chlormequat

Summary

Summary: A plant growth regulator that is commonly used on ornamental plants.

Top Publications

  1. Alder L, Startin J. Determination of chlormequat and mepiquat in foods by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: interlaboratory study. J AOAC Int. 2005;88:1762-76 pubmed
    Interlaboratory validation studies have been performed on 2 methods for the determination of chlormequat (CLQ) and mepiquat (MPQ)...
  2. Winek C, Wahba W, Edelstein J. Sudden death following accidental ingestion of chlormequat. J Anal Toxicol. 1990;14:257-8 pubmed
    ..8% of the active ingredient (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat)...
  3. Hou K, Chen J, Zhai J, Shen H, Chen L, Wu W. [Effect of different plant growth regulators on yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana development]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:2082-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana...
  4. Juhler R, Vahl M. Residues of chlormequat and mepiquat in grain--results from the Danish National Pesticide Survey. J AOAC Int. 1999;82:331-6 pubmed
    The objective of the present work was to establish information on chlormequat and mepiquat residues in grain for human consumption...
  5. Torner H, Blottner S, Kuhla S, Langhammer M, Alm H, Tuchscherer A. Influence of chlorocholinechloride-treated wheat on selected in vitro fertility parameters in male mice. Reprod Toxicol. 1999;13:399-404 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that CCC could interfere with epididymal protein secretion and the process of sperm maturation during passage through the epididymis...
  6. Geisler G, Hellweg S, Hofstetter T, Hungerbuehler K. Life- cycle assessment in pesticide product development: methods and case study on two plant-growth regulators from different product generations. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:2406-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the case study showed that decisions based on uncertain results in early stages of product development may need to be revised in later stages, e.g. based on investigations of pesticides' effects on crop yield...
  7. Mol H, van Dam R, Vreeken R, Steijger O. Determination of chlormequat in pears by liquid chromotagraphy/mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int. 2000;83:742-7 pubmed
    A straightforward and reliable method was developed for the determination of chlormequat in pears by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Water and methanol were compared as extraction solvents...
  8. Horak J, Werther W, Schmid E. Optimisation of the quantitative determination of chlormequat by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2001;15:241-8 pubmed
    The plant growth regulator chlormequat, an involatile quaternary ammonium salt, has been quantified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS)...
  9. Castro R, Moyano E, Galceran M. Determination of quaternary ammonium pesticides by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2001;914:111-21 pubmed
    A method for the direct determination of paraquat, diquat, chlormequat and difenzoquat in water samples, using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system was developed...

More Information

Publications54

  1. Evans C, Startin J, Goodall D, Keely B. Formation of gas-phase clusters monitored during electrospray mass spectrometry: a study of quaternary ammonium pesticides. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2001;15:1341-5 pubmed
    Gas-phase cluster formation between the quaternary ammonium pesticides paraquat, diquat, difenzoquat, chlormequat and mepiquat, and chloride and acetate anions present in a liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phase, has been studied using ..
  2. Careri M, Elviri L, Mangia A, Zagnoni I. Rapid method for determination of chlormequat residues in tomato products by ion-exchange liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16:1821-6 pubmed
    A rapid method has been devised for the direct determination of chlormequat in tomato samples...
  3. Bishop J, Rooper L, Chiosea S, Westra W. Clear Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Glands is Frequently p16 Positive: A Pitfall in the Interpretation of Oropharyngeal Biopsies. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Failure to recognize this pitfall could result in overly aggressive treatment of a low-grade carcinoma...
  4. Wang Y, Yuan Y, Lu M, Wu J, Jiang J. Inhibitor studies of isopentenyl pyrophosphate biosynthesis in suspension cultures of the yew Taxus chinensis var. mairei. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2003;37:39-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in combination with the results of previous studies, it is very probable that different IPP biosynthesis pathways exist during different growth phases in Taxus cells...
  5. Sørensen M, Danielsen V. Effects of the plant growth regulator, chlormequat, on mammalian fertility. Int J Androl. 2006;29:129-33 pubmed
    This paper summarizes the consequences of exposure to chlormequat, a plant growth regulator, on reproduction in mammals. Plant growth regulators are chemicals used to manipulate plant growth, flowering and fruit yield...
  6. Poulsen M, Christensen H, Sørensen M, Leffers H, Andersen J. Determination of chlormequat in pig serum and sow milk by LC-MS/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;389:1799-804 pubmed
    b>Chlormequat is a plant growth regulator widely used on cereals, and there is general concern that it may impair human fertility...
  7. Lindh C, Littorin M, Johannesson G, Jonsson B. Analysis of chlormequat in human urine as a biomarker of exposure using liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011;879:1551-6 pubmed publisher
    ..triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is described for the analysis of the plant growth regulator chlormequat (CCC) in human urine...
  8. Zheng R, Wu Y, Xia Y. Chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol treatments promote carbohydrate accumulation in bulbs of Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne'. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2012;13:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiment suggested that CCC or PBZ treatment is an effective method to promote carbohydrate accumulation in lily bulbs...
  9. Dey A, Kundu S, Bandyopadhyay A, Bhattacharjee A. Efficient micropropagation and chlorocholine chloride induced stevioside production of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. C R Biol. 2013;336:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the major observations of this research indicate that application of CCC in micropropagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni is a promising approach and has commercial prospects...
  10. Farshad Ashraf M, Abd Aziz M, Abdul Kadir M, Stanslas J, Farokhian E. In vitro tuberization of Chlorophytum Borivilianum Sant & Fern (Safed musli) as influenced by sucrose, CCC and culture systems. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:1356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Liquid culture with shaking at 80 r.p.m. resulted in a >2.5-fold increase in in vitro tuber production compared with solid culture...
  11. Shi P, Guy K, Wu W, Fang B, Yang J, Zhang M, et al. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the ClTCP transcription factors in Citrullus lanatus. BMC Plant Biol. 2016;16:85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of the watermelon TCP gene family, which provides valuable information for understanding the classification and functions of the TCP genes in watermelon. ..
  12. Zhang E. [A study on inhibitory effect of plant growth retardants on earlier bolting of Chinese Angelica]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999;24:18-20, 63 pubmed
    ..Seeking chemical ways of controlling the earlier bolting of Chinese Angelica (CA)...
  13. Sytar O, Borankulova A, Hemmerich I, Rauh C, Smetanska I. Effect of chlorocholine chlorid on phenolic acids accumulation and polyphenols formation of buckwheat plants. Biol Res. 2014;47:19 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results suggest that influence of CCC on the phenolics composition can be a result of various mechanisms of CCC uptake, transforming and/or its translocation in the buckwheat seedlings. ..
  14. Guo X, Jia C, Zhao E, Xu Y, Han L, Jiang S. Dissipation and residues of chlormequat in wheat and soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84:221-4 pubmed publisher
    A specific, sensitive method was developed for the analysis of chlormequat in wheat and soil by high performance chromatography/mass spectrometry. The fortified recoveries of soil were from 75.08% to 96.55%, with RSD 3.34%-15...
  15. Granby K, Vahl M. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark. Food Addit Contam. 2001;18:898-905 pubmed
    ..The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained ..
  16. Chakeredza S, Edrada R, Ebel R, ter Meulen U. The metabolite products of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in eggs and meat of laying hens fed 15N-CCC containing diets. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006;90:165-72 pubmed
    ..The results from this study indicate that CCC will be metabolised in tissues of laying hens...
  17. Lievens S, Goormachtig S, Den Herder J, Capoen W, Mathis R, Hedden P, et al. Gibberellins are involved in nodulation of Sesbania rostrata. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1366-79 pubmed
    ..Moreover, GAs inhibited the root hair curling process. These results show that GAs are Nod factor downstream signals for nodulation in hydroponic growth...
  18. Reynolds S, Hill A, Thomas M, Hamey P. Occurrence and risks associated with chlormequat residues in a range of foodstuffs in the UK. Food Addit Contam. 2004;21:457-71 pubmed
    Trends in the usage pattern of chlormequat (a plant growth regulator) on cereal crops in the UK over the past 6 years are presented...
  19. Songsang A, Chakeredza S, Thinggaard G, Vearasilp T, ter Meulen U. Distribution of 15N-chlorocholine chloride in eggs of laying hens. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2002;86:129-36 pubmed
    ..However, the level of CCC in the diet which could lead to accumulation of detectable CCC levels in eggs as observed in this study, is much higher than the established maximum residual limits in grains...
  20. Henriksen T, Juhler R, Brandt G, Kjaer J. Analysis of the plant growth regulator chlormequat in soil and water by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, pressurised liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:2504-10 pubmed publisher
    We present a new, precise and accurate method for quantitative analysis of chlormequat in soil and aqueous matrices...
  21. Zhou X, Xu J, Chen Z, Zhu Y. [Simultaneous determination of chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride in plants by mobile phase ion chromatography]. Se Pu. 2011;29:244-8 pubmed
    Ion-pair reagent was used as mobile phase for the simultaneous separation of chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride in plants...
  22. Zhang Y, Gao S, Chen H, Li X, Jin L. [Study on rapid propagation of Scutellaria baicalensis variation]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2013;36:511-4 pubmed
  23. Evans C, Startin J, Goodall D, Keely B. Improved sensitivity in detection of chlormequat by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2000;897:399-404 pubmed
    ..using electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS), exhibit significant differences in limits of detection (LODs) for chlormequat cation in pear...
  24. Jones O, Murfitt S, Svendsen C, Turk A, Turk H, Spurgeon D, et al. Comparisons of metabolic and physiological changes in rats following short term oral dosing with pesticides commonly found in food. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;59:438-45 pubmed publisher
    ..oral exposure to two benzimidazole fungicides (carbendazim and thiabendazole) and two bipyridyllium herbicides (chlormequat and mepiquat). Exposure levels were selected to be lower than those expected to cause overt signs of toxicity...
  25. Startin J, Hird S, Sykes M, Taylor J, Hill A. Determination of residues of the plant growth regulator chlormequat in pears by ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Analyst. 1999;124:1011-5 pubmed
    We report a method which we have used routinely for the determination of chlormequat residues in pears...
  26. Riediker S, Obrist H, Varga N, Stadler R. Determination of chlormequat and mepiquat in pear, tomato, and wheat flour using on-line solid-phase extraction (Prospekt) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2002;966:15-23 pubmed
    A sensitive and selective method is presented for the simultaneous analysis of the pesticides chlormequat and mepiquat at trace levels in tomato, pear, and wheat flour...
  27. Andersen J, Bille R, Granby K. An intercomparison study of the determination of glyphosate, chlormequat and mepiquat residues in wheat. Food Addit Contam. 2007;24:140-8 pubmed
    An intercomparison study of the determinations of glyphosate, chlormequat and mepiquat residues in cereals was performed. Four samples comprising one blank, two incurred and one spiked sample were sent to six participating laboratories...
  28. Hau J, Riediker S, Varga N, Stadler R. Determination of the plant growth regulator chlormequat in food by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2000;878:77-86 pubmed
    A confirmatory method for the determination of trace levels of chlormequat in a variety of different food matrices was developed...
  29. Yu Z, Jin F, Hu J, Zhang X, Sun J, Yang M. An improved method for analyzing chlormequat and mepiquat in source waters by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;678:90-5 pubmed publisher
    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the identification and quantification of chlormequat (CQ) and mepiquat (MQ) in source waters with high sensitivity and specificity was established using WCX cartridges (150 mg/..
  30. Evans C, Startin J, Goodall D, Keely B. Optimisation of ion trap parameters for the quantification of chlormequat by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the application in the analysis of pear extracts. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2000;14:112-7 pubmed
    Optimisation of the activation parameters for ion trap mass spectrometric analysis of the chlormequat cation using simplex optimisation enabled the product ion (m/z 58) response to be improved 1000-fold...
  31. Galea K, MacCalman L, Jones K, Cocker J, Teedon P, Sleeuwenhoek A, et al. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures in residents living near agricultural land. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:856 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields...
  32. Meijón M, Cañal M, Valledor L, Rodriguez R, Feito I. Epigenetic and physiological effects of gibberellin inhibitors and chemical pruners on the floral transition of azalea. Physiol Plant. 2011;141:276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..PAs, GAs and CKs were analysed after the application of GA synthesis inhibitors (daminozide, paclobutrazol and chlormequat chloride) and a chemical pruner (fatty acids)...
  33. Villa Ruano N, Betancourt Jiménez M, Lozoya Gloria E. Biosynthesis of uterotonic diterpenes from Montanoa tomentosa (zoapatle). J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:1961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..31 microM, and a V(max, app) of 13.6 nmol KA mg(1)protein h(-1). Based on the data presented, a putative biosynthetic pathway is proposed for the uterotonic diterpenes of M. tomentosa...
  34. Peeters M, Defloor I, Coosemans J, Delcour J, Ooms L, Deliever R, et al. Simple ion chromatographic method for the determination of chlormequat residues in pears. J Chromatogr A. 2001;920:255-9 pubmed
    Current methods for quantitative determination of chlormequat residues in food crops are characterized by rather low recoveries and the need for derivatization (in case of gas chromatography, GC), or by high capital investment (in case ..
  35. Jezek P, Beavis A, Diresta D, Cousino R, Garlid K. Evidence for two distinct chloride uniport pathways in brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Am J Physiol. 1989;257:C1142-8 pubmed
  36. Nagy M, Tari I. The relationship between the growth retardative effect of CCC and ethylene production. Acta Biol Hung. 1986;37:295-7 pubmed
    ..The obtained results suggest a possible relationship between the longitudinal-growth inhibiting, stem-thickness inducing, root-formation stimulating effects of CCC and the effect exerted on ethylene production...
  37. Kumar S, Bharti S. Effect of cycocel and furfuryl amino purine on protein metabolism of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) under simulated drought conditions. Indian J Exp Biol. 1991;29:49-51 pubmed
    ..Treatments with 6-furfuryl amino purine (0.50 mM) and cycocel (60 mM) maintained the levels of soluble protein contents but the applications of furfuryl amino purine decreased free amino acids and free proline under stress conditions...
  38. Zhang H, Ma Z, Yang H, Kong L. Determination of chlormequat and mepiquat residues and their dissipation rates in tomato cultivation matrices by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1064:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..study described the development and validation of a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for detecting chlormequat chloride (CQ) and mepiquat chloride (MQ) residues in tomato cultivation matrices covering soil, water, seedling ..
  39. Cheng H, Li L, Cheng S, Cao F, Wang Y, Yuan H. Molecular cloning and function assay of a chalcone isomerase gene (GbCHI) from Ginkgo biloba. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:49-62 pubmed publisher
    ..or treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid or three plant growth regulator-ethylene, abscisic acid, and chlormequat-and these effects were consistent with analysis of the GbCHI promoter region...
  40. Juhler R, Henriksen T, Rosenbom A, Kjaer J. Fate and transport of chlormequat in subsurface environments. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010;17:1245-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlormequat (Cq) is a plant growth regulator used throughout the world. Despite indications of possible effects of Cq on mammalian health and fertility, little is known about its fate and transport in subsurface environments...
  41. Guo X, Xu Y, Zhang F, Yu S, Han L, Jiang S. Chlormequat residues and dissipation rates in cotton crops and soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:642-6 pubmed publisher
    A simple and reliable analytical method for chlormequat residues in cotton and soil was established in this study...
  42. Esparza X, Moyano E, Galceran M. Analysis of chlormequat and mepiquat by hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in food samples. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:4402-6 pubmed publisher
    In this work a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of two quaternary ammonium growth regulators (chlormequat and mepiquat) in food is reported...
  43. Gultom D, Songsang A, ter Meulen U. The effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) inclusion in the diets of growing hens on growth rate, oestrogen levels and the onset of lay. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2001;85:1-8 pubmed
    ..CCC inclusion at 50 p.p.m. significantly (p < 0.05) stimulated the oestrogen concentration at 17 and 18 weeks of age, and was 65% higher than the control at 18 weeks...
  44. Castro R, Moyano E, Galceran M. Determination of chlormequat in fruit samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int. 2001;84:1903-8 pubmed
    ..liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of chlormequat in fruit samples. A solid-phase extraction cleanup procedure with C18 cartridges was used...
  45. Núñez O, Moyano E, Galceran M. High mass accuracy in-source collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry and multi-step mass spectrometry as complementary tools for fragmentation studies of quaternary ammonium herbicides. J Mass Spectrom. 2004;39:873-83 pubmed
    ..0023 Da. Some fragments previously reported in the literature were reassigned taking advantage of the high mass resolution and accuracy of the Q-TOF instrument, which made it possible to solve losses where nitrogen was involved...