3. Bhavan P, Geraldine P. Manifestation of carbaryl toxicity on soluble protein and histopathology in the hepatopancreas and gills of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. J Environ Biol. 2009;30:533-8 pubmed
    ..the hepatopancreas and gills of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii following exposure to Sevin, the commercial grade of carbaryl (1-Naphthylmethyl carbamate) pesticide. Juvenile prawns were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations 5...
  4. Ahmad R, Kookana R, Megharaj M, Alston A. Aging reduces the bioavailability of even a weakly sorbed pesticide (carbaryl) in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:2084-9 pubmed
    We investigated bioavailability and biodegradation of carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) in a soil with a long history of pesticide contamination from a storage facility located at Mamoon Kanjan, Pakistan...
  5. Xia Y, Cheng S, Bian Q, Xu L, Collins M, Chang H, et al. Genotoxic effects on spermatozoa of carbaryl-exposed workers. Toxicol Sci. 2005;85:615-23 pubmed
    b>Carbaryl, one of the most important insecticides, is widely produced and used...
  6. Kanan M, Kanan S, Austin R, Patterson H. Photodecomposition of carbaryl in the presence of silver-doped zeolite Y and Suwannee River natural organic matter. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:2280-5 pubmed
    The synthesis and characterization of a novel catalyst for the photodecomposition of carbaryl (1-naphthyl, N-methylcarbamate) is reported...
  7. Mauriz E, Calle A, Abad A, Montoya A, Hildebrandt A, Barcelo D, et al. Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor. Biosens Bioelectron. 2006;21:2129-36 pubmed
    The analysis of carbaryl in natural water samples was accomplished using a portable immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology...
  8. Lima M, Soares A, Loureiro S. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: simulation of flood and drought scenarios. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:1844-51 pubmed publisher
    ..rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively...
  9. Ni Y, Cao D, Kokot S. Simultaneous enzymatic kinetic determination of pesticides, carbaryl and phoxim, with the aid of chemometrics. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;588:131-9 pubmed
    A sensitive and selective enzymatic kinetic method for the simultaneous determination of mixtures of carbaryl and phoxim pesticides was researched and developed...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Singh B, Singhal L, Chauhan R. Immunotoxicity of carbaryl in chicken. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007;45:890-5 pubmed
    ..Chicken of group I served as control, while group II birds were given carbaryl at 20 ppm (No observable effect level, NOEL) in feed for 3 months...
  2. Nong A, Tan Y, Krolski M, Wang J, Lunchick C, Conolly R, et al. Bayesian calibration of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of carbaryl cholinesterase inhibition. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:1363-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbaryl, an N-methyl carbamate (NMC), is a common insecticide that reversibly inhibits neuronal cholinesterase activity...
  3. Moraes F, Mascaro L, Machado S, Brett C. Direct electrochemical determination of carbaryl using a multi-walled carbon nanotube/cobalt phthalocyanine modified electrode. Talanta. 2009;79:1406-11 pubmed publisher
    The electrochemical detection of carbaryl at low potentials, in order to avoid matrix interferences, is an important challenge...
  4. Zhu K, Wilde G, Higgins R, Sloderbeck P, Buschman L, Shufran R, et al. Evidence of evolving carbaryl resistance in western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in areawide-managed cornfields in north central Kansas. J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:929-34 pubmed
    Susceptibility of adult populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, to carbaryl was determined by a survey in 1996 before the implementation of an areawide management program near Scandia in north ..
  5. Gebreegzi Y, Foster G, Khan S. Simultaneous determination of carbaryl, malathion, fenitrothion, and diazinon residues in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:5165-8 pubmed
    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate), malathion [diethyl (dimethoxythiophosphorylthio) succinate], fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate), and diazinon (..
  6. Bhavan P, Geraldine P, Sowdeswari R. Sub-lethal impact of carbaryl on food utilization in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. J Environ Biol. 2011;32:369-73 pubmed
    This study determines the toxic effect of carbaryl (Sevin50% W.P) on the food utilization parameters in intermoult juveniles of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. The prawns (4.5-5.0 cm in length and 1.0-1.25 g wet wt...
  7. Petropoulou S, Gikas E, Tsarbopoulos A, Siskos P. Gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantitation of carbofuran, carbaryl and their main metabolites in applicators' urine. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1108:99-110 pubmed
    ..method has been developed and validated for the determination of two N-methylcarbamates, carbofuran and carbaryl and their metabolites in applicators' urine specimens...
  8. Sachana M, Flaskos J, Alexaki E, Hargreaves A. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by leptophos and carbaryl: effects on neurofilament heavy chain, GAP-43 and HSP-70. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003;17:115-20 pubmed
    The neurodegenerative properties of the organophosphate ester leptophos (LEP) and the carbamate ester carbaryl (CB), both of which can cause neuropathic effects in animals, were investigated in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma ..
  9. Zhang G, Hu X, Fu P. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between carbaryl and calf thymus DNA with the use of ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2012;108:53-61 pubmed publisher
    The interaction between carbaryl and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was investigated under simulated physiological conditions (Tris-HCl buffer of pH 7...
  10. Valdés Ramírez G, Cortina M, Ramírez Silva M, Marty J. Acetylcholinesterase-based biosensors for quantification of carbofuran, carbaryl, methylparaoxon, and dichlorvos in 5% acetonitrile. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;392:699-707 pubmed publisher
    Amperometric acetylcholinesterase biosensors have been developed for quantification of the pesticides carbofuran, carbaryl, methylparaoxon, and dichlorvos in phosphate buffer containing 5% acetonitrile...
  11. Ashauer R, Boxall A, Brown C. Simulating toxicity of carbaryl to Gammarus pulex after sequential pulsed exposure. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5528-34 pubmed
    ..model (TDM) to simulate survival of the aquatic invertebrate Gammarus pulex after sequential pulsed exposure to carbaryl and compare itto a simpler model based on time-weighted averages (TWA)...
  12. Mahajan R, Blair A, Coble J, Lynch C, Hoppin J, Sandler D, et al. Carbaryl exposure and incident cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1799-805 pubmed
    b>Carbaryl is a carbamate insecticide with a broad spectrum of uses in agricultural, commercial and household settings. It has previously been linked with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but studies of cancer risk in humans are limited...
  13. Lan W, Cong J, Jiang H, Jiang S, Qiao C. Expression and characterization of carboxylesterase E4 gene from peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae) for degradation of carbaryl and malathion. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:1141-6 pubmed
    ..coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant CbE E4 hydrolyzed beta-naphthyl acetate and Carbaryl by 64% within 2.5 h, Malathion by 80% within 1.25 h...
  14. Sun J, Dong T, Zhang Y, Wang S. Development of enzyme linked immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of carbaryl and metolcarb in different agricultural products. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;666:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in multi-enzyme tracers format for the simultaneous analysis of carbaryl and metolcarb in agricultural products is described in this study...
  15. Relyea R, Mills N. Predator-induced stress makes the pesticide carbaryl more deadly to gray treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:2491-6 pubmed
    ..We found that if we used slightly longer exposure times (10-16 d), low concentrations of the pesticide carbaryl (3-4% of LC50(4-d)) killed 10-60% of gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles...
  16. Ghosh P, Bhattacharya S. Impairment of the regulation of gonadal function in Channa punctatus by metacid-50 and carbaryl under laboratory and field conditions. Biomed Environ Sci. 1990;3:106-12 pubmed
    ..hormone (GnRH) in Channa punctatus was significantly affected by nonlethal levels of Metacid-50 and Carbaryl. Under laboratory conditions, the time-dependent decrease in serum GtH level was higher in Carbaryl-treated fish ..
  17. Hori Y, Nakajima M, Fujisawa M, Shimada K, Hirota T, Yoshioka T. [Simultaneous determination of propanil, carbaryl and 3,4-dichloroaniline in human serum by HPLC with UV detector following solid phase extraction]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2002;122:247-51 pubmed
    In case of poisoning by herbicide compounded with Propanil (DCPA) and Carbaryl (NAC), we attempted simultaneous solid-phase extractions of DCPA, NAC, and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), a metabolite of DCPA, from the patient's serum, and ..
  18. Downs A, Stafford K, Hunt L, Ravenscroft J, Coles G. Widespread insecticide resistance in head lice to the over-the-counter pediculocides in England, and the emergence of carbaryl resistance. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:88-93 pubmed
    ..Treatment failure and tolerance to insecticides have been validated in a number of studies undertaken in several U.K. centres...
  19. Peterson J, Jepson P, Jenkins J. Effect of varying pesticide exposure duration and concentration on the toxicity of carbaryl to two field-collected stream invertebrates, Calineuria californica (Plecoptera: Perlidae) and Cinygma sp (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:2215-23 pubmed
    The effect of exposure duration on the toxicity of a forest insecticide (carbaryl) was assessed under environmentally realistic exposure regimes against two stream invertebrates indigenous to the United States Pacific Northwest, ..
  20. Marutani M, Edirveerasingam V. Influence of irrigation methods and an adjuvant on the persistence of carbaryl on pakchoi. J Environ Qual. 2006;35:1994-8 pubmed
    Influence of irrigation methods and use of an adjuvant on the persistence of the carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) on pakchoi [Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis (Rupr...
  21. Gunasekara A, Rubin A, Goh K, Spurlock F, Tjeerdema R. Environmental fate and toxicology of carbaryl. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;196:95-121 pubmed
    b>Carbaryl is an agricultural and garden insecticide that controls a broad spectrum of insects. Although moderately water soluble, it neither vaporizes nor volatilizes readily...
  22. Sun H, Shen O, Xu X, Song L, Wang X. Carbaryl, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol inhibit the beta-1 thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription in vitro. Toxicology. 2008;249:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..9% and inter CV of 11.7%. Carbaryl, 1-naphthol (1-NAP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAP) were tested for their agonist and antagonist activities...
  23. Beauvais S, Jones S, Parris J, Brewer S, Little E. Cholinergic and behavioral neurotoxicity of carbaryl and cadmium to larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2001;49:84-90 pubmed
    ..Neurotoxic effects of cadmium and carbaryl exposures were estimated in larval rainbow trout (RBT; Oncorhynchus mykiss) using changes in physiological ..
  24. Davidson C, Benard M, Shaffer H, Parker J, O Leary C, Conlon J, et al. Effects of chytrid and carbaryl exposure on survival, growth and skin peptide defenses in foothill yellow-legged frogs. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:1771-6 pubmed
    ..metamorphosed foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) to determine whether sublethal exposure to the pesticide carbaryl would increase susceptibility to the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis that is widely ..
  25. Somnuek C, Boonphakdee C, Cheevaporn V, Tanaka K. Gene expression of acetylcholinesterase in hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus X Clarias macrocephalus) exposed to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. J Environ Biol. 2009;30:83-8 pubmed
    ..43, 4.3 and 43 microM) and carbaryl (1.19, 11.9 and 119 microM) for 24 hr. Real-time PCR was used to compare with the amplified 28S rRNA gene...
  26. Sachana M, Flaskos J, Nikolaidis E, Hargreaves A, Alexaki Tzivanidou E. Inhibition of rat platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake by chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;89:195-200 pubmed
    The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and the carbamate insecticide carbaryl were investigated in adult male rats in terms of their effects on the activity of brain monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity and on the platelet uptake of ..
  27. Qin G, Jia M, Liu T, Zhang X, Guo Y, Zhu K, et al. Heterologous expression and characterization of a sigma glutathione S-transferase involved in carbaryl detoxification from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased 38.7% after LmGSTs3 were silenced...
  28. Boone M, Bridges C. Effects of carbaryl on green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles: timing of exposure versus multiple exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003;22:2695-702 pubmed
    ..Tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl zero, one, two, or three times at 14-d intervals...
  29. Ferrari A, Venturino A, de D Angelo A. Time course of brain cholinesterase inhibition and recovery following acute and subacute azinphosmethyl, parathion and carbaryl exposure in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2004;57:420-5 pubmed
    ..1mg/L caused more than 90% inhibition. The effect of carbaryl was less pronounced, achieving an 86% inhibition at concentrations corresponding to the 96-h LC50...
  30. Gordon C, Mack C. Diurnal variation in thermoregulatory response to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl in the rat. Toxicology. 2001;169:93-105 pubmed
    ..To this end, we assessed time of exposure on the efficacy of the antiChE insecticides chlorpyrifos (CHP) and carbaryl (CAR) to alter T(c) in the rat. T(c) and motor activity (MA) were monitored by radiotelemetry...
  31. Sogorb M, Alvarez Escalante C, Carrera V, Vilanova E. An in vitro approach for demonstrating the critical role of serum albumin in the detoxication of the carbamate carbaryl at in vivo toxicologically relevant concentrations. Arch Toxicol. 2007;81:113-9 pubmed
    The hydrolysis of carbaryl by bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied at toxicologically relevant concentrations (range 15-300 microM) in order to determine the role of this protein in the detoxication of the carbamate in vivo...
  32. Moser V, McCormick J, Creason J, MacPhail R. Comparison of chlordimeform and carbaryl using a functional observational battery. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1988;11:189-206 pubmed
    The effects of the formamidine pesticide chlordimeform (CDM), and the carbamate carbaryl (CAR) were compared using a functional observational battery (FOB)...
  33. Bouchard M, Carrier G, Brunet R. Assessment of absorbed doses of carbaryl and associated health risks in a group of horticultural greenhouse workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;81:355-70 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to estimate the absorbed doses of carbaryl and the associated health risks in a group of horticultural greenhouse workers in the Province of Quebec, Canada, using a toxicokinetic modeling approach.
  34. Doddamani H, Ninnekar H. Biodegradation of carbaryl by a Micrococcus species. Curr Microbiol. 2001;43:69-73 pubmed
    A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl as sole source of carbon was isolated from garden soil and identified as a Micrococcus species...
  35. Ashauer R, Boxall A, Brown C. Modeling combined effects of pulsed exposure to carbaryl and chlorpyrifos on Gammarus pulex. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5535-41 pubmed
    ..that recovery of damage to Gammarus pulex from exposure to chlorpyrifos takes longer than that from exposure to carbaryl and consequently that the sequence of exposure matters...
  36. Delescluse C, Ledirac N, Li R, Piechocki M, Hines R, Gidrol X, et al. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity by carbaryl and thiabendazole in transfected human HepG2 and lymphoblastoid cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;61:399-407 pubmed
    b>Carbaryl and thiabendazole, two widely used pesticides, have been shown to induce cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression, but neither compound is capable of displacing [3H] 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin from its aryl hydrocarbon ..
  37. Meeker J, Ryan L, Barr D, Herrick R, Bennett D, Bravo R, et al. The relationship of urinary metabolites of carbaryl/naphthalene and chlorpyrifos with human semen quality. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:1665-70 pubmed
    Most of the general population is exposed to carbaryl and other contemporary-use insecticides at low levels...
  38. Denison M, Phelan D, Winter G, Ziccardi M. Carbaryl, a carbamate insecticide, is a ligand for the hepatic Ah (dioxin) receptor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998;152:406-14 pubmed
    ..It was recently reported (Ledirac et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 144, 177-182, 1997) that, although carbaryl, a carbamate insecticide, can induce AhR-dependent expression of CYP1A1, it was not an AhR ligand...
  39. Melchert W, Rocha F. A greener and highly sensitive flow-based procedure for carbaryl determination exploiting long pathlength spectrophotometry and photochemical waste degradation. Talanta. 2010;81:327-33 pubmed publisher
    An environmentally friendly analytical procedure with high sensitivity for determination of carbaryl pesticide in natural waters was developed...
  40. Wang H, Liang Y, Long D, Chen J, Hou W, Wu Y. Metabolic profiles of serum from rats after subchronic exposure to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1026-33 pubmed publisher
    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and carbaryl (CAR) have been widely used in agricultural and domestic settings...
  41. Firdoz S, Ma F, Yue X, Dai Z, Kumar A, Jiang B. A novel amperometric biosensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes with acetylcholine esterase for the detection of carbaryl pesticide in water. Talanta. 2010;83:269-73 pubmed publisher
    Amperometric biosensor is fabricated for the detection of carbaryl based on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and acetylcholine esterase (AchE)...
  42. Meeker J, Barr D, Serdar B, Rappaport S, Hauser R. Utility of urinary 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol levels to assess environmental carbaryl and naphthalene exposure in an epidemiology study. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007;17:314-20 pubmed
    ..However, because 1N is a major urinary metabolite of both naphthalene and the insecticide carbaryl, exposure misclassification stemming from differences in exposure source was probable and interpretation of the ..
  43. Shimomura Shimizu M, Sugiyama K, Muroi M, Tanamoto K. Alachlor and carbaryl suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression by differentially inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:793-9 pubmed
    ..We found that two agrochemicals, alachlor and carbaryl, inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production by macrophages...
  44. Hua J, Cothran R, Stoler A, Relyea R. Cross-tolerance in amphibians: wood frog mortality when exposed to three insecticides with a common mode of action. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:932-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that amphibian populations with tolerance to one pesticide may be tolerant to many other pesticides...
  45. Cakici O, Akat E. Histopathological effects of carbaryl on testes of snake-eyed lizard, Ophisops elegans. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbaryl is a common insecticide that is widely used in areas of Turkey that are home to a variety of reptiles...
  46. Ferrari A, Venturino A, Pechén de D Angelo A. Muscular and brain cholinesterase sensitivities to azinphos methyl and carbaryl in the juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;146:308-13 pubmed
    The organophosphate azinphos methyl (AzMe) and the carbamate carbaryl are the insecticides mostly used in the irrigated valley of Río Negro and Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina...
  47. Usmani K, Cho T, Rose R, Hodgson E. Inhibition of the human liver microsomal and human cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A4 metabolism of estradiol by deployment-related and other chemicals. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:1606-14 pubmed
    ..b>Carbaryl, a carbamate pesticide, and naphthalene, a jet fuel component, inhibited ca. 40% of E2 metabolism...
  48. Krupovage J, Huddleston E, Valdez R. Consumption and mortality of the white-footed mouse (Rodentia: Muridae) and Ord's kangaroo rat (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) when fed carbaryl-bran grasshopper (Orthoptera) bait. J Econ Entomol. 1990;83:2164-7 pubmed
    ..the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) were fed 0, 2, and 20% (AI) by weight concentrations of carbaryl-bran grasshopper bait in the laboratory to determine whether the bait would be consumed, the total quantity of ..
  49. Stok J, Goloshchapov A, Song C, Wheelock C, Derbel M, Morisseau C, et al. Investigation of the role of a second conserved serine in carboxylesterases via site-directed mutagenesis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;430:247-55 pubmed
    ..Due to the instability of the S247C mutant no reliable data could be attained. A carbamate inhibitor, carbaryl, was then employed to investigate whether this decrease in the kcat was due to the rate of formation of the acyl-..
  50. Overmyer J, Noblet R. Influences of a laboratory diet and natural seston on the bioavailability of carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and malathion to black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in an acute toxicity test. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;45:209-15 pubmed
    ..Chlorpyrifos availability decreased, whereas carbaryl and malathion availability increased...
  51. Satoh T, Suzuki S, Kawai N, Nakamura T, Hosokawa M. Toxicological significance in the cleavage of esterase-beta-glucuronidase complex in liver microsomes by organophosphorus compounds. Chem Biol Interact. 1999;119-120:471-8 pubmed
    ..Similarly, carbamate insecticides such as carbaryl caused rapid increase of plasma beta-G level...
  52. Gupta M, Amma M. Alterations in hepatic biochemistry of mice intoxicated with MIC, carbaryl and thiram. J Appl Toxicol. 1993;13:33-7 pubmed
    The effect of different doses of methyl isocyanate (MIC), carbaryl and thiram on liver microsomal mixed-function oxygenases (MFO) was studied in adult Swiss Portan mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for different durations...
  53. Hernandez A, Parron T, Tsatsakis A, Requena M, Alarcón R, López Guarnido O. Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: their relevance to human health. Toxicology. 2013;307:136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Examples of such interactions include the postulated mechanisms for the potentiation of pyrethroid, carbaryl and triazine herbicides toxicity by organophosphates; how the toxicity of some organophosphates can be ..