tetraethylammonium

Summary

Summary: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)

Top Publications

  1. Lam F, Yeung J, Kwan Y, Chan K, Or P. Salvianolic acid B, an aqueous component of danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), relaxes rat coronary artery by inhibition of calcium channels. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;553:240-5 pubmed
    ..1+/-123.8 mictog/ml and 160.3+/-25.9 microg/ml. On the other hand, a potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10 mM) shifted their concentration-response curves by 1.7 and 2.9 folds...
  2. Ahern C, Eastwood A, Lester H, Dougherty D, Horn R. A cation-pi interaction between extracellular TEA and an aromatic residue in potassium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2006;128:649-57 pubmed
    Open-channel blockers such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) have a long history as probes of the permeation pathway of ion channels...
  3. Al Sabi A, Shamotienko O, Dhochartaigh S, Muniyappa N, Le Berre M, Shaban H, et al. Arrangement of Kv1 alpha subunits dictates sensitivity to tetraethylammonium. J Gen Physiol. 2010;136:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Unprecedentedly, external application of the pore-blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) differentially inhibited the adjacent versus diagonal subunit arrangements, with diagonal constructs ..
  4. Ng S, Chin C, Lau Y, Luo J, Wong C, Bian Z, et al. Role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the fate determination of embryonic stem cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:165-77 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), a K(v) blocker, attenuated cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner...
  5. Lin P, Tsai M, Lu G, Lu D, Chuang C, Yang H, et al. Ecstasy and methamphetamine elicit action potential bursts via different mechanisms in a central snail neuron. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:26-41 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the delayed rectifying K(+) current (I(KD)), did not elicit bursts at a ..
  6. Ahern C, Eastwood A, Dougherty D, Horn R. An electrostatic interaction between TEA and an introduced pore aromatic drives spring-in-the-door inactivation in Shaker potassium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2009;134:461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with the native V438 inactivate very slowly, and the canonical foot-in-the-door effect of extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) is not only absent, but the time course of slow inactivation is accelerated by TEA...
  7. Zaika O, Hernandez C, Bal M, Tolstykh G, Shapiro M. Determinants within the turret and pore-loop domains of KCNQ3 K+ channels governing functional activity. Biophys J. 2008;95:5121-37 pubmed publisher
  8. Gu N, Vervaeke K, Storm J. BK potassium channels facilitate high-frequency firing and cause early spike frequency adaptation in rat CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells. J Physiol. 2007;580:859-82 pubmed
  9. Søgaard R, Zeuthen T. Test of blockers of AQP1 water permeability by a high-resolution method: no effects of tetraethylammonium ions or acetazolamide. Pflugers Arch. 2008;456:285-92 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous reports based on slower and less sensitive assays, we found no effects of tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) and acetazolamide on Lp...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Niu L, Zhang M, Liu Y, Xue W, Liu D, Zhang J, et al. Vasorelaxant effect of taurine is diminished by tetraethylammonium in rat isolated arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;580:169-74 pubmed
    ..BaCl(2), a K(IR) blocker), and 100 nM iberiotoxin (a BK(Ca) blocker), but was nearly abolished by 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA, a non-selective potassium channel blocker)...
  2. Guan D, Tkatch T, Surmeier D, Armstrong W, Foehring R. Kv2 subunits underlie slowly inactivating potassium current in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol. 2007;581:941-60 pubmed
    ..1 subunits. Compared with Kv2.1 currents in expression systems, the Kv2.1 current in neocortical pyramidal cells activated and inactivated at relatively negative potentials and was very sensitive to holding potential...
  3. Huang L, Huang Q, Huang H. The evidence of HeLa cell apoptosis induced with tetraethylammonium using proteomics and various analytical methods. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:2217-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is a potassium channel (KCh) blocker applied in the functional and pharmacological studies of the KChs...
  4. Hammack S, Mania I, Rainnie D. Differential expression of intrinsic membrane currents in defined cell types of the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:638-56 pubmed
    ..The functional relevance of each cell type is discussed in relation to prior anatomical studies, as well as how these currents may interact to modulate neuronal activity within the BNST(ALG)...
  5. Yang X, Miao Y, Ping Y, Wu H, Yang X, Wang Z. Melatonin inhibits tetraethylammonium-sensitive potassium channels of rod ON type bipolar cells via MT2 receptors in rat retina. Neuroscience. 2011;173:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrophysiologically, application of melatonin selectively inhibited the tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ current component, but did not show any effect on the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive ..
  6. Hadley J, Passmore G, Tatulian L, Al Qatari M, Ye F, Wickenden A, et al. Stoichiometry of expressed KCNQ2/KCNQ3 potassium channels and subunit composition of native ganglionic M channels deduced from block by tetraethylammonium. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5012-9 pubmed
    ..rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons, by comparing the block of these currents produced by tetraethylammonium (TEA) with the block of currents generated by a tandem KCNQ3/2 construct...
  7. Vogalis F, Harvey J. Altered excitability of intestinal neurons in primary culture caused by acute oxidative stress. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:3039-50 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that acute oxidative stress has neuron- and conductance-specific actions in intestinal neurons that may underlie pathophysiological conditions...
  8. Thompson J, Begenisich T. Functional identification of ion binding sites at the internal end of the pore in Shaker K+ channels. J Physiol. 2003;549:107-20 pubmed
    ..These results provide information on the fine-structure of ion interactions with the inner end of the pore in K+ channels...
  9. Tirapelli C, Ambrosio S, da Costa F, de Oliveira A. Evidence for the mechanisms underlying the effects of pimaradienoic acid isolated from the roots of Viguiera arenaria on rat aorta. Pharmacology. 2004;70:31-8 pubmed
    ..However, the relaxant responses induced by PA on Phe-pre-contracted rings were unaffected by tetraethylammonium (1 and 5 mmol/l). PA also relaxed KCl-pre-contracted rings with intact (97.44 +/- 3...
  10. Sack J, Aldrich R. Binding of a gating modifier toxin induces intersubunit cooperativity early in the Shaker K channel's activation pathway. J Gen Physiol. 2006;128:119-32 pubmed
    ..A lack of competition with either agitoxin or tetraethylammonium indicates that BrMT binds channel subunits outside of the external pore region in an allosterically ..
  11. Del Camino D, Kanevsky M, Yellen G. Status of the intracellular gate in the activated-not-open state of shaker K+ channels. J Gen Physiol. 2005;126:419-28 pubmed
    ..only after opening, remaining trapped in closed channels, and that in the open state it competes with tetraethylammonium for binding...
  12. Jerng H, Gilly W. Inactivation and pharmacological properties of sqKv1A homotetramers in Xenopus oocytes cannot account for behavior of the squid "delayed rectifier" K(+) conductance. Biophys J. 2002;82:3022-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that important structural differences between sqKv1A homotetramers and native squid channels are likely to exist around the external and internal mouths of the pore...
  13. Detmers F, de Groot B, Müller E, Hinton A, Konings I, Sze M, et al. Quaternary ammonium compounds as water channel blockers. Specificity, potency, and site of action. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14207-14 pubmed
    ..Here, we determined the specificity, potency, and binding site of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block Aquaporin water permeability...
  14. Urakami Y, Kimura N, Okuda M, Masuda S, Katsura T, Inui K. Transcellular transport of creatinine in renal tubular epithelial cell line LLC-PK1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005;20:200-5 pubmed
    ..Creatinine is excreted into urine via tubular secretion in addition to glomerular filtration. In the present study, characteristics of the creatinine transport in renal epithelial cells were investigated...
  15. Thompson J, Begenisich T. Two stable, conducting conformations of the selectivity filter in Shaker K+ channels. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:619-29 pubmed
    ..Our analysis further suggests that the four K(+) sites in the selectivity filter are spaced between 20 and 25% of the membrane electric field...
  16. Yool A, Brokl O, Pannabecker T, Dantzler W, Stamer W. Tetraethylammonium block of water flux in Aquaporin-1 channels expressed in kidney thin limbs of Henle's loop and a kidney-derived cell line. BMC Physiol. 2002;2:4 pubmed
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 0...
  17. Ding S, Horn R. Tail end of the s6 segment: role in permeation in shaker potassium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2002;120:87-97 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that S6(T) residues have an influence on the conformation of the open activation gate, reflected in both the stability of the open state and the energy barriers it presents to ions...
  18. Andalib P, Wood M, Korn S. Control of outer vestibule dynamics and current magnitude in the Kv2.1 potassium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2002;120:739-55 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the insensitivity of Kv2.1 current magnitude to changes in K+ driving force promotes a more uniform modulation of current over a wide range of membrane potentials by the K+-dependent regulation of outer vestibule conformation...
  19. Liu X, Kourennyi D. Effects of tetraethylammonium on Kx channels and simulated light response in rod photoreceptors. Ann Biomed Eng. 2004;32:1428-42 pubmed
    ..For example, the effects of a conventional blocker of potassium channels, tetraethylammonium (TEA), on Kx channels have not been extensively studied...
  20. Zhang H, Craciun L, Mirshahi T, Rohacs T, Lopes C, Jin T, et al. PIP(2) activates KCNQ channels, and its hydrolysis underlies receptor-mediated inhibition of M currents. Neuron. 2003;37:963-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, native or recombinant channels inhibited by muscarinic agonists can be activated by PIP(2). Our data strongly suggest that PIP(2) acts as a membrane-diffusible second messenger to regulate directly the activity of KCNQ currents...
  21. Thompson J, Begenisich T. External TEA block of shaker K+ channels is coupled to the movement of K+ ions within the selectivity filter. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:239-46 pubmed
  22. Zhu Y, Golden C, Ye J, Wang X, Akbarali H, Huizinga J. ERG K+ currents regulate pacemaker activity in ICC. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G1249-58 pubmed
    ..E-4031 also inhibited tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive outward current indicating that the ERG K+ current is operating at depolarizing potentials...
  23. Mobasheri A, Gent T, Womack M, Carter S, Clegg P, Barrett Jolley R. Quantitative analysis of voltage-gated potassium currents from primary equine (Equus caballus) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) articular chondrocytes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R172-80 pubmed
    ..of equine chondrocyte Kv currents showed them to be powerfully inhibited by the potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine but not by dendrotoxin-I. Immunohistochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies to Kv1...
  24. Niu X, Magleby K. Stepwise contribution of each subunit to the cooperative activation of BK channels by Ca2+. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11441-6 pubmed
    ..Although this model described well the major features of the experimental data, some differences between the observed and predicted results indicated that additional factors not included in the model also contribute to the cooperativity...
  25. Guidoni L, Carloni P. Tetraethylammonium binding to the outer mouth of the KcsA potassium channel: implications for ion permeation. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2002;22:315-31 pubmed
    Extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA+) inhibits the current carried out by K+ ions in potassium channels...
  26. Akk G, Steinbach J. Activation and block of mouse muscle-type nicotinic receptors by tetraethylammonium. J Physiol. 2003;551:155-68 pubmed
    ..studied the activation and inhibition of the mouse muscle adult-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and related quaternary ammonium derivatives...
  27. Lenaeus M, Vamvouka M, Focia P, Gross A. Structural basis of TEA blockade in a model potassium channel. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:454-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) blocks ion conduction through potassium channels in a voltage-dependent manner from both sides of the ..
  28. Kutluay E, Roux B, Heginbotham L. Rapid intracellular TEA block of the KcsA potassium channel. Biophys J. 2005;88:1018-29 pubmed
    Intracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) inhibition was studied at the single-channel level in the KcsA potassium channel reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers...
  29. Kurata H, Doerksen K, Eldstrom J, Rezazadeh S, Fedida D. Separation of P/C- and U-type inactivation pathways in Kv1.5 potassium channels. J Physiol. 2005;568:31-46 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data distinguish between open-state and closed-state inactivation, and suggest the presence of multiple possible mechanisms of inactivation coexisting in Kv1 channels...
  30. Shin H, Xu Y, Lu Z. Evidence for sequential ion-binding loci along the inner pore of the IRK1 inward-rectifier K+ channel. J Gen Physiol. 2005;126:123-35 pubmed
    ..For technical simplicity, we used tetraethylammonium (TEA) as an initial probe to test whether the corresponding residue in IRK1, F254, forms the shallower site...
  31. Pelis R, Suhre W, Wright S. Functional influence of N-glycosylation in OCT2-mediated tetraethylammonium transport. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F1118-26 pubmed
    ..The N71Q, N96Q, and N112Q mutants had a higher affinity ( approximately 2-fold) for tetraethylammonium (TEA)...
  32. Gu Y, Kirkman Brown J, Korchev Y, Barratt C, Publicover S. Multi-state, 4-aminopyridine-sensitive ion channels in human spermatozoa. Dev Biol. 2004;274:308-17 pubmed
    ..Combined application of patch clamp and pharmacological investigation of mature sperm cells and will permit rapid advances in our understanding the role of ion channels in sperm function...
  33. Andalib P, Consiglio J, Trapani J, Korn S. The external TEA binding site and C-type inactivation in voltage-gated potassium channels. Biophys J. 2004;87:3148-61 pubmed
    The location of the tetraethylammonium (TEA) binding site in the outer vestibule of K+ channels, and the mechanism by which external TEA slows C-type inactivation, have been considered well-understood...
  34. Shimizu H, Toyoshima C, Oiki S. Interaction between tetraethylammonium and permeant cations at the inactivation gate of the HERG potassium channel. Jpn J Physiol. 2003;53:25-34 pubmed
    ..related gene product (HERG) channel is a form of C-type inactivation and is decelerated by external tetraethylammonium (TEA) and potassium...
  35. Taccola G, Nistri A. Fictive locomotor patterns generated by tetraethylammonium application to the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro. Neuroscience. 2006;137:659-70 pubmed
    ..The present electrophysiological investigation examined whether the broad spectrum potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium could generate locomotor-like patterns...
  36. Kerschensteiner D, Monje F, Stocker M. Structural determinants of the regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 by the modulatory ?-subunit Kv9.3. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18154-61 pubmed
    ..1 can be distinguished by the sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium and extracellular potassium and lead to the same inactivated conformation. The functional properties of Kv2...
  37. Pérez García M, Colinas O, Miguel Velado E, Moreno Domínguez A, Lopez Lopez J. Characterization of the Kv channels of mouse carotid body chemoreceptor cells and their role in oxygen sensing. J Physiol. 2004;557:457-71 pubmed
    ..This report represents the first functional and molecular characterization of Kv channels in mouse CB chemoreceptor cells, and strongly suggests that O(2)-sensitive Kv channels in this preparation belong to the Kv3 subfamily...
  38. Sakakibara M, Okuda F, Nomura K, Watanabe K, Meng H, Horikoshi T, et al. Potassium currents in isolated statocyst neurons and RPeD1 in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:3884-92 pubmed
    ..I(A) in hair cells is also smaller in amplitude than in RPeD1 and is activated at more depolarized potentials. In like manner, I(KV) is smaller in hair cells and is activated at more depolarized potentials than in RPeD1...
  39. Luzhkov V, Osterberg F, Aqvist J. Structure-activity relationship for extracellular block of K+ channels by tetraalkylammonium ions. FEBS Lett. 2003;554:159-64 pubmed
    ..In agreement with experiment the Et4N+ blocker shows several kcal/mol better binding than the other tetraalkylammonium ions...
  40. Ramírez Ponce M, Mateos J, Bellido J. Insulin increases the density of potassium channels in white adipocytes: possible role in adipogenesis. J Endocrinol. 2002;174:299-307 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that insulin increases the density of K(v) and that these channels may be necessary for the normal growth of white adipocytes in culture...
  41. Brunt V, Minson C. KCa channels and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids: major contributors to thermal hyperaemia in human skin. J Physiol. 2012;590:3523-34 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (n = 10): (1) Control, (2) N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), (3) a KCa channel inhibitor, tetraethylammonium (TEA), and (4) TEA + l-NAME...
  42. Lee J, Lee B, Choi S, Yoon I, Pyo M, Shin T, et al. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits human Kv1.4 channel currents by interacting with the Lys531 residue. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:619-26 pubmed
    ..Lys531 residue is known to be a key site for K(+) activation and to be part of the extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) binding site; the mutation K531Y abolished the Rg(3) effect and made the Kv1...
  43. Zagha E, Manita S, Ross W, Rudy B. Dendritic Kv3.3 potassium channels in cerebellar purkinje cells regulate generation and spatial dynamics of dendritic Ca2+ spikes. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:3516-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings characterize unique roles of Kv3.3 channels in dendrites, with implications for synaptic integration, plasticity, and human disease...
  44. Yeo J, Tan B, Achike F. Exploring the mechanism of endothelial involvement in acidosis-induced vasodilatation of aortic tissues from normal and diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;642:99-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the K(ir) channel modulates acidotic relaxation in euglycaemic tissues. Only tetraethylammonium and iberiotoxin enhanced phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded diabetic tissues ..
  45. Mollereau C, Roumy M, Zajac J. Neuropeptide FF receptor modulates potassium currents in a dorsal root ganglion cell line. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:1061-5 pubmed
    ..about 30 pA/pF) by 21%; this reversible effect on sustained delayed potassium currents is blocked by tetraethylammonium. The similar effects of NPFF and opioid agonists on K(+) currents in this cell line may explain their ..
  46. Yang L, Edvinsson J, Palmer L. Interactions of external K+ and internal blockers in a weak inward-rectifier K+ channel. J Gen Physiol. 2012;140:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of voltage and extracellular K(+) are explained by shifts in the occupancy of sites within the selectivity filter by K(+) ions...
  47. Oommen V, Subramani S. Analysis of depolarization-induced outward currents in goat chondrocytes using the patch clamp technique. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;54:361-5 pubmed
    ..The current density at +60 mV varied from 125 pA/pF to 2410 pA/pF. The currents were inhibited by 10 mM tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) and the current-voltage profile suggests that these are voltage gated K+ channels...
  48. Shahidullah M, Reddy S, Fei H, Levitan I. In vivo role of a potassium channel-binding protein in regulating neuronal excitability and behavior. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that Slob may serve a novel regulatory function in feeding behavior, possibly by influencing the excitability of the PI neurons...
  49. Bellien J, Favre J, Iacob M, Gao J, Thuillez C, Richard V, et al. Arterial stiffness is regulated by nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor during changes in blood flow in humans. Hypertension. 2010;55:674-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of saline or inhibitors of NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine), calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), and cytochrome epoxygenases (fluconazole)...
  50. Fridlyand L, Jacobson D, Kuznetsov A, Philipson L. A model of action potentials and fast Ca2+ dynamics in pancreatic beta-cells. Biophys J. 2009;96:3126-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This model provides acceptable fits to voltage-clamp, AP, and Ca(2+) concentration data based on in silico analysis...
  51. Dimo T, Mtopi O, Nguelefack T, Kamtchouing P, Zapfack L, Asongalem E, et al. Vasorelaxant effects of Brillantaisia nitens Lindau (Acanthaceae) extracts on isolated rat vascular smooth muscle. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:104-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, this relaxation was markedly reduced by tetraethylammonium, a blocker of non-selective K(+) channels and glibenclamide, a blocker of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels...
  52. Pompermayer K, Amaral F, Fagundes C, Vieira A, Cunha F, Teixeira M, et al. Effects of the treatment with glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker, on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;556:215-22 pubmed
    ..The lack of effect of these drugs on the reperfusion-associated hypotension and lethality may limit their usefulness after severe reperfusion injury...
  53. Mears D, Rojas E. Properties of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents measured from mouse pancreatic beta-cells in situ. Biol Res. 2006;39:505-20 pubmed
    ..Cells were impaled with intracellular microelectrodes, and voltage pulses were applied in the presence of tetraethylammonium. Under these conditions, a voltage-dependent Ca2+ current (I(Cav)), containing L-type and non-L-type ..