phosphorylcholine

Summary

Summary: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.

Top Publications

  1. Puig C, Marti S, Hermans P, de Jonge M, Ardanuy C, Liñares J, et al. Incorporation of phosphorylcholine into the lipooligosaccharide of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae does not correlate with the level of biofilm formation in vitro. Infect Immun. 2014;82:1591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this report was to determine the relationship between the presence of phosphorylcholine in the lipooligosaccharide of NTHi and the level of biofilm formation...
  2. Ohyanagi T, Nagahori N, Shimawaki K, Hinou H, Yamashita T, Sasaki A, et al. Importance of sialic acid residues illuminated by live animal imaging using phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayer-coated quantum dots. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:12507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..thiol derivative, 11,11'-dithio bis[undec-11-yl 12-(aminooxyacetyl)amino hexa(ethyleneglycol)], and a phosphorylcholine derivative, 11-mercaptoundecylphosphorylcholine, provided QDs with novel functions for the chemical ligation ..
  3. Sun H, Yu T, Li J. Co-administration of perifosine with paclitaxel synergistically induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells: more than just AKT inhibition. Cancer Lett. 2011;310:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These signaling events together caused a marked increase of cancer cell apoptosis. Combining paclitaxel with perifosine may represent a novel anti-ovarian cancer strategy...
  4. Moreira W, Leprohon P, Ouellette M. Tolerance to drug-induced cell death favours the acquisition of multidrug resistance in Leishmania. Cell Death Dis. 2011;2:e201 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore link the mode of killing of drugs to tolerance to cell death and to a facilitated emergence of multidrug resistance. These findings may have fundamental implications in the field of chemotherapeutic interventions...
  5. Imbert L, Ramos R, Libong D, Abreu S, Loiseau P, Chaminade P. Identification of phospholipid species affected by miltefosine action in Leishmania donovani cultures using LC-ELSD, LC-ESI/MS, and multivariate data analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402:1169-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural determination of the most relevant species has finally been performed using tandem mass spectrometry. A first hypothesis on the effect of miltefosine on lipid metabolic pathways is then proposed...
  6. Beloueche Babari M, Arunan V, Troy H, te Poele R, Te Fong A, Jackson L, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibition increases levels of choline kinase ? and phosphocholine facilitating noninvasive imaging in human cancers. Cancer Res. 2012;72:990-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings provide mechanistic insights into the impact of HDAC inhibition on cancer cell metabolism and highlight PC as a candidate noninvasive imaging biomarker for monitoring the action of HDAC inhibitors...
  7. Al Riyami L, Harnett W. Immunomodulatory properties of ES-62, a phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein secreted by Acanthocheilonema viteae. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2012;12:45-52 pubmed
    ..Overall, ES-62 diverts the immune system towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype and consistent with this it has been shown to have therapeutic potential in models of inflammatory disease associated with autoimmunity and allergy...
  8. Caidahl K, Hartford M, Karlsson T, Herlitz J, Pettersson K, de Faire U, et al. IgM-phosphorylcholine autoantibodies and outcome in acute coronary syndromes. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:464-9 pubmed publisher
    Antibodies against proinflammatory phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) seem to be protective and reduce morbidity...
  9. Clark S, Snow J, Li J, Zola T, Weiser J. Phosphorylcholine allows for evasion of bactericidal antibody by Haemophilus influenzae. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002521 pubmed publisher
    ..host environments through phase variation of multiple structures on its lipooligosaccharide (LPS), including phosphorylcholine (ChoP). During colonization with H. influenzae, there is a selection for ChoP+ phase variants...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Sundar S, Singh A, Rai M, Prajapati V, Singh A, Ostyn B, et al. Efficacy of miltefosine in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India after a decade of use. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:543-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Its unrestricted use has raised concern about its continued effectiveness. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of miltefosine for the treatment of VL after a decade of use in India...
  2. Ma Z, Zhu L, Luo X, Zhai S, Li P, Wang X. Perifosine enhances mTORC1-targeted cancer therapy by activation of GSK3? in NSCLC cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2012;13:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results provide a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance mTORC1-targeted cancer therapy by using perifosine or targeting GSK3?...
  3. Canton I, Massignani M, Patikarnmonthon N, Chierico L, Robertson J, Renshaw S, et al. Fully synthetic polymer vesicles for intracellular delivery of antibodies in live cells. FASEB J. 2013;27:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..This delivery system is based on poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine]-block-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PMPC-PDPA), a pH-sensitive diblock copolymer that self-..
  4. Rijal S, Ostyn B, Uranw S, Rai K, Bhattarai N, Dorlo T, et al. Increasing failure of miltefosine in the treatment of Kala-azar in Nepal and the potential role of parasite drug resistance, reinfection, or noncompliance. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1530-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the paucity of anti-VL drugs and the looming threat of resistance, there is an obvious need for close monitoring of clinical efficacy of MIL...
  5. Ahmed M, Jawanda M, Ishihara K, Narain R. Impact of the nature, size and chain topologies of carbohydrate-phosphorylcholine polymeric gene delivery systems. Biomaterials. 2012;33:7858-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, carbohydrate and phosphorylcholine based cationic polymers having a different architecture, compositions and varying molecular weights are ..
  6. Ajeganova S, Ehrnfelt C, Alizadeh R, Rohani M, Jogestrand T, Hafström I, et al. Longitudinal levels of apolipoproteins and antibodies against phosphorylcholine are independently associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis 5 years after rheumatoid arthritis onset--a prospective cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011;50:1785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined the associations of apolipoproteins and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) with carotid artery atherosclerosis in a prospective cohort of patients with early RA.
  7. Ye S, Jang Y, Yun Y, Shankarraman V, Woolley J, Hong Y, et al. Surface modification of a biodegradable magnesium alloy with phosphorylcholine (PC) and sulfobetaine (SB) functional macromolecules for reduced thrombogenicity and acute corrosion resistance. Langmuir. 2013;29:8320-7 pubmed publisher
    Siloxane functionalized phosphorylcholine (PC) or sulfobetaine (SB) macromolecules (PCSSi or SBSSi) were synthesized to act as surface modifying agents for degradable metallic surfaces to improve acute blood compatibility and slow ..
  8. Tang C, Tsao P, Lin C, Fang L, Lee S, Wang W. Phosphorylcholine-containing lipid molecular species profiling in biological tissue using a fast HPLC/QqQ-MS method. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;404:2949-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Precursor ion analysis was first conducted to obtain the preliminary composition profile of the phosphorylcholine-containing lipid...
  9. Gruber J, See Too W, Wong M, Lavie A, McSorley T, Konrad M. Balance of human choline kinase isoforms is critical for cell cycle regulation: implications for the development of choline kinase-targeted cancer therapy. FEBS J. 2012;279:1915-28 pubmed publisher
    The enzyme choline kinase (CK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP, has an essential role in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major constituent of all mammalian cell ..
  10. Ayaki M, Iwasawa A, Niwano Y. Cytotoxicity assays of new artificial tears containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer for ocular surface cells. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2011;55:541-546 pubmed publisher
    2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer is a multifunctional agent with antiadhesive, antithrombogenetic, and strong hydrating properties...
  11. Kulshrestha A, Bhandari V, Mukhopadhyay R, Ramesh V, Sundar S, Maes L, et al. Validation of a simple resazurin-based promastigote assay for the routine monitoring of miltefosine susceptibility in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:825-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results support the utility of resazurin assay as a simplified biological tool for MIL susceptibility monitoring in clinical isolates from MIL-treated VL/PKDL patients...
  12. Keller P, Pagano S, Roux Lombard P, Sigaud P, Rutschmann O, Mach F, et al. Autoantibodies against apolipoprotein A-1 and phosphorylcholine for diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. J Intern Med. 2012;271:451-62 pubmed publisher
    To explore the diagnostic accuracies of anti-apolipoproteinA-1 (anti-ApoA-1) IgG and anti-phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) IgM alone, expressed as a ratio (anti-ApoA-1 IgG/anti-PC IgM), and combined with the Thrombolysis In Myocardial ..
  13. Ajeganova S, Fiskesund R, de Faire U, Hafström I, Frostegard J. Effect of biological therapy on levels of atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine and apolipoproteins in rheumatoid arthritis - a one year study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29:942-50 pubmed
    ..B-cell targeting rituximab influences novel markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as atheroprotective natural IgM antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC), oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and apolipoproteins.
  14. Hudson C, Knegtel R, Brown K, Charlton P, Pollard J. Kinetic and mechanistic characterisation of Choline Kinase-?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:1107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This study describes a mechanism for ChoK? that is unusual amongst kinases, and highlights the availability of different enzyme states that can be exploited for drug discovery...
  15. Fiskesund R, Steen J, Amara K, Murray F, Szwajda A, Liu A, et al. Naturally occurring human phosphorylcholine antibodies are predominantly products of affinity-matured B cells in the adult. J Immunol. 2014;192:4551-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphorylcholine (PC) is a classic T-independent Ag that is exposed on apoptotic cells, oxidized phospholipids, and bacterial polysaccharides...
  16. Infantes L, Otero L, Beassoni P, Boetsch C, Lisa A, Domenech C, et al. The structural domains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphorylcholine phosphatase cooperate in substrate hydrolysis: 3D structure and enzymatic mechanism. J Mol Biol. 2012;423:503-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the breakdown of the host cell membrane through the sequential action of hemolytic phospholipase C and phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PchP)...
  17. Jen F, Jones C, Wilson J, Schulz B, Jennings M. Substrate recognition of a structure motif for phosphorylcholine post-translational modification in Neisseria meningitidis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:808-14 pubmed publisher
    ..meningitidis. In this study, we investigate the substrate recognition of phosphorylcholine transferase...
  18. Clark S, Weiser J. Microbial modulation of host immunity with the small molecule phosphorylcholine. Infect Immun. 2013;81:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The small molecule phosphorylcholine, or choline phosphate (ChoP), is used for both of these purposes by a wide array of bacterial and parasitic ..
  19. Tong Y, Liu Y, You L, Qian W. Perifosine induces protective autophagy and upregulation of ATG5 in human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:542-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the cytotoxic effects of perifosine on CML and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines were compared to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences...
  20. Pinton G, Manente A, Angeli G, Mutti L, Moro L. Perifosine as a potential novel anti-cancer agent inhibits EGFR/MET-AKT axis in malignant pleural mesothelioma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36856 pubmed publisher
  21. Smani Y, Docobo Pérez F, López Rojas R, Domínguez Herrera J, Ibañez Martínez J, Pachón J. Platelet-activating factor receptor initiates contact of Acinetobacter baumannii expressing phosphorylcholine with host cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:26901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..baumannii and the host cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the phosphorylcholine (ChoP)-containing outer membrane protein of A...
  22. Shi F, Harada T, Ogawa Y, Ono H, Ohnishi Kameyama M, Miyamoto T, et al. Capsular polysaccharide of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of swine erysipelas, and its modification with phosphorylcholine. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3993-4003 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis (cps) is located next to an lic operon, which is involved in the incorporation and expression of phosphorylcholine (PCho)...
  23. Choudhury K, Zander D, Kube M, Reinhardt R, Clos J. Identification of a Leishmania infantum gene mediating resistance to miltefosine and SbIII. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Database mining and karyotyping experiments suggest that in L. infantum this gene is part of a 44-kbp duplicated region that is found on two separate chromosomes, CHR08 and CHR29...
  24. Beloueche Babari M, Peak J, Jackson L, Tiet M, Leach M, Eccles S. Changes in choline metabolism as potential biomarkers of phospholipase C{gamma}1 inhibition in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:1305-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals alterations in metabolism that accompany the cellular effects of PLC?1 knockdown and highlights phosphocholine as a potential pharmacodynamic biomarker for monitoring the action of inhibitors targeting PLC?1 signaling...
  25. Sundar S, Sinha P, Rai M, Verma D, Nawin K, Alam S, et al. Comparison of short-course multidrug treatment with standard therapy for visceral leishmaniasis in India: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377:477-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved treatment approaches are needed for visceral leishmaniasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of three potential short-course combination treatments compared with the standard monotherapy in India...
  26. van Blitterswijk W, Verheij M. Anticancer alkylphospholipids: mechanisms of action, cellular sensitivity and resistance, and clinical prospects. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14:2061-74 pubmed
    ..For example, ALPs increase the cancer cell sensitivity to radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo. We highlight the clinical potential of perifosine, an orally available APL...
  27. Becher O, Hambardzumyan D, Walker T, Helmy K, Nazarian J, Albrecht S, et al. Preclinical evaluation of radiation and perifosine in a genetically and histologically accurate model of brainstem glioma. Cancer Res. 2010;70:2548-57 pubmed publisher
    ..92). Perifosine + 10 Gy did not result in a significantly increased survival relative to 10 Gy alone (P = 0.23). This PDGF-induced BSG model can serve as a preclinical tool for the testing of novel agents...
  28. Zhou W, Shao J, Jin Q, Wei Q, Tang J, Ji J. Zwitterionic phosphorylcholine as a better ligand for gold nanorods cell uptake and selective photothermal ablation of cancer cells. Chem Commun (Camb). 2010;46:1479-81 pubmed publisher
    The conjugation of zwitterionic phosphorylcholine onto gold nanorods leads to enhanced and selective uptake within cancer cells.
  29. van Griensven J, Balasegaram M, Meheus F, Alvar J, Lynen L, Boelaert M. Combination therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether combination therapy could indeed help delay resistance, and how this is best achieved, will only be known in the long term...
  30. Elswaifi S, St Michael F, Sreenivas A, Cox A, Carman G, Inzana T. Molecular characterization of phosphorylcholine expression on the lipooligosaccharide of Histophilus somni. Microb Pathog. 2009;47:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..somni, including compositional and antigenic variation of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) has been identified as one of the components of H. somni LOS that undergoes antigenic variation...
  31. van Thiel P, Leenstra T, Kager P, de Vries H, van Vugt M, van der Meide W, et al. Miltefosine treatment of Leishmania major infection: an observational study involving Dutch military personnel returning from northern Afghanistan. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:80-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty patients experienced cure after receipt of miltefosine, 3 after receipt of additional ilSb(v), and 1 after 28 daily intravenous injections of antimony. Temporary diminution of ejaculate volume was reported by 21 patients...
  32. Kugler W, Veenman L, Shandalov Y, Leschiner S, Spanier I, Lakomek M, et al. Ligands of the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein attenuate apoptosis of human glioblastoma cells exposed to erucylphosphohomocholine. Cell Oncol. 2008;30:435-50 pubmed
  33. Eriksson U, Sjöberg B, Bennet A, de Faire U, Pedersen N, Frostegard J. Low levels of antibodies against phosphorylcholine in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;21:577-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphorylcholine (PC) may play an important role in the atherogenic and pro-inflammatory effects of oxidized low density lipoproteins...
  34. Matlashewski G, Arana B, Kroeger A, Battacharya S, Sundar S, Das P, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis: elimination with existing interventions. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:322-5 pubmed publisher
  35. Chung Y, Troy H, Kristeleit R, Aherne W, Jackson L, Atadja P, et al. Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopic pharmacodynamic markers of a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, LAQ824, in human colon carcinoma cells and xenografts. Neoplasia. 2008;10:303-13 pubmed
    ..The phosphocholine and phosphomonoester increases may have the potential to act as pharmacodynamic markers for noninvasively monitoring tumor response after treatment with LAQ824 or other HDAC inhibitors...
  36. Thompson K, Bannister I, Armes S, Lewis A. Preparation of biocompatible sterically stabilized latexes using well-defined poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine) macromonomers. Langmuir. 2010;26:4693-702 pubmed publisher
    A range of well-defined methacrylic macromonomers based on the biomimetic monomer 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were synthesized by atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in alcoholic media using 2-(dimethylamino)..
  37. Grabitzki J, Ahrend M, Schachter H, Geyer R, Lochnit G. The PCome of Caenorhabditis elegans as a prototypic model system for parasitic nematodes: identification of phosphorylcholine-substituted proteins. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;161:101-11 pubmed publisher
    The decoration of proteins and glycolipids with phosphorylcholine (PCho) has been shown in many organisms ranging from bacteria to multicellular parasites like nematodes...
  38. Chou M, Fogelstrand L, Hartvigsen K, Hansen L, Woelkers D, Shaw P, et al. Oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of innate natural antibodies in mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1335-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide novel insights into the functions of NAbs in mediating host homeostasis and into their roles in health and diseases, such as chronic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis...
  39. Teichert F, Verschoyle R, Greaves P, Edwards R, Teahan O, Jones D, et al. Metabolic profiling of transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) tissue by 1H-NMR analysis: evidence for unusual phospholipid metabolism. Prostate. 2008;68:1035-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the hypothesis was tested using (1)H-NMR-based metabolic profiling that the TRAMP tumor metabolic phenotype resembles that reported for human prostate cancer...
  40. Hearnden V, Lomas H, MacNeil S, Thornhill M, Murdoch C, Lewis A, et al. Diffusion studies of nanometer polymersomes across tissue engineered human oral mucosa. Pharm Res. 2009;26:1718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..To measure the diffusion of nanometer polymersomes through tissue engineered human oral mucosa...
  41. Walochnik J, Obwaller A, Gruber F, Mildner M, Tschachler E, Suchomel M, et al. Anti-acanthamoeba efficacy and toxicity of miltefosine in an organotypic skin equivalent. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:539-45 pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the suitability of miltefosine for the topical treatment of Acanthamoeba infections...
  42. de Faire U, Frostegard J. Natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in cardiovascular disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..One common epitope is phosphorylcholine (PC), which is also exposed on some microorganisms (including Streptococcus pneumoneae) and on apoptotic ..
  43. Watanabe Y, Abolhassani M, Tojo Y, Suda Y, Miyazawa K, Igarashi Y, et al. Evaluation of silica gel-immobilized phosphorylcholine columns for size exclusion chromatography and their application in the analysis of the subunit structures of fish-egg lectins. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:8563-6 pubmed publisher
    Columns of phosphorylcholine (PC) immobilized on silica gel were shown to be useful for size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of proteins. The columns provided good separation of proteins in 50mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6...
  44. Richter J, Hanus I, Haussinger D, Loscher T, Harms G. Mucosal Leishmania infantum infection. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:959-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Mucosal leishmaniasis contracted in southern Europe has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the naso-buccal-oesophageal mucosa and may occur in previously healthy persons...
  45. Hatakeyama T, Tanaka M, Hatakeyama H. Studies on bound water restrained by poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine): Comparison with polysaccharide-water systems. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:2077-82 pubmed publisher
    The structural change of water restrained by poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), since the biocompatibility of PMPC and related biopolymers is affected by the ..
  46. Harnett W, Rzepecka J, Houston K. How do nematodes transfer phosphorylcholine to carbohydrates?. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:114-8 pubmed publisher
    An unusual aspect of the biology of nematodes is the attachment of phosphorylcholine (PC) to carbohydrate. The attachment appears to play an important role in nematode development and, in some parasitic species, in immunomodulation...
  47. Fiskesund R, Stegmayr B, Hallmans G, Vikström M, Weinehall L, de Faire U, et al. Low levels of antibodies against phosphorylcholine predict development of stroke in a population-based study from northern Sweden. Stroke. 2010;41:607-12 pubmed publisher
    Natural immunoglobulin M antibodies specific for phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) have been implicated in atherosclerosis...
  48. McCrea K, Xie J, Marrs C, Gilsdorf J. Prevalence of genetic differences in phosphorylcholine expression between nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:286 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections. Phase-variable phosphorylcholine (ChoP) modification of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a NT H...
  49. Khademvatan S, Gharavi M, Rahim F, Saki J. Miltefosine-induced apoptotic cell death on Leishmania major and L. tropica strains. Korean J Parasitol. 2011;49:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, L. major did not display any apoptotic changes when it was exposed to miltefosine in concentrations sufficient to kill L. tropica...
  50. Madsen J, Warren N, Armes S, Lewis A. Synthesis of rhodamine 6G-based compounds for the ATRP synthesis of fluorescently labeled biocompatible polymers. Biomacromolecules. 2011;12:2225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These new compounds were subsequently used to prepare a range of fluorescently labeled biocompatible polymers based on the biomimetic monomer, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), for biomedical studies.
  51. Berman J. Treatment of leishmaniasis with miltefosine: 2008 status. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008;4:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Miltefosine is the first recognized oral treatment for leishmaniasis. It was first registered, in 2002, for Indian visceral leishmaniasis, and was reviewed by the present author in 2005...
  52. Jia L, Xu J, Wang H, Ji J. Polyamidoamine dendrimers surface-engineered with biomimetic phosphorylcholine as potential drug delivery carriers. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011;84:49-54 pubmed publisher
    Biomimetic acryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (APC) was used to react with generation 5 poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (G5) via the Michael addition reaction between primary amino group of PAMAM dendrimers and acrylic functional ..