Summary: Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.

Top Publications

  1. Johno H, Takahashi S, Kitamura M. Influences of acidic conditions on formazan assay: a cautionary note. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162:1529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of acidic culture conditions should be carefully considered when formazan assays are used for the assessment of viable cells under various experimental situations...
  2. Tezcan H. Synthesis and spectral properties of some bis-substituted formazans. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2008;69:971-9 pubmed
    ..The structures of the formazans were confirmed by elemental analyses, GC-mass, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-vis spectra...
  3. Potter T, Stern S. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of nanoparticulate materials in porcine kidney cells and human hepatocarcinoma cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;697:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this standard, two separate metrics (MTT and LDH) provide complementary data, that can be used to identify interference. ..
  4. Sandeep Varma R, Ashok G, Vidyashankar S, Nandakumar K, Patki P. Bresol inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 gene expression and modulates the levels of select mediators of inflammation in human monocytic cells. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-inflammatory effects of bresol might also be a result of the capacity of bresol to modulate the formation of TNF?, NO, and COX-2 in monocytes. ..
  5. Yang Z, Lu W, Ma X, Song D. Bioassay-guided isolation of an alkaloid with antiangiogenic and antitumor activities from the extract of Fissistigma cavaleriei root. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, compound (1) is a multi-target molecule and further experimental investigations are needed to determine whether it can be used as a lead molecule for tumor treatment. ..
  6. Kaur P, Aschner M, Syversen T. Role of glutathione in determining the differential sensitivity between the cortical and cerebellar regions towards mercury-induced oxidative stress. Toxicology. 2007;230:164-77 pubmed
    ..Hence, different approaches for the future studies regarding the mechanisms behind selectivity of MeHg have been discussed. ..
  7. Ghavami S, Asoodeh A, Klonisch T, Halayko A, Kadkhoda K, Kroczak T, et al. Brevinin-2R(1) semi-selectively kills cancer cells by a distinct mechanism, which involves the lysosomal-mitochondrial death pathway. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:1005-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagosomes have been detected upon Brevinin-2R treatment. Our results show that Brevinin-2R activates the lysosomalmitochondrial death pathway, and involves autophagy-like cell death. ..
  8. Huang W, Li Y, Wang H, Su M, Jiang Z, Ooi V, et al. Toxicological study of a Chinese herbal medicine, Wikstroemia indica. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:1227-30 pubmed
    ..indica decoctions did not exhibit significant differences. The results obtained suggest that W. indica is a relatively nontoxic herb and longer decoction times for reducing the toxicity of the herb seems unnecessary...
  9. Iwasaka K, Tomita K, Ozawa Y, Katayama T, Sakagami H. Effect of CO2 laser irradiation on hormesis induction in cultured oral cells. In Vivo. 2011;25:93-8 pubmed
    ..Since both the range and magnitude of hormetic response in HGF cells were very narrow and small, it is crucial to establish the optimal conditions for hormesis induction for clinical application in dentistry. ..

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Roy S, Hardej D. Tellurium tetrachloride and diphenyl ditelluride cause cytotoxicity in rat hippocampal astrocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2564-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DPDT and TeCl(4) are cytotoxic to astrocytes. TeCl(4) treated cells die via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Accumulation of tellurium occurs with both compounds, but results in different mechanisms of cell death. ..
  2. Al Bakri A, Afifi F. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;68:19-25 pubmed
    ..This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods. ..
  3. Tammer B, Lehmann I, Nieber K, Altenburger R. Combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures on human T cell function. Toxicol Lett. 2007;170:124-33 pubmed
    ..The experimental design using the concepts of concentration addition and response addition was suitable for predicting the combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures in functional in vitro assays. ..
  4. Fang X, Yu M, Yuen W, Zee S, Chang R. Immune modulatory effects of Prunella vulgaris L. on monocytes/macrophages. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:1109-16 pubmed
    ..These results may help our understanding of the molecular mechanism of P. vulgaris, which exhibited both immune stimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects against microbial invasion...
  5. Kim E, Jeon I, Kim J, Kim J, Jung H, Lee S. An MTT-based method for quantification of periodontal ligament cell viability. Oral Dis. 2007;13:495-9 pubmed
    ..The advantages are shorter analysis time compared with animal or cell culture experiments, easy manipulation, clear quantification and immediate identification of the vital cells. ..
  6. Cho H, Lee H, Ahn D, Kim S, Kim S, Lee K, et al. Baicalein induces functional hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and angiogenesis. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results indicate that baicalein possesses a proangiogenic potential and thus might have the therapeutic utility in the treatment of ischemic diseases. ..
  7. Gerrard G, Butters T, Ganeshaguru K, Mehta A. Glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors sensitise CLL cells to cytotoxic agents without reversing P-gp functional activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;609:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that although GCS inhibitors sensitize CLL cells to cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs, they do not appear to have any effect on P-gp functional activity. ..
  8. Hong S, Hill L, Gupta A, Naab B, Gilroy J, Hicks R, et al. Effects of electron-deficient beta-diketiminate and formazan supporting ligands on copper(I)-mediated dioxygen activation. Inorg Chem. 2009;48:4514-23 pubmed publisher
  9. Kuo J, Lin Y, Tseng J. Interactions between U-937 human macrophages and tyloxapol. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2008;64:208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular action of tyloxapol in macrophages and how it protects macrophages against endotoxin. ..
  10. Lazic M, Andelkovic K, Sladic D, Tesic Z, Radulovic S. The evaluation of cytotoxic activity of planar pentadentate ligand 2',2"'-(2,6-pyridindiyldiethylidyne) dioxamohydrazide dihydrate (H2l x 2H2O) and its metal coordination complexes; pitfalls in the use of the MTT-assay. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2005;24:63-8 pubmed
  11. Andersson P, Alm S, Edman K, Lindberg A. A novel and rapid method to quantify cytolytic replication of picornaviruses in cell culture. J Virol Methods. 2005;130:117-23 pubmed
    ..The colorimetric method has been evaluated using virus types from different genera of the Picornaviridae family. The MTT method reduces the time spent on determining the viral titers and still maintains a reliable accuracy. ..
  12. Cao Y, Zhang C, Shen W, Cheng Z, Yu L, Ping Q. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-chitosan as thermosensitive in situ gel-forming system for ocular drug delivery. J Control Release. 2007;120:186-94 pubmed
    ..5-400 microg/ml. These results suggest that PNIPAAm-CS is a potential thermosensitive in situ gel-forming material for ocular drug delivery, and it may improve the bio-availability, efficacy, and compliance of some eye drugs. ..
  13. Xiong Y, Yang H, Feng J, Shi Z, Wu L. Effects of alendronate on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 cells. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:407-16 pubmed
    ..Alendronate also stimulated calcium deposition. We conclude that alendronate, apart from inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption, is also a promoter of osteoblast proliferation and maturation. ..
  14. Phillips C, Iline I, Richards N, Novoselov M, McNeill M. Development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical assay for evaluating the viability of small immobile arthropods. J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:2006-19 pubmed
    ..Basic laboratory facilities and skills are required for production of the stain, but no specialist equipment, expertise, or facilities are needed for its use. ..
  15. Wang Y, Deng Z, Lai X, Tu W. Differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells into neural-like cells induced by sodium ferulate in vitro. Cell Mol Immunol. 2005;2:225-9 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that SF can induce hMSCs to differentiate into neural-like cells in vitro. ..
  16. Wu M, Huang C, Li X, Li X, Gan K, Chen Q, et al. LRRC4 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis by downregulating pleiotropic cytokine expression and responses. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:65-74 pubmed
    ..Conceivably, induction of LRRC4 expression may provide new intervention for human glioma in the clinic. ..
  17. Ferreira P, Oliveira M, Beraldi E, Mateus A, Nakajima T, Gleave M, et al. Loss of functional E-cadherin renders cells more resistant to the apoptotic agent taxol in vitro. Exp Cell Res. 2005;310:99-104 pubmed
    ..We found that in vitro functional E-cadherin renders cells more sensitive to the effect of taxol. Our results also indicate that this effect is associated to decreased level of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein. ..
  18. Wong R, Rabie A. Effect of naringin on bone cells. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:2045-50 pubmed
    ..Besides statin, this provided another example of mevalonate pathway blockage in the cholesterol production pathway by HMG-CoA reductase inhibition will increase the bone cell activities. ..
  19. Haldsrud R, Krøkje A. Induction of DNA double-strand breaks in the H4IIE cell line exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of copper, cadmium, and zinc, singly and in combinations. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of low Zn to the Cd/Cu mixture restored DNA damage level back to that of the control. Environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn did not appear to induce DNA strand breaks in the H4IIE cell line. ..
  20. Krogman N, Weikel A, Kristhart K, Nukavarapu S, Deng M, Nair L, et al. The influence of side group modification in polyphosphazenes on hydrolysis and cell adhesion of blends with PLGA. Biomaterials. 2009;30:3035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary osteoblast cell studies showed good cell adhesion to the polymer blends during 14 days, but subsequent limited cell spreading due to increased surface roughness as the two polymers eroded at different rates. ..
  21. Kim D, Yahav J, Sperandeo M, Maloney L, McTigue M, Lin F, et al. High cell density attenuates reactive oxygen species: implications for in vitro assays. Wound Repair Regen. 2012;20:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..It is theorized that the protective effect due to cell density predominantly relates to intracellular factors such as reduced glutathione and extracellular factors such as catalase. ..
  22. Yu D, Duan Y, Bao Y, Wei C, An L. Isoflavonoids from Astragalus mongholicus protect PC12 cells from toxicity induced by L-glutamate. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;98:89-94 pubmed
  23. Zhang W, Zhang W, Liu R, Shen Y, Zhang C, Cheng H, et al. Two new chemical constituents from Daphne odora Thunb. var. marginata. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:1290-4 pubmed
    ..Compounds 1 and 2 were tested for cytotoxic activity by MTT assays on five human tumour cell lines, K562, A549, MCF-7, LOVO and HepG2. Compound 1 showed obvious cytotoxic activity against all the five cell lines...
  24. Pan Y, Bartneck M, Jahnen Dechent W. Cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles. Methods Enzymol. 2012;509:225-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we summarize some basic concept to assess nanoparticle toxicity, death pathways, cell cycle, and oxidative stress in response to nanoparticle exposure of cells. ..
  25. Zou K, Cui J, Wang B, Zhao Y, Zhang R. A pair of isomeric saponins with cytotoxicity from Albizzia julibrissin. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005;7:783-9 pubmed
    ..Both compounds show significant inhibition action against HeLa, Bel-7402 and MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines in vitro. ..
  26. Fang L, He Q, Hu Y, Yang B. MZ3 induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007;59:397-405 pubmed
    ..MZ3 is a potent compound against leukemia cell lines both in vitro and in vivo, and the mitochondrial pathway mediated by Bcl-2 protein family and MAPKs might be involved in signaling MZ3-induced apoptosis. ..
  27. Zilz T, Griffiths H, Coleman M. Apoptotic and necrotic effects of hexanedione derivatives on the human neuroblastoma line SK-N-SH. Toxicology. 2007;231:210-4 pubmed
  28. Mehta S, Zhang X, Badaro R, Spina C, Day J, Chang K, et al. Flow cytometric screening for anti-leishmanials in a human macrophage cell line. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:617-20 pubmed publisher
  29. Königs M, Schwerdt G, Gekle M, Humpf H. Effects of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on human primary hepatocytes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52:830-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we studied the metabolism of DON using LC-MS/MS. DON was neither metabolized by primary hepatocytes cells nor by the HepG2 cell line. ..
  30. Masarik M, Gumulec J, Hlavna M, Sztalmachova M, Babula P, Raudenska M, et al. Monitoring of the prostate tumour cells redox state and real-time proliferation by novel biophysical techniques and fluorescent staining. Integr Biol (Camb). 2012;4:672-84 pubmed publisher
  31. Pastor M, Kümmerer N, Schubert V, Esteras Chopo A, Dotti C, Lopez de la Paz M, et al. Amyloid toxicity is independent of polypeptide sequence, length and chirality. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:695-707 pubmed
    ..The degree of toxicity of these species seems to depend, however, on cell membrane composition. ..
  32. Grossi M, Berni A, Pepe G, Filippi S, Mosesso P, Shivnani A, et al. A comparative study of the anticlastogenic effects of chlorophyllin on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or 7,12-dimethylbenz (?) anthracene (DMBA) induced micronuclei in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol Lett. 2012;214:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is dependent upon the protocol employed in in vitro experiments. In vivo, CHL did not have a protective effect against MNNG and DMBA. A protective effect of CHL against DMBA was evident only at high toxic levels. ..
  33. Lee H, Lyu D, Koo U, Lee S, Hong S, Kim K, et al. Inhibitory effect of 2-arylbenzofurans from the Mori Cortex Radicis (Moraceae) on oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death of SH-SY5Y cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, compounds 1-3 might protect neuronal cell death against the oxidative stress induced by OGD, though further studies in vitro and in vivo models are necessary...
  34. Muhammad Z, Masaret G, Amin M, Abdallah M, Farghaly T. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Anti-ulcerogenic Activities of Novel bis-thiadiazoles, bis-thiazoles and bis-formazanes. Med Chem. 2017;13:226-238 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a series of novel bis-formazans 12 and 13 have been synthesized by reaction of 1,3-dihydrazono-2,3- dihydro-1H-indene (11) with both hydrazonoyl ..
  35. Zhao J, Yu S. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Symplocos chinensis. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005;7:791-7 pubmed
    ..Their antitumor activities have also been tested. ..
  36. Heldt C, Hernandez R, Mudiganti U, Gurgel P, Brown D, Carbonell R. A colorimetric assay for viral agents that produce cytopathic effects. J Virol Methods. 2006;135:56-65 pubmed
    ..MTT titration of Sindbis virus mutants was found to be valuable for preliminary screening. This assay can be adapted, by correlation to an accepted titration method, to any viral system which produces measurable cytopathic effect...
  37. Nguyen J, Reul R, Betz T, Dayyoub E, Schmehl T, Gessler T, et al. Nanocomposites of lung surfactant and biodegradable cationic nanoparticles improve transfection efficiency to lung cells. J Control Release. 2009;140:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Ternary nanocomposites prepared with lung surfactant proved to be a potent pulmonary gene delivery vector due to its high stability during aerosolization with a vibrating mesh nebulizer and favourable biological activity. ..
  38. Wang L, Liu Z, Liu D, Liu C, Juan Z, Zhang N. Docetaxel-loaded-lipid-based-nanosuspensions (DTX-LNS): preparation, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and antitumor activity. Int J Pharm. 2011;413:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results suggested that DTX-LNS could effectively inhibit tumor growth, reduce toxicity during the therapeutic procedure and hold the potential to be an appropriate choice for the clinical administration of DTX. ..
  39. Bracken C, Hendricks C, Harding A. Apparent bias in river water inoculum following centrifugation. J Microbiol Methods. 2006;67:304-9 pubmed
    ..Future research that focuses on characterizing and accounting for the bias associated with centrifugation of water samples held for less than 24h is recommended. ..
  40. Golomb E, Schneider A, Houminer E, Dunnick J, Kissling G, Borman J, et al. Occult cardiotoxicity: subtoxic dosage of Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane impairs cardiac response to simulated ischemic injury. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:383-7 pubmed
    ..01) than that of untreated rat hearts. These results demonstrate that subtoxic dosage of a cardiotoxic agent may cause occult cardiotoxicity, reflected by impaired response to ischemia. ..
  41. Bouabdallah I, M Barek L, Zyad A, Ramdani A, Zidane I, Melhaoui A. New pyrazolic compounds as cytotoxic agents. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:298-302 pubmed
    ..25 microg mL(-1) for the compound 1; IC(50): 10.20 microg mL(-1) for the compound 2 while the IC(50) for adriamycine used as positive control was 3.62 microg mL(-1). ..
  42. Gao H, Zhang S, Wang H, Xia S, Zhang Y. Application of light-absorption ratio variation approach as an optimum spectrophotometry to determination of Mn(II) in ng ml(-1) level using a competitive replacement complexation. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2005;61:447-54 pubmed
    ..Results have shown that the limit of detection (3delta) of Mn(II) is only 0.7 ng ml(-1). This method has been applied to analysis of water quality with satisfactory results. ..
  43. Mermillod Blondin F, Mauclaire L, Montuelle B. Use of slow filtration columns to assess oxygen respiration, consumption of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen transformations, and microbial parameters in hyporheic sediments. Water Res. 2005;39:1687-98 pubmed
  44. Kreutzmann P, Wolf G, Kupsch K. Minocycline recovers MTT-formazan exocytosis impaired by amyloid beta peptide. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In vehicle-treated cells minocycline had no effect on formazan exocytosis. This hitherto unrecognized property of minocycline has to be noticed in the elucidation of the underlying mechanism of this promising neuroprotectant. ..
  45. O Neill M, Guo J, Byrne C, Darcy R, O Driscoll C. Mechanistic studies on the uptake and intracellular trafficking of novel cyclodextrin transfection complexes by intestinal epithelial cells. Int J Pharm. 2011;413:174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of this novel CD to transfect differentiated intestinal cells indicates the potential of this vector for oral gene delivery. ..
  46. Bernas T, Dobrucki J. Backscattered light confocal imaging of intracellular MTT-formazan crystals. Microsc Res Tech. 2004;64:126-34 pubmed
    ..High contrast and resolution of images can be achieved by filtering out interference effects in the frequency domain...
  47. Subhashini J, Mahipal S, Reddanna P. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of celecoxib on human chronic myeloid leukemia in vitro. Cancer Lett. 2005;224:31-43 pubmed
    ..Celecoxib also inhibited NF-kB activation. Celecoxib thus potentiates apoptosis as shown by MTT assay, cytochrome c leakage, PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, Bcl-2 downregulation and possibly by inhibiting NF-kB activation...
  48. James J, Stone P, Chamley L. Cytotrophoblast differentiation in the first trimester of pregnancy: evidence for separate progenitors of extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblast. Reproduction. 2005;130:95-103 pubmed
    ..We speculate that as early as 8 weeks of gestation there are two separate villous cytotrophoblast populations, one committed to differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast and the second committed to the extravillous differentiation pathway...
  49. Royals S, Farese J, Milner R, Lee Ambrose L, van Gilder J. Investigation of the effects of deracoxib and piroxicam on the in vitro viability of osteosarcoma cells from dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1961-7 pubmed
  50. Li Z, Qu Y, Li H, Yuan J. Truncations of gelonin lead to a reduction in its cytotoxicity. Toxicology. 2007;231:129-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that truncations of the terminal region of gelonin negatively regulate its function dominantly and that, due to its toxicity, intact gelonin is an important potential immunoconjugate...
  51. Kovalenko E, Abakushina E, Telford W, Kapoor V, Korchagina E, Khaidukov S, et al. Clustered carbohydrates as a target for natural killer cells: a model system. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;127:313-26 pubmed
    ..Only polymeric, or clustered, but not monomeric glycoconjugates resulted in alteration of cytotoxicity in our system, suggesting that appropriate presentation is critical for carbohydrate recognition and subsequent biological effects...
  52. Kuang Y, Chen X, Su J, Wu L, Li J, Chang J, et al. Proteome analysis of multidrug resistance of human oral squamous carcinoma cells using CD147 silencing. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:4784-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We document an abundance of molecules that interact with CD147 in the MDR of human oral squamous carcinoma cells. Additional studies are needed to investigate these novel target proteins of CD147...
  53. Rodrigues S, Vale P, Chaveca T, Laires A, Rueff J, Oliveira N. Naturally contaminated shellfish samples: quantification of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts and cytotoxicity assessment. J Appl Toxicol. 2010;30:699-707 pubmed publisher
    ..For the hydrolysed extracts of cockles and mussels, the cytotoxicity presented was mainly related to the concentration of OA and DTX2...
  54. Abib R, Peres K, Barbosa A, Peres T, Bernardes A, Zimmermann L, et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects rat brain mitochondria against cadmium-induced damage. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we demonstrate EGCG effectiveness in protecting against Cd(2+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation probably due to its antioxidant and chelating effects...
  55. Cong W, Wang X, Hwang S, Jin L, Choi J. Counterion dye staining of proteins in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tryptic gel digestion of stained protein for mass spectrometry. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;869:497-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the speed, sensitivity, and compatibility with mass spectrometry, the counterion dye stain may be more practical than any other dye-based protein stains for routine proteomic researches...
  56. Orozco Ibarra M, Muñoz Sánchez J, Zavala Medina M, Pineda B, Magaña Maldonado R, Vázquez Contreras E, et al. Aged garlic extract and S-allylcysteine prevent apoptotic cell death in a chemical hypoxia model. Biol Res. 2016;49:7 pubmed publisher
    ..This protection occurs by affecting the activity of HIF-1α and supports the use of these natural compounds as a therapeutic alternative for hypoxic conditions. ..
  57. Banerjee G, Gupta N, Kapoor A, Raman G. UV induced bystander signaling leading to apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2005;223:275-84 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, at high dilution apototic conditioned medium did not induce apoptosis but actually protected cells from UV insult. The role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in UV induced bystander effects are also discussed...
  58. Martinez L, Casadevall A. Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans biofilms to antifungal agents in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1021-33 pubmed
    ..neoformans biofilm formation involved capsular polysaccharide release and adherence. Our results suggest that biofilm formation may diminish the efficacies of some antifungal drugs during cryptococcal infection...
  59. Heffeter P, Jakupec M, Korner W, Chiba P, Pirker C, Dornetshuber R, et al. Multidrug-resistant cancer cells are preferential targets of the new antineoplastic lanthanum compound KP772 (FFC24). Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73:1873-86 pubmed
  60. Pierce C, Uppuluri P, Tristan A, Wormley F, Mowat E, Ramage G, et al. A simple and reproducible 96-well plate-based method for the formation of fungal biofilms and its application to antifungal susceptibility testing. Nat Protoc. 2008;3:1494-500 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique simplifies biofilm formation and quantification, making it more reliable and comparable among different laboratories, a necessary step toward the standardization of antifungal susceptibility testing of biofilms...
  61. Chen Z, Liu G, Chen M, Xu B, Peng Y, Chen M, et al. Screen anticancer drug in vitro using resonance light scattering technique. Talanta. 2009;77:1365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the traditional MTT method, this method has high sensitivity, low detection limit and quite intuitive screening results which were identical to those obtained from the MTT colorimetric assay...
  62. Lu C, Song E, Hu D, Chen M, Xue C, Rosen R, et al. Curcumin induces cell death in human uveal melanoma cells through mitochondrial pathway. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the cytotoxic effects and related signaling pathways of curcumin on human uveal melanoma cells in vitro...
  63. Olivares Corichi I, Viquez M, Gutiérrez López L, Ceballos Reyes G, Garcia Sanchez J. Oxidative stress present in the blood from obese patients modifies the structure and function of insulin. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations show that oxidative stress present in the WB of O1 patients can result in abolition of the biological activity of insulin and contribute to the development of an immune response to the hormone...
  64. Kumar S, Tay S, Ling E. Partial urethral obstruction enhances NADPH-diaphorase activity in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) bladder: light and electron microscopic studies. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it warrants further investigation to understand the mechanism of neuronal cell death after partial urethral obstruction...
  65. Fernandes A, Gaspar J, Cabral M, Caneiras C, Guedes R, Rueff J, et al. Macrocyclic copper(II) complexes: superoxide scavenging activity, structural studies and cytotoxicity evaluation. J Inorg Biochem. 2007;101:849-58 pubmed
  66. Lin H, Lee J, Hou H, Chung C, Hsu S, Juan S. Molecular mechanisms of the antiproliferative effect of beraprost, a prostacyclin agonist, in murine vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:434-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that the causal relationship between PPARdelta and iNOS contributes to the vasoprotective action of beraprost in RASMCs...
  67. Kanno S, Hiura T, Shouji A, Osanai Y, Ujibe M, Ishikawa M. Resistance to Ara-C up-regulates the activation of NF-kappaB, telomerase activity and Fas expression in NALM-6 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:2069-74 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this report has shown that resistance to Ara-C up-regulates the activation of NF-kappaB, telomerase activity and Fas expression...
  68. Li Z, Chang X, Hu Z, Huang X, Zou X, Wu Q, et al. Zincon-modified activated carbon for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace lead and chromium from environmental samples. J Hazard Mater. 2009;166:133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative standard deviation under optimum condition is less than 3.5% (n=8). The method has been applied for the determination of Cr(III) and Pb(II) in biological materials and water samples with satisfactory results...
  69. Li Y, Wu G, Zeng L, Dawe G, Sun L, Loers G, et al. Cell surface sialylation and fucosylation are regulated by the cell recognition molecule L1 via PLCgamma and cooperate to modulate embryonic stem cell survival and proliferation. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:703-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, embryonic stem cell surface sialylation and fucosylation are regulated via PLCgamma by L1, with which they cooperate to modulate cell survival and proliferation...
  70. Minocha M, Mandava N, Kwatra D, Pal D, Folk W, Earla R, et al. Effect of short term and chronic administration of Sutherlandia frutescens on pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in rats. Int J Pharm. 2011;413:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that a potential drug-herb interaction is possible when NVP is co-administered with S. frutescens, although this hypothesis still remains to be investigated in a clinical setting...
  71. Ninsontia C, Pongjit K, Chaotham C, Chanvorachote P. Silymarin selectively protects human renal cells from cisplatin-induced cell death. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:1082-90 pubmed publisher
  72. Tritten L, Braissant O, Keiser J. Comparison of novel and existing tools for studying drug sensitivity against the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum in vitro. Parasitology. 2012;139:348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Among all assays tested the xCELLigence System performed best on adult worms as the test was accurate, simple, required a minimal number of worms and offered the possibility for conducting a medium-throughput screening...
  73. Hong H, Maezawa I, Yao N, Xu B, Diaz Avalos R, Rana S, et al. Combining the rapid MTT formazan exocytosis assay and the MC65 protection assay led to the discovery of carbazole analogs as small molecule inhibitors of Abeta oligomer-induced cytotoxicity. Brain Res. 2007;1130:223-34 pubmed
    ..Both assays are simple, suitable for rapid screening of a large number of medicinal libraries, and amenable for automation...
  74. Phuwapraisirisan P, Rangsan J, Siripong P, Tip Pyang S. 9-epi-Viridiol, a novel cytotoxic furanosteroid from soil fungus Trichoderma virens. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:1321-5 pubmed
    ..9-epi-Viridiol exhibited cytotoxicity towards HeLa and KB cells with IC50 values of 19 and 50 microg mL(-1), respectively...
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