tetraethylammonium compounds

Summary

Summary: Quaternary ammonium compounds that consist of an ammonium cation where the central nitrogen atom is bonded to four ethyl groups.

Top Publications

  1. Valentovic M, Ball J, Anestis D. Contribution of acetone and osmotic-diuresis by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in attenuation of cephaloridine nephrotoxicity. Toxicology. 1992;71:245-55 pubmed
    ..These results also indicated that glucose-mediated osmotic diuresis and acetone accumulation cannot account for reduced cephaloridine toxicity in diabetic rats...
  2. Radin M, Swayne D, Gigliotti A, Hoepf T. Renal function and organic anion and cation transport during dehydration and/or food restriction in chickens. J Comp Physiol B. 1996;166:138-43 pubmed
    ..Enhanced transport of organic anions in the presence of decreased glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow during dehydration may promote precipitation of urates and nephrosis in chickens...
  3. Lei S, Richter R, Bienert M, Mulvany M. Relaxing actions of corticotropin-releasing factor on rat resistance arteries. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;108:941-7 pubmed
    ..v. injection of CRF...
  4. Seth P, Wu X, Huang W, Leibach F, Ganapathy V. Mutations in novel organic cation transporter (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter, with differential effects on the organic cation transport function and the carnitine transport function. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33388-92 pubmed
  5. Hao J, Smith K, Li S. Chemical method to enhance transungual transport and iontophoresis efficiency. Int J Pharm. 2008;357:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of TGA on the nail plates was irreversible. The present study shows the possibility of using a chemical enhancer to reduce transport hindrance in the nail plate and thus enhance passive and iontophoretic transungual transport...
  6. Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Komuta Y, Ito K, Sahara Y. Low-voltage-activated potassium channels underlie the regulation of intrinsic firing properties of rat vestibular ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:2192-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Kv1 channels are critical both in determining the pattern of spike discharge in rat vestibular ganglion neurons and in their proportional change during maturation...
  7. Unemoto T, Matsushita M, Tamura K, Tanaka Y, Koike K, Kogo H. Role of BK channels in testosterone-induced relaxation of the aorta in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1477-80 pubmed
    ..This attenuation in SHR was not observed after endothelium removal. The above results suggest that the relaxation induced by Tes following NA-induced vasoconstriction in SHR results from hyperpolarization due to BK channel opening...
  8. Maeda T, Goto A, Kobayashi D, Tamai I. Transport of organic cations across the blood-testis barrier. Mol Pharm. 2007;4:600-7 pubmed
  9. Coiret G, Borowiec A, Mariot P, Ouadid Ahidouch H, Matifat F. The antiestrogen tamoxifen activates BK channels and stimulates proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:843-51 pubmed
    ..The site of action of tamoxifen is probably the channel itself or the auxiliary beta subunits...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Pi Y, Ma J, Zhang P, Duan J. [Calcium-dependent chloride channels in plasma membrane of oocytes from toad, Bufo bufo gargarizans]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2006;58:471-6 pubmed
    ..2+/-0.04) % and (3.1+/-0.15) % of the maximum, respectively. It is concluded that calcium-dependent chloride channels exist in plasma membrane of Bufo bufo gargarizans oocytes, besides potassium channels...
  2. Agarwal A, Rao S. In vitro and in vivo effects of quinidine on the kidneys in Fischer-344 rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1993;82:143-50 pubmed
    ..Mitochondria showed a reduction in ADP/O ratio but no change in RCI. Serum biochemical measurements indicated a significant elevation in serum creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
  3. Hirsch J, Weber G, Kleta I, Schlatter E. A novel cGMP-regulated K+ channel in immortalized human kidney epitheliall cells (IHKE-1). J Physiol. 1999;519 Pt 3:645-55 pubmed
    ..6. The results present the first electrophysiological characterization of a mammalian K+ channel that is directly regulated by cGMP...
  4. Bossu J, Capogna M, Debanne D, McKinney R, Gahwiler B. Somatic voltage-gated potassium currents of rat hippocampal pyramidal cells in organotypic slice cultures. J Physiol. 1996;495 ( Pt 2):367-81 pubmed
    ..Intracellular recordings in CA3 pyramidal cells showed that IK(AT) plays an important role in regulating the duration of the action potential...
  5. Sykova E, Syka J, Johnstone B, Yates G. Longitudinal flow of endolymph measured by distribution of tetraethylammonium and choline in scala media. Hear Res. 1987;28:161-71 pubmed
    ..However, the results of experiments when TEA spread is measured at large distances must be interpreted cautiously because TEA may enter cellular walls of the cochlear duct and alternative routes of transport may be involved...
  6. Asano M, Masuzawa Ito K, Matsuda T. Charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels regulate the myogenic tone in the resting state of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;108:214-22 pubmed
    ..The increased Kca channel functions in SHR arteries appeared to be secondary to the increased Ca2' influx via L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in the resting state of these arteries...
  7. Nassar Gentina V, Pollard H, Rojas E. Electrical activity in chromaffin cells of intact mouse adrenal gland. Am J Physiol. 1988;254:C675-83 pubmed
    ..This effect was blocked by atropine but not by D-tubocurarine, suggesting that ACh stimulation of chromaffin cells in the mouse involves activation of muscarinic receptors...
  8. Paton J, Ramirez J, Richter D. Functionally intact in vitro preparation generating respiratory activity in neonatal and mature mammals. Pflugers Arch. 1994;428:250-60 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this finding was that rhythmic activity in the VRG persisted despite removal of the dorsomedial region of the slice. In contrast, rhythmic XII neurones became tonic following mechanical disconnection of the VRG...
  9. Farley J, Rudy B. Multiple types of voltage-dependent Ca2+-activated K+ channels of large conductance in rat brain synaptosomal membranes. Biophys J. 1988;53:919-34 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that the study of K+ channels in lipid bilayers may allow the identification and characterization of novel K+ channels from brain regions otherwise inaccessible to conventional recording techniques...
  10. Kinnamon S, Roper S. Passive and active membrane properties of mudpuppy taste receptor cells. J Physiol. 1987;383:601-14 pubmed
    ..The role of the Ca2+ channels may be in part to regulate release of transmitter onto nerve terminals. The role of the other conductances in taste transduction is unknown...
  11. Miguel Velado E, Moreno Domínguez A, Colinas O, Cidad P, Heras M, Pérez García M, et al. Contribution of Kv channels to phenotypic remodeling of human uterine artery smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2005;97:1280-7 pubmed
    ..4 is the principal contributor to K+ currents in cultured VSMCs. Furthermore, selective blockade of Kv3.4 channels resulted in a reduced proliferation rate, suggesting a link between Kv channels expression and phenotypic remodeling...
  12. Okuda M, Saito H, Urakami Y, Takano M, Inui K. cDNA cloning and functional expression of a novel rat kidney organic cation transporter, OCT2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;224:500-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that OCT2 is responsible for the transport of cationic drugs in the kidney...
  13. Nagasaki M, Komori S, Tamaki H, Ohashi H. Effect of trimebutine on K+ current in rabbit ileal smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;235:197-203 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the excitatory effects of trimebutine on the gastrointestinal tract may be attributable to the inhibitory action on the K+ current...
  14. Hernandez M, Reyes J, Gomez Lojero C, Sayavedra M, Melendez E. Inhibition of the renal uptake of p-aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium by the antioxidant ethoxyquin in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 1993;31:363-7 pubmed
    ..This effect leads to interference with the energy supply required for these tubular secretory mechanisms. Our results indicate that the exposure of animals or humans to high concentrations of ethoxyquin should be avoided...
  15. Dick G, Rossow C, Smirnov S, Horowitz B, Sanders K. Tamoxifen activates smooth muscle BK channels through the regulatory beta 1 subunit. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34594-9 pubmed
    ..These data shed light on BK channel structure and function, non-genomic mechanisms of regulation, and physiologically and therapeutically relevant effects of xenoestrogens...
  16. Li Q, Sai Y, Kato Y, Muraoka H, Tamai I, Tsuji A. Transporter-mediated renal handling of nafamostat mesilate. J Pharm Sci. 2004;93:262-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, renal accumulation of NM can be explained by the involvement of the basolateral OCTs, though the influence of the apical membrane transporter remains to be clarified...
  17. Zanotto C, Abib R, Batassini C, Tortorelli L, Biasibetti R, Rodrigues L, et al. Non-specific inhibitors of aquaporin-4 stimulate S100B secretion in acute hippocampal slices of rats. Brain Res. 2013;1491:14-22 pubmed publisher
  18. Ocana M, Baeyens J. Differential effects of K+ channel blockers on antinociception induced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor, GABAB and kappa-opioid receptor agonists. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:1049-54 pubmed
    ..The K+ channels opened by alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists seem to be ATP-dependent channels, whereas those opened by GABAB receptor agonists are not...
  19. Wu C, Thiemermann C, Vane J. Glibenclamide-induced inhibition of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in cultured macrophages and in the anaesthetized rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;114:1273-81 pubmed
    ..9. Thus, glibenclamide inhibits the induction, but not the activity, of iNOS in vitro and in vivo. This inhibition of iNOS induction may contribute to the beneficial haemodynamic effects of glibenclamide in endotoxic shock...
  20. Ruiz Petrich E, Leblanc N, deLorenzi F, Allard Y, Schanne O. Effects of K+ channel blockers on the action potential of hypoxic rabbit myocardium. Br J Pharmacol. 1992;106:924-30 pubmed
    ..and at least one yet unidentified current component rather insensitive to changes in [K]o and to K+ channel blockers...
  21. Loo D, Brown P, Wright E. Ca2+-activated K+ currents in Necturus choroid plexus. J Membr Biol. 1988;105:221-31 pubmed
    ..Thus the Ca2+-activated K+ channels may play a specific role in maintaining intracellular K+ concentrations during CSF secretion...
  22. Fioretti B, Castigli E, Micheli M, Bova R, Sciaccaluga M, Harper A, et al. Expression and modulation of the intermediate- conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel in glioblastoma GL-15 cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2006;18:47-56 pubmed
    ..Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a ~35% reduction of the IK(Ca) channel mRNA resulting from ERK inhibition and a approximately 50% reduction with time in culture...
  23. Okano T, Maegawa H, Inui K, Hori R. Interaction of ofloxacin with organic cation transport system in rat renal brush-border membranes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990;255:1033-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that ofloxacin interacts with the organic cation transport system in renal brush-border membranes, and this system may play an important role in the tubular secretion of ofloxacin...
  24. Tanigawara Y, Saito Y, Aiba T, Ohoka K, Kamiya A, Hori R. Moment analysis of drug disposition in kidney. III: Transport of p-aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium in the perfused kidney isolated from uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure rats. J Pharm Sci. 1990;79:249-56 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that impairment by uranyl nitrate-induced ARF appears at the carrier-mediated transport process of the epithelial cell membranes for both organic anions and cations...
  25. Segal Y, Reuss L. Ba2+, TEA+, and quinine effects on apical membrane K+ conductance and maxi K+ channels in gallbladder epithelium. Am J Physiol. 1990;259:C56-68 pubmed
  26. Lasater E, Witkovsky P. Membrane currents of spiking cells isolated from turtle retina. J Comp Physiol A. 1990;167:11-21 pubmed
    ..It thus appears that the spiking patterns of the retinal cells are shaped primarily by the kinetics of INa, IK and IA and to a lesser extent by IK(Ca)...
  27. Chen S, Inoue R, Ito Y. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptor-activated cation channels in guinea-pig ileum. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;109:793-801 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of inhibition and the relevance to use of these drugs as blockers for the I cat channel are discussed...
  28. Sorimachi M, Yamagami K, Morita Y, Kuramoto K. GABA inhibits the rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration in depolarized immature cerebellar Purkinje cells. Neurosci Lett. 1991;122:229-32 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that GABA inhibits the rise in [Ca]in by hyperpolarizing the membrane potentials at Purkinje cell bodies...
  29. Ohashi M, Faraci F, Heistad D. Peroxynitrite hyperpolarizes smooth muscle and relaxes internal carotid artery in rabbit via ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H2244-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ONOO- hyperpolarizes and relaxes smooth muscle in rabbit internal carotid artery but not in common carotid artery through activation of K(ATP) channels...
  30. Bigiani A, Roper S. Mediation of responses to calcium in taste cells by modulation of a potassium conductance. Science. 1991;252:126-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, divalent cations elicit receptor potentials in taste cells by modulating a potassium conductance rather than by permeating the cell membrane, the mechanism utilized by monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium ions...
  31. Reznikov V, Shuba M. [Spontaneous transient outward currents in smooth muscle cells of the rat tail artery]. Fiziol Zh. 2001;47:3-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that STOCs are carried by large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels and Ca2+ influx plays an important role in their activation...
  32. Sadraei H, Beech D. Ionic currents and inhibitory effects of glibenclamide in seminal vesicle smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;115:1447-54 pubmed
    ..In addition, an unexpected relaxant effect of high concentrations of glibenclamide may be explained by inhibition of the Ca channels...
  33. Brown D, Higashida H. Voltage- and calcium-activated potassium currents in mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells. J Physiol. 1988;397:149-65 pubmed
    ..8. It is concluded that differentiated NG108-15 cells possess several of the K+ currents present in sympathetic neurones, including a delayed rectifier current, two species of Ca2+-activated K+ current and the M-current...
  34. Reuss L, Simon B, Xi Z. Pseudo-streaming potentials in Necturus gallbladder epithelium. I. Paracellular origin of the transepithelial voltage changes. J Gen Physiol. 1992;99:297-316 pubmed
    ..We propose that they are pseudo-streaming potentials, i.e., junctional diffusion potentials caused by salt concentration changes in the lateral intercellular spaces secondary to osmotic water flow...
  35. Wilde D, Marshall J. Effects of tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine on the plateau potential of circular myometrium from the pregnant rat. Biol Reprod. 1988;38:836-45 pubmed
    ..The plateau potential may result from an outwardly rectifying TEA-sensitive current combined with a slow inward current, the plateau magnitude being determined by the relative intensity of each current...
  36. Lomax R, Warhurst G, Sandle G. Characteristics of two basolateral potassium channel populations in human colonic crypts. Gut. 1996;38:243-7 pubmed
  37. Mølck A, Friis C. The cytotoxic effect of paraquat to isolated renal proximal tubular segments from rabbits. Toxicology. 1997;122:123-32 pubmed
    ..This was confirmed by measuring FCCP-uncoupled QO2. Thus high concentrations of PQ appear to disrupt mitochondrial electron chain transfer resulting in reduction of metabolic functions...
  38. Price J, Hellermann A. Inhibition of cGMP mediated relaxation in small rat coronary arteries by block of CA++ activated K+ channels. Life Sci. 1997;61:1185-92 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that a large portion of the dilator action of cGMP is mediated by effects on K+ membrane channels...
  39. Schwartz J, Mealing G, Asem E, Whitfield J, Tsang B. Ionic currents in avian granulosa cells. FEBS Lett. 1988;241:169-72 pubmed
    ..It was blocked by tetraethylammonium indicating that it is a potassium current. This is the first evidence of the existence of potassium and calcium transmembrane currents in granulosa cells...
  40. Anderson J, Huprikar S, Kochian L, Lucas W, Gaber R. Functional expression of a probable Arabidopsis thaliana potassium channel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:3736-40 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the structural motif for K+ channels has been conserved between plants and animals...
  41. Ribera A, Nguyen D. Primary sensory neurons express a Shaker-like potassium channel gene. J Neurosci. 1993;13:4988-96 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  42. Eddahibi S, Springall D, Mannan M, Carville C, Chabrier P, Levame M, et al. Dilator effect of endothelins in pulmonary circulation: changes associated with chronic hypoxia. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:L571-80 pubmed
    ..This abolition does not appear to be related to alterations in ET-receptor subtypes or to unresponsiveness of K+ channels in the pulmonary circulation...
  43. Wegner L, de Boer A, Raschke K. Properties of the K+ inward rectifier in the plasma membrane of xylem parenchyma cells from barley roots: effects of TEA+, Ca2+, Ba2+ and La3+. J Membr Biol. 1994;142:363-79 pubmed
    ..The ineffectiveness of Ca2+ to control K+ influx in xylem parenchyma cells is interpreted in physiological terms...
  44. Rush G, Heim R, Ponsler G, Engelhardt J. Cephaloridine-induced renal pathological and biochemical changes in female rabbits and isolated proximal tubules in suspension. Toxicol Pathol. 1992;20:155-68 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that isolated proximal tubules in vitro are a reasonable model for Cld nephrotoxicity in vivo. Cld-induced mitochondrial alterations leading to ATP depletion and cell injury were not observed in this study...
  45. Momiyama T, Todo N, Sasa M. A mechanism underlying dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic neurones in the ventral tegmental area in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;109:933-40 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that simultaneous activation of both D1 and D2 receptors enhances the D2 receptor-mediated inhibitory effects by elevation of the threshold for action potential generation...
  46. Yamaoka K, Ikeda K. Electrogenic responses elicited by transmembrane depolarizing current in aerated body wall muscles of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. J Comp Physiol A. 1988;163:705-14 pubmed
    ..The second peak was profoundly elongated by barium, and this effect was antagonized by external calcium. Thus, the falling phase of the second peak was most likely driven by a calcium-dependent, outward potassium current...
  47. Kano M, Wakuta K, Satoh R. Two components of calcium channel current in embryonic chick skeletal muscle cells developing in culture. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1989;47:101-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the two components of Ba current also differed in their developmental profile. These findings demonstrate the existence of two distinct types of Ca channels in the early stages of chick muscle cell development...
  48. Solntseva E. Properties of slow early potassium current in neurons of snail Helix pomatia. Gen Pharmacol. 1995;26:1719-26 pubmed
    ..6. 4-aminopyridine had a dual effect on the IA. It blocked the normal current, and then appeared to increase the inactivated currents...
  49. Wright R, Blair West J. The effects of K+ channel blockers on ovine parotid secretion depend on the mode of stimulation. Exp Physiol. 1990;75:339-48 pubmed
    ..It is also possible that nerve stimulation and ACh may cause the release of a co-transmitter which bethanechol does not...
  50. Helm J, Bro S, Dodds W, Sarna S, Hoffmann R. Myogenic mechanism for peristalsis in opossum smooth muscle esophagus. Am J Physiol. 1992;263:G953-9 pubmed
    ..Intramural inhibitory nerves may inhibit retrograde propagation as well as mediate descending inhibition in advance of the peristaltic wave...
  51. Cotton C, Reuss L. Effects of changes in mucosal solution Cl- or K+ concentration on cell water volume of Necturus gallbladder epithelium. J Gen Physiol. 1991;97:667-86 pubmed
    ..f) A major fraction of the K+ flux is via a TEA(+)-sensitive apical membrane K+ channel...
  52. Mathieson W, Maler L. Morphological and electrophysiological properties of a novel in vitro preparation: the electrosensory lateral line lobe brain slice. J Comp Physiol A. 1988;163:489-506 pubmed
    ..These observations raise possibilities that intrinsic membrane properties together with local synaptic interactions may regulate pyramidal cell responsiveness...
  53. Adelman J, Shen K, Kavanaugh M, Warren R, Wu Y, Lagrutta A, et al. Calcium-activated potassium channels expressed from cloned complementary DNAs. Neuron. 1992;9:209-16 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that alternative splicing gives rise to a large family of functionally diverse, calcium-activated potassium channels...