carbamates

Summary

Summary: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Ferenci P, Bernstein D, Lalezari J, Cohen D, Luo Y, Cooper C, et al. ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for HCV. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1983-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted two phase 3 trials to examine the efficacy and safety of this regimen in previously untreated patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and no cirrhosis...
  2. McBurney R, Walton J. Dissociation or cyclization: options for a triad of radicals released from oxime carbamates. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:7349-54 pubmed publisher
    A set of oxime carbamates having N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl substituents were prepared via carbonyldiimidazole intermediates. It was shown by EPR spectroscopy that they underwent clean homolysis of their N-O bonds upon UV photolysis...
  3. Poordad F, Hezode C, Trinh R, Kowdley K, Zeuzem S, Agarwal K, et al. ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin for hepatitis C with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1973-82 pubmed publisher
  4. Kowdley K, Lawitz E, Poordad F, Cohen D, Nelson D, Zeuzem S, et al. Phase 2b trial of interferon-free therapy for hepatitis C virus genotype 1. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:222-32 pubmed publisher
  5. Pérez González I, Prado Ochoa M, Muñoz Guzmán M, Vázquez Valadez V, Velázquez Sánchez A, Avila Suárez B, et al. Effect of new ethyl and methyl carbamates on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae and adult ticks resistant to conventional ixodicides. Vet Parasitol. 2014;199:235-41 pubmed publisher
    The effects of six new synthetic carbamates on fully engorged females of four Rhipicephalus microplus strains (one reference strain susceptible to conventional ixodicides, two strains multiresistant to ixodicides and one tick field ..
  6. Alonso N, Caamaño O, Romero Durán F, Luan F, D S Cordeiro M, Yáñez M, et al. Model for high-throughput screening of multitarget drugs in chemical neurosciences: synthesis, assay, and theoretic study of rasagiline carbamates. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013;4:1393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, this model may become a promising auxiliary tool for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases...
  7. Finazzi G, Vannucchi A, Martinelli V, Ruggeri M, Nobile F, Specchia G, et al. A phase II study of Givinostat in combination with hydroxycarbamide in patients with polycythaemia vera unresponsive to hydroxycarbamide monotherapy. Br J Haematol. 2013;161:688-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined use of Givinostat and HC was safe and clinically effective in HC-unresponsive PV patients...
  8. Feld J, Kowdley K, Coakley E, Sigal S, Nelson D, Crawford D, et al. Treatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1594-603 pubmed publisher
    ..In this phase 3 trial, we evaluated this regimen in previously untreated patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and no cirrhosis...
  9. Poittevin C, Liautard V, Beniazza R, Robert F, Landais Y. Free-radical carbo-alkenylation of enamides and ene-carbamates. Org Lett. 2013;15:2814-7 pubmed publisher
    The addition of xanthates and vinyldisulfones across the double bond of enamides and ene-carbamates provides access to the corresponding three-component adducts in good to excellent yields with a high level of diastereocontrol in cyclic ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Prado Ochoa M, Muñoz Guzmán M, Abrego Reyes V, Velázquez Sánchez A, Lara Rocha M, Cuenca Verde C, et al. Effect of new ethyl and methyl carbamates on biological parameters and reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Vet Parasitol. 2013;194:49-57 pubmed publisher
    The effect of carbamates on engorged female Rhipicephalus microplus ticks and larvae was evaluated using the adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT), respectively...
  2. Jepps T, Olesen S, Greenwood I. One man's side effect is another man's therapeutic opportunity: targeting Kv7 channels in smooth muscle disorders. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the potential of targeting Kv7 channels in the smooth muscle to treat diseases such as hypertension, bladder instability, constipation and preterm labour...
  3. Zhang G, Chen L, Chen J, Ren Z, Wang Z, Chon T. Evidence for the Stepwise Behavioral Response Model (SBRM): the effects of Carbamate Pesticides on medaka (Oryzias latipes) in an online monitoring system. Chemosphere. 2012;87:734-41 pubmed publisher
  4. Gattinoni S, Simone C, Dallavalle S, Fezza F, Nannei R, Battista N, et al. A new group of oxime carbamates as reversible inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:4406-11 pubmed publisher
    A series of oxime carbamates have been identified as potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an important regulatory enzyme of the endocannabinoid signaling system...
  5. Masuda A, Dohmae N. Amino acid analysis of sub-picomolar amounts of proteins by precolumn fluorescence derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. Biosci Trends. 2011;5:231-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the current AAA method is potentially applicable for highly sensitive analysis as a complement to mass spectrometry-based proteomics...
  6. Zhi D, Zhang S, Qureshi F, Zhao Y, Cui S, Wang B, et al. Synthesis and biological activity of carbamate-linked cationic lipids for gene delivery in vitro. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:3837-41 pubmed publisher
  7. Hartsel J, Wong D, Mutunga J, Ma M, Anderson T, Wysinski A, et al. Re-engineering aryl methylcarbamates to confer high selectivity for inhibition of Anopheles gambiae versus human acetylcholinesterase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:4593-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A 3D QSAR model is presented that is reasonably consistent with log inhibition selectivity of 34 carbamates. Toxicity of these compounds to live Anopheles gambiae was demonstrated using both tarsal contact (filter paper) ..
  8. Armenta J, Cortes D, Pisciotta J, Shuman J, Blakeslee K, Rasoloson D, et al. Sensitive and rapid method for amino acid quantitation in malaria biological samples using AccQ.Tag ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring. Anal Chem. 2010;82:548-58 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum and human red blood cells samples. This study should provide a valuable insight into the performance of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS for amino acid quantitation using AccQ*Tag derivatization...
  9. Meng Q, Luo H, Liu Y, Li W, Zhang W, Yao Q. Synthesis and evaluation of carbamate prodrugs of SQ109 as antituberculosis agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:2808-10 pubmed publisher
    ..4% after oral administration of SQ109. After oral administration of compound 7a, the parent drug SQ109 exhibited preferential tissue distribution into lung and spleen, the target organs of tubercular infection and replication...
  10. Novais S, Soares A, Amorim M. Can avoidance in Enchytraeus albidus be used as a screening parameter for pesticides testing?. Chemosphere. 2010;79:233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..From an ecological point of view, avoidance tests are relevant but due to lower sensitivity and higher variability it is recommended that the enchytraeid avoidance test should not be used for risk assessment purposes...
  11. Wong D, Li J, Chen Q, Han Q, Mutunga J, Wysinski A, et al. Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46712 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes...
  12. Waisser K, Cizmarik J. [Derivatives of phenylcarbamic acid as potential antituberculotics]. Ceska Slov Farm. 2012;61:17-20 pubmed
    ..avium and M. kansasii. The carbamates produced by Prof. Vinsová and co-workers published in the last year show that carbamates can be still topical.
  13. Han Z, Chi C, Bai B, Liu G, Rao Q, Peng S, et al. Chromogenic platform based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase for visible unidirectional assay of organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;720:126-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the testified suitability and applicability of this novel platform meet the requirements for practical use in food safety management and environmental monitoring, especially in the developing world...
  14. Enomoto T, Girard A, Yasui Y, Takemoto Y. Gold(I)-catalyzed tandem reactions initiated by hydroamination of alkynyl carbamates: application to the synthesis of nitidine. J Org Chem. 2009;74:9158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis of 1,2-dihydroisoquinolines, the gold(I)-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination of (2-alkynyl)benzyl carbamates has been developed...
  15. Blaser A, Palmer B, Sutherland H, Kmentova I, Franzblau S, Wan B, et al. Structure-activity relationships for amide-, carbamate-, and urea-linked analogues of the tuberculosis drug (6S)-2-nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine (PA-824). J Med Chem. 2012;55:312-26 pubmed publisher
  16. Tan F, Wang L, Wang J, Wu X, Zhu H, Jiang L, et al. Enhanced pesticide sensitivity of novel housefly acetylcholinesterases: a new tool for the detection of residual pesticide contamination. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2011;34:305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The AChE enzyme obtained by this method could be used to detect the organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues in fruits and vegetables, a characteristic of great potential research and industrial application...
  17. Wilson A, Garcia A, Houle S, Sadovski O, Vasdev N. Synthesis and application of isocyanates radiolabeled with carbon-11. Chemistry. 2011;17:259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This is demonstrated by using the method to make [carbonyl-(11) C]-6-hydroxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate which is a novel radiotracer for PET imaging of fatty acid amide hydrolase...
  18. Amorim M, Novais S, van der Ven K, Vandenbrouck T, Soares A, De Coen W. Development of a microarray for Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta): preliminary tool with diverse applications. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:1395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..albidus. It demonstrates the usefulness of cDNA normalization in the production of cDNA libraries of ecotoxicological standard organisms that are not genome models like E. albidus...
  19. Balaraman E, Gunanathan C, Zhang J, Shimon L, Milstein D. Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO2 and CO. Nat Chem. 2011;3:609-14 pubmed publisher
    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates is of significant interest both conceptually and practically, because these compounds can be produced from CO2 and CO, and their mild hydrogenation can provide ..
  20. Ipavec V, Martire M, Barrese V, Taglialatela M, Curro D. KV7 channels regulate muscle tone and nonadrenergic noncholinergic relaxation of the rat gastric fundus. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..KV7 channel activators could be useful relaxant agents of the gastric smooth muscle...
  21. Prat M, Buil M, Fernández M, Castro J, Monleón J, Tort L, et al. Discovery of novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of (3R)-quinuclidinyl carbamates as potent and long acting muscarinic antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:3457-61 pubmed publisher
    Novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of N,N-disubstituted (3R)-quinuclidinyl carbamates have been identified as potent M(3) muscarinic antagonists with long duration of action in an in vivo model of bronchoconstriction...
  22. Agnani D, Acharya P, Martinez E, Tran T, Abraham F, Tobin F, et al. Fitting the elementary rate constants of the P-gp transporter network in the hMDR1-MDCK confluent cell monolayer using a particle swarm algorithm. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25086 pubmed publisher
  23. Brueggemann L, Kakad P, Love R, Solway J, DOWELL M, Cribbs L, et al. Kv7 potassium channels in airway smooth muscle cells: signal transduction intermediates and pharmacological targets for bronchodilator therapy. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L120-32 pubmed publisher
  24. Chen Y, Zhou M. Characterization of Fusarium graminearum isolates resistant to both carbendazim and a new fungicide JS399-19. Phytopathology. 2009;99:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, careful use of JS399-19 should be followed to delay resistance development in natural populations of F. graminearum, avoid unexpected control failures, and sustain the usefulness of MBC and the new product JS399-19...
  25. Han J, Ma I, Hendzel M, Allalunis Turner J. The cytotoxicity of gamma-secretase inhibitor I to breast cancer cells is mediated by proteasome inhibition, not by gamma-secretase inhibition. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11:R57 pubmed publisher
  26. Quasdorf K, Riener M, Petrova K, Garg N. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl carbamates, carbonates, and sulfamates. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:17748-9 pubmed publisher
    The first Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings of carbamates, carbonates, and sulfamates is described...
  27. Pandey G, Dorrian S, Russell R, Brearley C, Kotsonis S, Oakeshott J. Cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel carbendazim (methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate)-hydrolyzing esterase from the newly isolated Nocardioides sp. strain SG-4G and its potential for use in enzymatic bioremediation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:2940-5 pubmed publisher
    ..1 muM and 170 min(-1), respectively, for MBC. Radiation-killed, freeze-dried SG-4G cells showed strong and stable MBC detoxification activity suitable for use in enzymatic bioremediation applications...
  28. Xu W, Wu Y, Bi Y, Tan L, Gan Y, Wang K. Activation of voltage-gated KCNQ/Kv7 channels by anticonvulsant retigabine attenuates mechanical allodynia of inflammatory temporomandibular joint in rats. Mol Pain. 2010;6:49 pubmed publisher
  29. Wang Z, Wang Y, Gong F, Zhang J, Hong Q, Li S. Biodegradation of carbendazim by a novel actinobacterium Rhodococcus jialingiae djl-6-2. Chemosphere. 2010;81:639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The inoculation of strain djl-6-2 to MBC-contaminated soil resulted in a higher degradation rate than noninoculated soil, which indicated the potential of strain djl-6-2 in bioremediation of MBC polluted soil...
  30. Van Dyk J, Pletschke B. Review on the use of enzymes for the detection of organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in the environment. Chemosphere. 2011;82:291-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the main classes of pesticides that pose a serious problem are organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates. While pesticides are associated with many health effects, there is a lack of monitoring data on these ..
  31. Kerr D, Burke N, Ford G, Connor T, Harhen B, Egan L, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation modulates the expression of inflammatory mediators in the hypothalamus following an immunological stressor. Neuroscience. 2012;204:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved understanding of endocannabinoid-mediated regulation of neuroimmune function has fundamental physiological and potential therapeutic significance in the context of stress-related disorders...
  32. Gross M, Piecha G, Bierhaus A, Hanke W, Henle T, Schirmacher P, et al. Glycated and carbamylated albumin are more "nephrotoxic" than unmodified albumin in the amphibian kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that carbamylation and glycation increase the capacity of albumin to cause tubular cell damage and peritubular fibrosis...
  33. Malima R, Oxborough R, Tungu P, Maxwell C, Lyimo I, Mwingira V, et al. Behavioural and insecticidal effects of organophosphate-, carbamate- and pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets against African malaria vectors. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Chlorpyrifos-methyl was inferior to deltamethrin in terms of mortality and blood-feeding inhibition and would be better deployed on a net in combination with a pyrethroid to control insecticide-resistant mosquitoes...
  34. Li Y, Xu L, Shen J, Ran J, Zhang Y, Wang M, et al. Effects of short-term therapy with different insulin secretagogues on glucose metabolism, lipid parameters and oxidative stress in newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;88:42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare effects of three different insulin secretagogues on early-phase insulin secretion, metabolism of glucose and lipids, and lipid peroxidation in newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)...
  35. Orhan G, Wuttke T, Nies A, Schwab M, Lerche H. Retigabine/Ezogabine, a KCNQ/K(V)7 channel opener: pharmacological and clinical data. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012;13:1807-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Retigabine/Ezogabine (RTG) is a third-generation antiepileptic drug (AED) with a novel mechanism of action. It enhances the activity of voltage-gated K(V)7 potassium channels...
  36. Yu G, Guo Q, Xie L, Liu Y, Wang X. Effects of subchronic exposure to carbendazim on spermatogenesis and fertility in male rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;25:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that carbendazim has adverse effects on spermatogenesis, resulting in reduced fertility in male rats...
  37. Farag A, Ebrahim H, Elmazoudy R, Kadous E. Developmental toxicity of fungicide carbendazim in female mice. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2011;92:122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..150 mg/kg/day carbendazim produced a very slight increase in postimplantation loss, which was within the range of historical controls, and no evidence of maternal toxicity...
  38. Djogbenou L, Noël V, Agnew P. Costs of insensitive acetylcholinesterase insecticide resistance for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae homozygous for the G119S mutation. Malar J. 2010;9:12 pubmed publisher
    ..gambiae, especially for homozygous individuals, and these costs could be influential in determining the frequency of carbamate resistance in these populations...
  39. Musella A, De Chiara V, Rossi S, Cavasinni F, Castelli M, Cantarella C, et al. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels control acetylcholine/2-arachidonoylglicerol coupling in the striatum. Neuroscience. 2010;167:864-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological interventions targeting AEA metabolism and TRPV1 channels might be considered alternative therapeutic routes in disorders of striatal cholinergic or endocannabinoid neurotransmission...
  40. Ahoua Alou L, Koffi A, Adja M, Tia E, Kouassi P, Koné M, et al. Distribution of ace-1R and resistance to carbamates and organophosphates in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from Côte d'Ivoire. Malar J. 2010;9:167 pubmed publisher
    ..s. is a critical issue for malaria vector control based on the use of insecticide-treated nets. Carbamates and organophosphates insecticides are regarded as alternatives or supplements to pyrethroids used in nets ..
  41. Rosenbaum A, Cosner C, Mariani C, Maxfield F, Wiest O, Helquist P. Thiadiazole carbamates: potent inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase and potential Niemann-Pick type C disease therapeutics. J Med Chem. 2010;53:5281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LAL can be specifically inhibited by a variety of 3,4-disubstituted thiadiazole carbamates. An efficient synthesis of the C(3) oxygenated/C(4) aminated analogues has been developed that furnishes the ..
  42. Fang H, Wang Y, Gao C, Yan H, Dong B, Yu Y. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas sp. CBW capable of degrading carbendazim. Biodegradation. 2010;21:939-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the isolate CBW is a new bacterial resource for biodegrading carbendazim and might be used for bioremediation of sites heavily contaminated by carbendazim and its derivatives...
  43. Mani B, O Dowd J, Kumar L, Brueggemann L, Ross M, Byron K. Vascular KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels as common signaling intermediates and therapeutic targets in cerebral vasospasm. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2013;61:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identify Kv7 channels as common targets of vasoconstrictor spasmogens and as candidates for therapeutic intervention for cerebral vasospasm...
  44. Nandurdikar R, Maciag A, Cao Z, Keefer L, Saavedra J. Diazeniumdiolated carbamates: a novel class of nitric oxide donors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:2025-9 pubmed publisher
    We report an indirect method for synthesis of previously inaccessible diazeniumdiolated carbamates. Synthesis involves use of previously reported triisopropylsilyloxymethylated isopropylamine diazeniumdiolate (TOM-ylated IPA/NO)...
  45. Gumieniczek A, Krzywdzińska M, Nowak M. Modulation of nitrosative/oxidative stress in the lung of hyperglycemic rabbits by two antidiabetics, pioglitazone and repaglinide. Exp Lung Res. 2009;35:371-9 pubmed
    ..Administration of repaglinide prevents oxidative and, to a smaller extent, nitrosative changes...
  46. Jepps T, Greenwood I, Moffatt J, Sanders K, Ohya S. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 K+ channel in murine gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Drugs that selectively block K(v)7.4/7.5 might be promising therapeutics for the treatment of motility disorders such as constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome...
  47. Maljevic S, Wuttke T, Seebohm G, Lerche H. KV7 channelopathies. Pflugers Arch. 2010;460:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We also assess the therapeutic potential of KV7 channels; in particular, how the activation of KV7 channels by the compounds retigabine and R-L3 may be useful for treatment of epilepsy or cardiac arrhythmia...
  48. Umathe S, Manna S, Jain N. Involvement of endocannabinoids in antidepressant and anti-compulsive effect of fluoxetine in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2011;223:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the treatments had any influence on locomotor activity. Thus, the study indicates an interaction between endocannabinoid and serotonergic system in regulation of depressive and compulsive-like behavior...
  49. Shimbo K, Yahashi A, Hirayama K, Nakazawa M, Miyano H. Multifunctional and highly sensitive precolumn reagents for amino acids in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2009;81:5172-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Belyea B, Naini S, Bentley R, Linardic C. Inhibition of the Notch-Hey1 axis blocks embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:7324-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its physiologic role in myogenesis and oncogenic role in other human cancers, we hypothesized that aberrant Notch signaling may contribute to RMS tumorigenesis and present novel therapeutic opportunities...
  51. Novais S, Howcroft C, Carreto L, Pereira P, Santos M, De Coen W, et al. Differential gene expression analysis in Enchytraeus albidus exposed to natural and chemical stressors at different exposure periods. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:213-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Some genes were differentially expressed in a stress specific manner and, in general, the responses were related with effects in the energy metabolism and cell growth...
  52. Upadhyay S, Rao G, Sharma M, Bhattacharya B, Rao V, Vijayaraghavan R. Immobilization of acetylcholineesterase-choline oxidase on a gold-platinum bimetallic nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode for the sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides, carbamates and nerve agents. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;25:832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraoxon ethyl, sarin, and aldicarb could be detected up to 150-200nM, 40-50nM, and 40-60 microM respectively at 30-40% inhibition level of AChE enzyme and followed linearity in wide range concentration...
  53. Eisenstein S, Holmes P, Hohmann A. Endocannabinoid modulation of amphetamine sensitization is disrupted in a rodent model of lesion-induced dopamine dysregulation. Synapse. 2009;63:941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data collectively suggest that the endocannabinoid system is compromised in olfactory bulbectomized rats...