aldicarb

Summary

Summary: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.

Top Publications

  1. Wang J, Cheung W. Determination of pesticides in soy-based infant formula using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int. 2006;89:214-24 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated to quantify and confirm 13 pesticides, including aldicarb sulfoxide, aldicarb sulfone, oxamyl, methomyl, formetanate, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, carbendazim, thiabendazole, ..
  2. Kok F, Bozoglu F, Hasirci V. Construction of an acetylcholinesterase-choline oxidase biosensor for aldicarb determination. Biosens Bioelectron. 2002;17:531-9 pubmed
    ..were co-immobilized on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) membranes and the change in oxygen consumption upon aldicarb introduction was measured...
  3. Miller K, Alfonso A, Nguyen M, Crowell J, Johnson C, Rand J. A genetic selection for Caenorhabditis elegans synaptic transmission mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12593-8 pubmed
  4. Moye J, Pritsos C. Effects of chlorpyrifos and aldicarb on flight activity and related cholinesterase inhibition in homing pigeons, Columba livia: potential for migration effects. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84:677-81 pubmed publisher
    Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used as a model to assess the effects of chlorpyrifos and aldicarb on flight times at sub-lethal, environmentally relevant concentrations...
  5. Covaci A, Manirakiza P, Coucke V, Beckers R, Jorens P, Schepens P. A case of aldicarb poisoning: a possible murder attempt. J Anal Toxicol. 1999;23:290-3 pubmed
    ..on serum, urine, and stomach contents that were collected few hours after first symptoms showed the presence of aldicarb, which is the most potent carbamate insecticide on the market...
  6. El Alfy A, Bernache E, Schlenk D. Gender differences in the effect of salinity on aldicarb uptake, elimination, and in vitro metabolism in Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. Aquat Toxicol. 2002;61:225-32 pubmed
    Toxicity studies have shown that salinity enhances the toxicity of aldicarb to female Japanese medaka...
  7. El Alfy A, Schlenk D. Effect of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone on the expression of flavin-containing monooxygenase and the toxicity of aldicarb to Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. Toxicol Sci. 2002;68:381-8 pubmed
    Previous studies in our laboratory indicated gender differences in salinity-enhanced acute toxicity of aldicarb in Japanese medaka with females being more susceptible...
  8. Nurrish S, Segalat L, Kaplan J. Serotonin inhibition of synaptic transmission: Galpha(0) decreases the abundance of UNC-13 at release sites. Neuron. 1999;24:231-42 pubmed
    ..motor neurons was assayed by measuring the sensitivity of intact animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. By this assay, exogenous serotonin inhibited acetylcholine release, whereas serotonin antagonists stimulated ..
  9. Küster E, Altenburger R. Suborganismic and organismic effects of aldicarb and its metabolite aldicarb-sulfoxide to the zebrafish embryo (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2007;68:751-60 pubmed
    ..The toxic effects of the carbamate insecticide aldicarb and its metabolite aldicarb-sulfoxide to zebrafish embryos were analysed using two approaches with different ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nelson L, Perrone J, DeRoos F, Stork C, Hoffman R. Aldicarb poisoning by an illicit rodenticide imported into the United States: Tres Pasitos. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001;39:447-52 pubmed
    ..This study characterizes the ongoing epidemic of acute cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning due to an illicit rodenticide and identifies its etiology...
  2. Garcia L, Mehta P, Sternberg P. Regulation of distinct muscle behaviors controls the C. elegans male's copulatory spicules during mating. Cell. 2001;107:777-88 pubmed
    ..The male gonad then lengthens the duration of EGL-19-mediated prolonged muscle contraction. This regulation of muscle contraction provides a paradigm to explain how animals initiate, monitor, and maintain a behavioral motor program...
  3. Hu Z, Pym E, Babu K, Vashlishan Murray A, Kaplan J. A neuropeptide-mediated stretch response links muscle contraction to changes in neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 2011;71:92-102 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans. We show that a brief treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb induces a form of presynaptic potentiation whereby ACh release at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) is doubled...
  4. Sun H, Xu J, Yang S, Liu G, Dai S. Plant uptake of aldicarb from contaminated soil and its enhanced degradation in the rhizosphere. Chemosphere. 2004;54:569-74 pubmed
    Experiments were conducted to investigate the degradation of aldicarb, an oxime carbamate insecticide, in sterile, non-sterile and plant-grown soils, and the capability of different plant species to accumulate the pesticide...
  5. Proença P, Teixeira H, de Mendonca M, Castanheira F, Marques E, Corte Real F, et al. Aldicarb poisoning: one case report. Forensic Sci Int. 2004;146 Suppl:S79-81 pubmed
    The carbamate aldicarb (Temik) is a highly toxic (LD50 = 0.9 mg/kg oral in rats) insecticide often used in agriculture...
  6. Mendes C, Mendes G, Cipullo J, Burdmann E. Acute intoxication due to ingestion of vegetables contaminated with aldicarb. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005;43:117-8 pubmed
    Three members of the same family ingested vegetables treated with aldicarb. All three developed signs and symptoms of acetylcholinesterase inhibition and all recovered a few hours after the ingestion...
  7. Verster R, Botha C. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2004;75:182-5 pubmed
    ..Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats...
  8. Sieburth D, Ch ng Q, Dybbs M, Tavazoie M, Kennedy S, Wang D, et al. Systematic analysis of genes required for synapse structure and function. Nature. 2005;436:510-7 pubmed
    ..Twenty-four genes encoded proteins that were localized to presynaptic specializations. Loss-of-function mutations in 12 genes caused defects in presynaptic structure...
  9. Wang J, Grisle S, Schlenk D. Effects of salinity on aldicarb toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis x chrysops). Toxicol Sci. 2001;64:200-7 pubmed
    ..5, 7, 14, and 21 ppt for 1 week and then exposed to 0.5 mg/l aldicarb. Mortality, brain, and muscle cholinesterase levels were measured after 96 h...
  10. Sieburth D, Madison J, Kaplan J. PKC-1 regulates secretion of neuropeptides. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:49-57 pubmed
    ..Mutants lacking PCK-1 activity had delayed paralysis induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, whereas mutants with increased PKC-1 activity had more rapid aldicarb-induced paralysis...
  11. Porter W, Jaeger J, Carlson I. Endocrine, immune, and behavioral effects of aldicarb (carbamate), atrazine (triazine) and nitrate (fertilizer) mixtures at groundwater concentrations. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999;15:133-50 pubmed
    This paper describes the results of 5 years of research on interactive effects of mixtures of aldicarb, atrazine, and nitrate on endocrine, immune, and nervous system function...
  12. Mahoney T, Luo S, Nonet M. Analysis of synaptic transmission in Caenorhabditis elegans using an aldicarb-sensitivity assay. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:1772-7 pubmed
    ..elegans to the paralyzing affects of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, aldicarb. Briefly, adult worms are incubated in the presence of aldicarb and scored for the time-course of aldicarb-..
  13. Qureshi J, Stansly P. Rate, placement and timing of aldicarb applications to control Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in oranges. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:1159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aldicarb 150 g kg(-1) GR (Temik((R)) 15 G) was evaluated at three rates, two placements and three timings for ACP control ..
  14. Wren J, Kille P, Spurgeon D, Swain S, Sturzenbaum S, Jager T. Application of physiologically based modelling and transcriptomics to probe the systems toxicology of aldicarb for Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas 1900). Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:397-408 pubmed publisher
    The toxicity of aldicarb on movement, life cycle, population growth rate and resource allocation, and the gene expression changes underpinning these effects, were investigated for Caenorhabditis elegans...
  15. Nguyen M, Alfonso A, Johnson C, Rand J. Caenorhabditis elegans mutants resistant to inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. Genetics. 1995;140:527-35 pubmed
    ..Measurements of acetylcholine levels in these mutants suggest that some of the genes are involved in presynaptic functions...
  16. Bouhours M, Po M, Gao S, Hung W, Li H, Georgiou J, et al. A co-operative regulation of neuronal excitability by UNC-7 innexin and NCA/NALCN leak channel. Mol Brain. 2011;4:16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, in addition to gap junction-mediated functions, UNC-7 innexin may also form hemichannels to regulate C. elegans' neuronal activity cooperatively with the NCA family leak channels...
  17. Allen A, Maher K, Wani K, Betts K, Chase D. Coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors antagonistically modulate acetylcholine release in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2011;188:579-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the sensitivity of dopamine-signaling mutants and transgenic animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling ..
  18. Brinke M, Heininger P, Traunspurger W. A semi-fluid gellan gum medium improves nematode toxicity testing. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:1824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the effects of the nematicides ivermectin (pharmaceutical) and aldicarb (pesticide) and of the metal cadmium on the growth and reproduction of the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis ..
  19. Bessou C, Giugia J, Franks C, Holden Dye L, Segalat L. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans dystrophin-like gene dys-1 lead to hyperactivity and suggest a link with cholinergic transmission. Neurogenetics. 1998;2:61-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, the dys-1 mutants are hypersensitive to acetylcholine and to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, suggesting that dys-1 mutations affect cholinergic transmission...
  20. Darvari R, Hasirci V. Pesticide and model drug release from carboxymethylceullose microspheres. J Microencapsul. 1996;13:9-24 pubmed
    ..Various microspheres with different crosslinker, biopolymer, and drug (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and aldicarb) contents were prepared and their structures, properties, swelling behaviour and release kinetics investigated...
  21. El Alfy A, Grisle S, Schlenk D. Characterization of salinity-enhanced toxicity of aldicarb to Japanese medaka: sexual and developmental differences. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:2093-8 pubmed
    The effects of salinity, gender, and development on the acute toxicity of aldicarb were examined in the euryhaline fish, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) at 1...
  22. Lohmeyer K, All J, Roberts P, Bush P. Precision application of aldicarb to enhance efficiency of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) management in cotton. J Econ Entomol. 2003;96:748-54 pubmed
    ..of Georgia (Southern Piedmont and East Gulf Coastal Plain) to test the hypothesis that precision placement of aldicarb with cotton seed in hill planting at spatially specific intervals could decrease insecticide use for management ..
  23. Magalhaes S, Bakker F. Plant feeding by a predatory mite inhabiting cassava. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;27:27-37 pubmed
    ..Because CGM populations fluctuate yearly and are heterogeneously distributed within plants, plant feeding may facilitate the persistence of populations of T. aripo in cassava fields and its control of CGM outbreaks...
  24. Chan J, Sieburth D. Localized sphingolipid signaling at presynaptic terminals is regulated by calcium influx and promotes recruitment of priming factors. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17909-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that calcium-dependent regulation of local S1P metabolism at synapses may be an important mechanism by which synaptic vesicle priming factors are recruited to release sites to promote synaptic transmission...
  25. Rother H. Falling through the regulatory cracks: Street selling of pesticides and poisoning among urban youth in South Africa. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2010;16:202-13 pubmed
    ..An exploratory study based on this framework shows that highly-toxic pesticides, such as aldicarb, methamidophos, and chlorpyrifos, are easily available in informal markets in Cape Town's urban periphery...
  26. Kayser E, Morgan P, Hoppel C, Sedensky M. Mitochondrial expression and function of GAS-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:20551-8 pubmed
    ..elegans. They also reveal the importance of mitochondrial function in determining not only aging and life span, but also anesthetic sensitivity, in this model organism...
  27. Rose M, Sanchez Bayo F, Crossan A, Kennedy I. Pesticide removal from cotton farm tailwater by a pilot-scale ponded wetland. Chemosphere. 2006;63:1849-58 pubmed
    ..3 days for diuron, 25.4 days for fluometuron and 26.4 days for aldicarb over the entire wetland...
  28. Osborn R, Edwards S, Wilcox A, Haydock P. Potential enhancement of degradation of the nematicides aldicarb, oxamyl and fosthiazate in UK agricultural soils through repeated applications. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:253-61 pubmed publisher
    The potential for enhanced degradation of the carbamoyloxime nematicides aldicarb and oxamyl and the organophosphate fosthiazate was investigated in 35 UK agricultural soils...
  29. Dittman J, Kaplan J. Behavioral impact of neurotransmitter-activated G-protein-coupled receptors: muscarinic and GABAB receptors regulate Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, conserved GPCRs act in the nematode motor circuit to provide negative feedback and to regulate locomotory behaviors that underlie navigation...
  30. Li K, Xiong J, Chen T, Yan L, Dai Y, Song D, et al. Preparation of graphene/TiO2 composites by nonionic surfactant strategy and their simulated sunlight and visible light photocatalytic activity towards representative aqueous POPs degradation. J Hazard Mater. 2013;250-251:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..composites were successfully applied to degrade aqueous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as rhodamine B, aldicarb, and norfloxacin in simulated sunlight (?>320 nm) and visible light (?>400 nm) irradiation...
  31. Cobb G, Harper F, Weisskopf C. Nonlethal method for forensic evaluation of aldicarb exposure in wildlife. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001;40:77-88 pubmed
    Forensic evaluation of aldicarb exposure is difficult due to the rapid hydrolysis and oxidation of the parent compound...
  32. Mosleh Y, Paris Palacios S, Couderchet M, Vernet G. Acute and sublethal effects of two insecticides on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) under laboratory conditions. Environ Toxicol. 2003;18:1-8 pubmed
    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) were exposed to commercial formulations of endosulfan and aldicarb for 2, 7, and 15 days, and the LC(10), LC(25), and LC(50) were determined...
  33. Motas Guzmàn M, Marla Mojica P, Romero D, Martinez Lopez E, Garcia Fernandez A. Intentional poisoning of animals in southeastern Spain: a review of the veterinary toxicology service from Murcia, Spain. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003;45:47-50 pubmed
    ..Pesticides, especially insecticides (72%) and rodenticides (26%), were frequently involved. Aldicarb (n=15), anticoagulant rodenticides (n=8) and strychnine (n=4) were the most common toxins in baits prepared for ..
  34. Schlenk D, Yeung C, Rettie A. Unique monooxygenation pattern indicates novel flavin-containing monooxygenase in liver of rainbow trout. Mar Environ Res. 2004;58:499-503 pubmed
    ..may be involved in sulfoxidation reactions which have been shown to bioactivate thioether pesticides, such as aldicarb. Rainbow trout hepatic microsomes treated with detergent to eliminate cytochrome P450 contributions catalyzed the ..
  35. Mosleh Y, Paris Palacios S, Couderchet M, Vernet G. Biological effects of two insecticides on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) under laboratory conditions. Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 2002;67:59-68 pubmed
    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) were exposed to endosulfan and aldicarb for 2, 7, and 15 days and lethal concentrations were determined...
  36. Wei L, Chao J, Hong C. Assessment of the ability of propoxur, methomyl, and aldicarb, three carbamate insecticides, to induce micronuclei in vitro in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1997;29:386-93 pubmed
    Three carbamate insecticides (propoxur, methomyl, and aldicarb) were evaluated for their ability to induce micronuclei (MN) in vitro using cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and in vivo in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes...
  37. Sabino B, Torraca T, Moura C, Rozenbaum H, de Castro Faria M. Development of a simple and low-cost enzymatic methodology for quantitative analysis of carbamates in meat samples of forensic interest. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:808-12 pubmed publisher
    ..a granulated material similar to Temik (a commercial pesticide formulation containing the carbamate insecticide aldicarb) are often involved in accidental ingestion, suicides, and homicides in Brazil...
  38. Yang X, Qu Y, Yuan Q, Wan P, Du Z, Chen D, et al. Effect of ammonium on liquid- and gas-phase protonation and deprotonation in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Analyst. 2013;138:659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanistic analysis regarding liquid- and gas-phase protonation and deprotonation is discussed...
  39. Diez Rodrĩguez G, de Baptista G, Trevizani L, Haddad M, Nava D. [Residues of thiamethoxam, aldicarb and its metabolites in coffee leaves and effect on the control of Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)]. Neotrop Entomol. 2006;35:257-63 pubmed
    ..thiamethoxam in coffee leaves, as well as to study its effect on the coffee leaf miner control, comparing it with aldicarb, used as standard. One experiment was set up in the county of Garça, SP from December/2001 to August/2002...
  40. Chang P, Wu Y, Li W, Leng X. Effect of carbamate esters on neurite outgrowth in differentiating human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2006;159:65-72 pubmed
    ..The results showed that 50 microM of either aldicarb or carbaryl significantly decreased neurite length in the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of the ..
  41. Xu J, Yuan X, Dai S. Effect of surfactants on desorption of aldicarb from spiked soil. Chemosphere. 2006;62:1630-5 pubmed
    Surfactant enhanced desorption of aldicarb from spiked soil was investigated in this paper...
  42. Ciucu A, Negulescu C, Baldwin R. Detection of pesticides using an amperometric biosensor based on ferophthalocyanine chemically modified carbon paste electrode and immobilized bienzymatic system. Biosens Bioelectron. 2003;18:303-10 pubmed
    ..35 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The decrease of substrate steady-state current caused by the addition of pesticide was used for evaluation. With this approach, up to 10(-10) M of paraoxon and carbofuran can be detected...
  43. Botha C, Coetser H, Labuschagne L, Basson A. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009-2014). J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2015;86:1329 pubmed publisher
    ..The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively...
  44. Yang S, Smetena I. Determination of aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone in tobacco using high-performance liquid chromatography with dual post-column reaction and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 1994;664:289-94 pubmed
    A screening method for the determination of aldicarb (AS) and its sulfoxide (ASX) and sulfone (ASN) metabolites in tobacco at low ppm levels is described...
  45. Moore D, Teed R, Rodney S, Thompson R, Fischer D. Refined avian risk assessment for aldicarb in the United States. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2010;6:83-101 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldicarb was recently reviewed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for re-registration eligibility...
  46. Evason K, Huang C, Yamben I, Covey D, Kornfeld K. Anticonvulsant medications extend worm life-span. Science. 2005;307:258-62 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the life-span-extending activity of these compounds is related to the anticonvulsant activity and implicate neural activity in the regulation of aging...
  47. Liu G, Dai S, Qian Y, Gan Q. Experimental study on effect of anion surfactant on degradation rate of aldicarb in soil. J Environ Sci Health B. 2003;38:405-16 pubmed
    Degradation kinetics of aldicarb [2-methyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde O-(methyl carbamoyl) oxime] in surface and subsurface soil containing different levels of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) were determined to understand ..
  48. Palumbo G, Bacchi S, Coppolino M, Pantaleoni G. Neurochemical and behavioural effects of chronic aldicarb administration in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;89:249-54 pubmed
    Changes in neurochemical parameters, behavioural and memory performances due to aldicarb (a carbamate pesticide) treatment was investigated after chronic oral administration in rats. Rats received water, or aldicarb 1 ppb (= 0...
  49. Wang T, Chiou C, Chang Y. Genetic toxicity of N-methylcarbamate insecticides and their N-nitroso derivatives. Mutagenesis. 1998;13:405-8 pubmed
    ..The findings show that N-methylcarbamate insecticides and their N-nitroso derivatives have the potential to act through mediation of epigenetic and genotoxic mechanisms respectively in the multiple stages of chemical carcinogenesis...
  50. Lauer J, Dalal S, Marz K, Nonet M, Hanson P. SNARE complex zero layer residues are not critical for N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-mediated disassembly. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14823-32 pubmed
    ..These findings show that residues of the zero layer do not play an essential role in NSF-mediated disassembly...
  51. Arnot L, Veale D, Steyl J, Myburgh J. Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide). J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2011;82:232-8 pubmed
    The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world...
  52. Slobodnik J, Oztezkizan O, Lingeman H, Brinkman U. Solid-phase extraction of polar pesticides from environmental water samples on graphitized carbon and Empore-activated carbon disks and on-line coupling to octadecyl-bonded silica analytical columns. J Chromatogr A. 1996;750:227-38 pubmed
    ..In the off-line procedure, 0.5-2 l samples spiked with a test mixture of oxamyl, methomyl and aldicarb sulfoxide were enriched on EnviCarb SPE cartridges or 47 mm diameter EACD and eluted with dichloromethane-..
  53. Rodríguez Rodríguez C, Madrigal León K, Masís Mora M, Pérez Villanueva M, Chin Pampillo J. Removal of carbamates and detoxification potential in a biomixture: Fungal bioaugmentation versus traditional use. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;135:252-258 pubmed publisher
    ..The ligninolyitc fungus Trametes versicolor was employed for the removal of three carbamates (aldicarb, ALD; methomyl, MTM; and methiocarb, MTC) in defined liquid medium; in this matrix ALD and MTM showed similar ..