caprylates

Summary

Summary: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.

Top Publications

  1. Simpson C, Winquist A, Lally C, Steenland K. Relation between perfluorooctanoic acid exposure and strokes in a large cohort living near a chemical plant. Environ Res. 2013;127:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Other, cross-sectional, studies have found positive associations between serum PFOA and risk factors for stroke, including cholesterol, uric acid, and hypertension...
  2. Singh T, Lee S, Kim H, Choi J, Kim S. Perfluorooctanoic acid induces mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation by the release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Toxicol Lett. 2012;210:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence that PFOA, the known immunotoxic agent, induces mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by histamine release and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
  3. Librán Pérez M, Polakof S, López Patiño M, Míguez J, Soengas J. Evidence of a metabolic fatty acid-sensing system in the hypothalamus and Brockmann bodies of rainbow trout: implications in food intake regulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;302:R1340-50 pubmed publisher
  4. Olsen G, Lange C, Ellefson M, Mair D, Church T, Goldberg C, et al. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl concentrations in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2010. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:6330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8 years reported in individuals. This similarity supports the conclusion that the dominant PFOS-related exposures to humans in the United States were greatly mitigated during the phase-out period...
  5. DeWitt J, Peden Adams M, Keller J, Germolec D. Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds: recent developments. Toxicol Pathol. 2012;40:300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA, PFOS, and other PFCs in rodent models, alternative laboratory models, and wildlife...
  6. Gutzkow K, Haug L, Thomsen C, Sabaredzovic A, Becher G, Brunborg G. Placental transfer of perfluorinated compounds is selective--a Norwegian Mother and Child sub-cohort study. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012;215:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the sulfonate group seems to impede transfer efficiency. This indicates a selective placental passage of the different PFCs and hence a specific foetal exposure...
  7. Shankar A, Xiao J, Ducatman A. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and chronic kidney disease in US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:893-900 pubmed publisher
    ..04, 2.88; P for trend = 0.015) for perfluorooctanoic acid and 1.82 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.27; P for trend = 0.019) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. The present results suggest that elevated PFC levels are associated with CKD...
  8. Mondal D, Lopez Espinosa M, Armstrong B, Stein C, Fletcher T. Relationships of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate serum concentrations between mother-child pairs in a population with perfluorooctanoate exposure from drinking water. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides an opportunity to assess the association between PFAA concentrations in mother-child pairs in a population exposed to PFOA via drinking water...
  9. Sleeuwenhoek A, Cherrie J. Exposure assessment of tetrafluoroethylene and ammonium perfluorooctanoate 1951-2002. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These data were used to inform an epidemiological study being carried out to investigate possible risks in workers employed in the manufacture of PTFE and to study trends in exposure over time...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Savitz D, Stein C, Bartell S, Elston B, Gong J, Shin H, et al. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure and pregnancy outcome in a highly exposed community. Epidemiology. 2012;23:386-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and pregnancy outcome in an area with elevated exposure to PFOA from drinking water contaminated by chemical plant releases...
  2. Lindh C, Rylander L, Toft G, Axmon A, Rignell Hydbom A, Giwercman A, et al. Blood serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in men from Greenlandic Inuit and European populations. Chemosphere. 2012;88:1269-75 pubmed publisher
    ..For the other populations no strong determinants were found...
  3. Butenhoff J, Kennedy G, Chang S, Olsen G. Chronic dietary toxicity and carcinogenicity study with ammonium perfluorooctanoate in Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology. 2012;298:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..All other tumor types were those seen spontaneously in rats of this stock and age and were not associated with feeding of APFO...
  4. Winquist A, Lally C, Shin H, Steenland K. Design, methods, and population for a study of PFOA health effects among highly exposed mid-Ohio valley community residents and workers. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A cohort of community residents and workers is the basis for a series of epidemiologic studies of a Mid-Ohio Valley population with substantial perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure due to releases from a chemical plant...
  5. Toft G, Jönsson B, Lindh C, Giwercman A, Spano M, Heederik D, et al. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in Arctic and European populations. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2532-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality...
  6. Maisonet M, Terrell M, McGeehin M, Christensen K, Holmes A, Calafat A, et al. Maternal concentrations of polyfluoroalkyl compounds during pregnancy and fetal and postnatal growth in British girls. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Prenatal exposures to polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) may be associated with adverse changes in fetal and postnatal growth...
  7. Woskie S, Gore R, Steenland K. Retrospective exposure assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid serum concentrations at a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Ann Occup Hyg. 2012;56:1025-37 pubmed publisher
    ..8 for internal data comparisons and 0.6 for external data comparisons). These annualized PFOA serum estimates will be used in a series of morbidity and mortality studies of this worker cohort...
  8. Han X, Nabb D, Russell M, Kennedy G, Rickard R. Renal elimination of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:35-46 pubmed publisher
  9. Barry V, Winquist A, Steenland K. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposures and incident cancers among adults living near a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic chemical ubiquitous in the serum of U.S. residents. It causes liver, testicular, and pancreatic tumors in rats. Human studies are sparse...
  10. Gallo V, Leonardi G, Genser B, Lopez Espinosa M, Frisbee S, Karlsson L, et al. Serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations and liver function biomarkers in a population with elevated PFOA exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes...
  11. Halldorsson T, Rytter D, Haug L, Bech B, Danielsen I, Becher G, et al. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate and risk of overweight at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study on low-dose developmental exposure to PFOA in mice reported increased weight and elevated biomarkers of adiposity in postpubertal female offspring...
  12. VIEIRA V, Hoffman K, Shin H, Weinberg J, Webster T, Fletcher T. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure and cancer outcomes in a contaminated community: a geographic analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been linked to cancer in occupational mortality studies and animal toxicologic research...
  13. Steenland K, Woskie S. Cohort mortality study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were limited by small numbers and restriction to mortality data, which are of limited relevance for several nonfatal outcomes of a priori interest...
  14. Mhadhbi L, Rial D, Perez S, Beiras R. Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:1375-82 pubmed publisher
  15. Savitz D, Stein C, Elston B, Wellenius G, Bartell S, Shin H, et al. Relationship of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure to pregnancy outcome based on birth records in the mid-Ohio Valley. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a potential cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but previous studies have been limited by low exposures and small study size...
  16. Whitworth K, Haug L, Baird D, Becher G, Hoppin J, Skjaerven R, et al. Perfluorinated compounds in relation to birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether some of the associations suggested by these findings may be due to a noncausal pharmacokinetic mechanism remains unclear...
  17. Whitworth K, Haug L, Baird D, Becher G, Hoppin J, Skjaerven R, et al. Perfluorinated compounds and subfecundity in pregnant women. Epidemiology. 2012;23:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, data from nulliparous women may be more informative regarding toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds. Our results among nulliparous women did not support an association with subfecundity. ..
  18. Louis G, Peterson C, Chen Z, Hediger M, Croughan M, Sundaram R, et al. Perfluorochemicals and endometriosis: the ENDO study. Epidemiology. 2012;23:799-805 pubmed publisher
    ..50 and 1.86, respectively). Select PFCs were associated with an endometriosis diagnosis. These associations await corroboration. ..
  19. Wlaz P, Socała K, Nieoczym D, Łuszczki J, Zarnowska I, Zarnowski T, et al. Anticonvulsant profile of caprylic acid, a main constituent of the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet, in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:1882-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this acute anticonvulsant property of CA may benefit and add to the overall clinical efficacy of the MCT KD...
  20. Eriksen K, Raaschou Nielsen O, Sørensen M, Roursgaard M, Loft S, Møller P. Genotoxic potential of the perfluorinated chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and PFHxA in human HepG2 cells. Mutat Res. 2010;700:39-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This was not related to ROS generation. Collectively, these results indicate that PFCs induce only modest effects in terms of ROS production and DNA damage in a cell line representing the human liver...
  21. Hamm M, Cherry N, Chan E, Martin J, Burstyn I. Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010;20:589-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that maternal PFA exposure has no substantial effect on fetal weight and length of gestation at the concentrations observed in this population...
  22. Kato K, Wong L, Jia L, Kuklenyik Z, Calafat A. Trends in exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. Population: 1999-2008. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:8037-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, these NHANES data suggest that sociodemographic factors may influence exposure and also provide unique information on temporal trends of exposure...
  23. Takahashi K, Komai M, Kinoshita N, Nakamura E, Hou X, Takatani Nakase T, et al. Application of hydrotropy to transdermal formulations: hydrotropic solubilization of polyol fatty acid monoesters in water and enhancement effect on skin permeation of 5-FU. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhancement effect was also compared with the hydrotropic formulation and the other formulations using ethanol, propylene glycol or mixed micelles...
  24. Lopez Espinosa M, Fitz Simon N, Bloom M, Calafat A, Fletcher T. Comparison between free serum thyroxine levels, measured by analog and dialysis methods, in the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:552-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings do not indicate any observable bias from the use of the analog with respect to the dialysis method, across the range of PFOS and PFOA concentrations in this population...
  25. Costa G, Sartori S, Consonni D. Thirty years of medical surveillance in perfluooctanoic acid production workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51:364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To report health outcomes of 30 years (1978-2007) of medical surveillance of workers engaged in a perfluooctanoic acid (PFOA) production plant...
  26. Abbott B, Wolf C, Schmid J, Das K, Zehr R, Helfant L, et al. Perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental toxicity in the mouse is dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2007;98:571-81 pubmed
    ..PPARalpha was required for PFOA-induced postnatal lethality and expression of one copy of the gene was sufficient to mediate this effect...
  27. Ren H, Vallanat B, Nelson D, Yeung L, Guruge K, Lam P, et al. Evidence for the involvement of xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors in transcriptional effects upon perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in diverse species. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:266-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we discuss evidence that human populations with greater CAR expression have lower body burdens of PFAAs...
  28. Olsen G, Mair D, Reagen W, Ellefson M, Ehresman D, Butenhoff J, et al. Preliminary evidence of a decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors. Chemosphere. 2007;68:105-11 pubmed
    ..0001). The decrease was consistent across donors' age and sex. To confirm these preliminary findings, additional sub-sets of year 2000 samples will be analyzed, and a much larger biomonitoring study of other locations is planned...
  29. Fei C, McLaughlin J, Lipworth L, Olsen J. Maternal concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and duration of breastfeeding. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010;36:413-21 pubmed
    ..Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been associated with impaired lactation in mice. We examined whether maternal perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFOA concentrations correlated with duration of breastfeeding among women...
  30. Lopez Espinosa M, Fletcher T, Armstrong B, Genser B, Dhatariya K, Mondal D, et al. Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with age of puberty among children living near a chemical plant. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:8160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study showed a later age of puberty in this population correlated with PFC concentrations...
  31. Chan E, Burstyn I, Cherry N, Bamforth F, Martin J. Perfluorinated acids and hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women. Environ Res. 2011;111:559-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings do not support a causal link between PFA exposure and maternal hypothyroxinemia in the studied population...
  32. DeWitt J, SHNYRA A, Badr M, Loveless S, Hoban D, Frame S, et al. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2009;39:76-94 pubmed
    ..This multiauthored review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA and PFOS, as well as a short overview of other PPARalpha ligands of therapeutic and environmental interest...
  33. Nolan L, Nolan J, Shofer F, Rodway N, Emmett E. The relationship between birth weight, gestational age and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-contaminated public drinking water. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Residents drinking PFOA-contaminated water from the Little Hocking Water Association (LHWA) in Washington County, Ohio have serum PFOA levels approximately 80 times those in the general U.S. population...
  34. Bartell S, Calafat A, Lyu C, Kato K, Ryan P, Steenland K. Rate of decline in serum PFOA concentrations after granular activated carbon filtration at two public water systems in Ohio and West Virginia. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Two highly contaminated water districts began granular activated carbon filtration in 2007...
  35. Frisbee S, Brooks A, Maher A, Flensborg P, Arnold S, Fletcher T, et al. The C8 health project: design, methods, and participants. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1873-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The settlement stemmed from the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8) contamination of drinking water in six water districts in two states near the DuPont Washington Works facility near Parkersburg, West Virginia...
  36. MacNeil J, Steenland N, Shankar A, Ducatman A. A cross-sectional analysis of type II diabetes in a community with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Environ Res. 2009;109:997-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the relationships among serum PFOA, type II diabetes, and fasting glucose in a population with high levels of serum PFOA resulting from drinking contaminated water...
  37. Ren Q, de Roo G, Ruth K, Witholt B, Zinn M, Thöny Meyer L. Simultaneous accumulation and degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates: futile cycle or clever regulation?. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:916-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PHA metabolism is likely to be controlled by the [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA] and [NADH]/[NAD] ratios. The physiological roles of simultaneous PHA accumulation and degradation are also discussed...
  38. Steenland K, Jin C, MacNeil J, Lally C, Ducatman A, Vieira V, et al. Predictors of PFOA levels in a community surrounding a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1083-8 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Environmental Protection Agency. It does not exist in nature but has been used widely since World War II. It is present in the serum of most Americans at about 4-5 ng/mL, although the routes of exposure remain unknown...
  39. Tillett T. Beyond the bench: research helps clean up a water supply. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:A134 pubmed
  40. Rosen M, Thibodeaux J, Wood C, Zehr R, Schmid J, Lau C. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOA-exposed mouse fetuses. Toxicology. 2007;239:15-33 pubmed
    ..Additional studies will be needed to more thoroughly address the role of PPARalpha, and other nuclear receptors, in PFOA mediated developmental toxicity...
  41. Skřivanová E, Molatová Z, Marounek M. Effects of caprylic acid and triacylglycerols of both caprylic and capric acid in rabbits experimentally infected with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103. Vet Microbiol. 2008;126:372-6 pubmed
    ..71 log(10)cfu/g to 5.55-5.83 log(10)cfu/g in treated groups. It can be concluded that both antimicrobial lipids are active against coliform bacteria, and may improve the resistance of weaned rabbits to enterocolitis...
  42. Loveless S, Hoban D, Sykes G, Frame S, Everds N. Evaluation of the immune system in rats and mice administered linear ammonium perfluorooctanoate. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, no immune-related changes occurred in rats, even at doses causing systemic toxicity. In mice, immune-related changes occurred only at doses causing significant and profound systemic toxicity and stress...
  43. Washino N, Saijo Y, Sasaki S, Kato S, Ban S, Konishi K, et al. Correlations between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:660-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recent studies have shown that these chemicals interfere with fetal growth in humans, the results are inconsistent...
  44. Harada K, Hitomi T, Niisoe T, Takanaka K, Kamiyama S, Watanabe T, et al. Odd-numbered perfluorocarboxylates predominate over perfluorooctanoic acid in serum samples from Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Environ Int. 2011;37:1183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The proportion of long-chain PFCAs in serum was relatively high compared to reports in Western countries. Further investigations into the sources and exposure routes are needed to predict the future trajectory of these serum PFCA levels...
  45. Brede E, Wilhelm M, Göen T, Muller J, Rauchfuss K, Kraft M, et al. Two-year follow-up biomonitoring pilot study of residents' and controls' PFC plasma levels after PFOA reduction in public water system in Arnsberg, Germany. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The decline of PFC levels in plasma of participants from the reference areas reflects the general decrease of human PFC exposure during the very recent years...
  46. Frisbee S, Shankar A, Knox S, Steenland K, Savitz D, Fletcher T, et al. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164:860-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS were positively associated with serum lipid levels...
  47. Seals R, Bartell S, Steenland K. Accumulation and clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in current and former residents of an exposed community. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid found in > 99% of Americans. Its health effects are unknown. Prior estimates of serum half-life range from 2.3 to 3.8 years...
  48. Wu L, Gao H, Gao N, Chen F, Chen L. Interaction of perfluorooctanoic acid with human serum albumin. BMC Struct Biol. 2009;9:31 pubmed publisher
    ..Human serum albumin (HSA) is the major protein component of blood plasma and is called a multifunctional plasma carrier protein because of its ability to bind an unusually broad spectrum of ligands...
  49. VIEIRA V, Howard G, Gallagher L, Fletcher T. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods. Environ Health. 2010;9:18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification...
  50. Steenland K, Fletcher T, Savitz D. Epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:1100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..OBJECTIVE AND SOURCES: We reviewed the epidemiologic literature for PFOA...
  51. Olsen G, Mair D, Church T, Ellefson M, Reagen W, Boyd T, et al. Decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2006. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:4989-95 pubmed
    ..Direct and indirect exposure sources of PFOA could include historic and ongoing electrochemical cell fluorination (ECF) of PFOA, telomer production of PFOA, fluorotelomer-based precursors, and other fluoropoly-mer production...
  52. Cui L, Zhou Q, Liao C, Fu J, Jiang G. Studies on the toxicological effects of PFOA and PFOS on rats using histological observation and chemical analysis. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009;56:338-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The definite toxicity and high accumulation of the tested PFCs might pose a great threat to biota and human beings due to their widespread application in various fields...
  53. Macon M, Villanueva L, Tatum Gibbs K, Zehr R, Strynar M, Stanko J, et al. Prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid exposure in CD-1 mice: low-dose developmental effects and internal dosimetry. Toxicol Sci. 2011;122:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the low-dose sensitivity of mammary glands to PFOA in CD-1 mice, a no observable adverse effect level for mammary developmental delays was not identified in these studies...