hexamethonium compounds

Summary

Summary: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.

Top Publications

  1. Wilkerson R. Cardiovascular effects of cocaine in conscious dogs: importance of fully functional autonomic and central nervous systems. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;246:466-71 pubmed
    ..The blood pressure response observed after cocaine administration was significantly decreased by pretreatment with 10 mg/kg hexamethonium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  2. de Carvalho J, Lapa A. Pharmacology of an Indian-snuff obtained from Amazonian Maquira sclerophylla. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;30:43-54 pubmed
    ..These cardiovascular effects resemble those of digitalis-like drugs. Cardenolides were detected in WP by phytochemical screening...
  3. Okamoto T, Kurahashi K, Fujiwara M. Effects of gallamine on the contractile response of the stomach in cats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1989;51:140-2 pubmed
    ..The subsequent treatment further augmented the delayed contraction. The results indicate that gallamine induced the delayed contraction by a mechanism different from hexamethonium...
  4. Rausch J, Fefferman M, Ladisich Rogers D, Menard M. Effect of nicotine on human blood platelet serotonin uptake and efflux. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1989;13:907-16 pubmed
    ..5. The results distinguish human platelet from rat brain with respect to nicotinic antagonism, and suggest that, at similar concentrations, nicotine may increase extracellular serotonin through differing mechanisms...
  5. Schuller H, Cole B. Regulation of cell proliferation by beta-adrenergic receptors in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1753-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest an important role of beta-adrenergic receptors in the regulation of cell proliferation in lung tumors comprised of this cell type...
  6. Neya T, Mizutani M, Yamasato T. Role of 5-HT3 receptors in peristaltic reflex elicited by stroking the mucosa in the canine jejunum. J Physiol. 1993;471:159-73 pubmed
  7. Yeoman M, Parish D, Benjamin P. A cholinergic modulatory interneuron in the feeding system of the snail, Lymnaea. J Neurophysiol. 1993;70:37-50 pubmed
    ..8. The evidence suggests that ACh is the main neurochemical involved in allowing the SO to initiate and control the frequency of the Lymnaea feeding CPG...
  8. Allescher H, Daniel E, Dent J, Fox J, Kostolanska F. Neural reflex of the canine pylorus to intraduodenal acid infusion. Gastroenterology. 1989;96:18-28 pubmed
    ..As intraluminal acid in the duodenum activates this reflex, it may play a role in the physiologic and pathophysiologic role of gastric emptying in this species...
  9. Poitras P, Trudel L, Lahaie R, St Pierre S. Stimulation of duodenal muscle contraction by porcine or canine motilin in the dog in vivo. Clin Invest Med. 1990;13:11-6 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. McWilliam P, Woolley D. The actions of myelinated and non-myelinated vagal fibres on atrial contraction in the rabbit. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1988;22:67-73 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the recruitment of non-myelinated fibres produces an additional prolonged reduction in atrial contraction which is resistant to hexamethonium but blocked by atropine...
  2. Gronstad K, Zinner M, Nilsson O, Dahlstrom A, Jaffe B, Ahlman H. Vagal release of serotonin into gut lumen and portal circulation via separate control mechanisms. J Surg Res. 1988;44:146-51 pubmed
    ..Based on indirect estimations, the apical release of 5-HT seems to be quantitatively small in comparison with the release into portal circulation...
  3. Vanner S, Surprenant A. Effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on 5-HT and nicotinic depolarizations in guinea-pig submucosal neurones. Br J Pharmacol. 1990;99:840-4 pubmed
  4. Kawano Y, Yoshida K, Hirata Y, Yoshimi H, Kuramochi M, Ito K, et al. Influence of sodium concentration in cerebrospinal fluid on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide in conscious rats. Clin Sci (Lond). 1988;74:49-52 pubmed
    ..ANP release due to central Na+ stimulus appears to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, vasopressin, and/or haemodynamic change caused by these factors...
  5. Damas J. Kallikrein, nitric oxide and the vascular responses of the submaxillary glands in rats exposed to heat. Arch Int Physiol Biochim Biophys. 1994;102:139-46 pubmed
    ..No increase in glandular weight and no swelling of the of the soft tissues were observed. After atropine, the weight of the glands increased and a swelling of the soft tissues appeared.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  6. D AMATO M, De Beurme F, Lefebvre R. Comparison of the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurone stimulation in the cat gastric fundus. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;152:71-82 pubmed
    ..These results are compatible with the hypothesis that VIP is involved in the NANC relaxation of the cat gastric fundus, although participation of a non-VIP component cannot be excluded...
  7. Yashpal K, Gauthier S, Henry J. Angiotensin II stimulates sympathetic output by a direct spinal action. Neuropeptides. 1989;14:21-9 pubmed
  8. Bywater R, Small R, Taylor G. Neurogenic slow depolarizations and rapid oscillations in the membrane potential of circular muscle of mouse colon. J Physiol. 1989;413:505-19 pubmed
  9. Blomberg S, Ricksten S. Thoracic epidural anesthesia in conscious and anaesthetized rats. Effects on central haemodynamics compared to cardiac beta adrenoceptor and ganglionic blockade. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1988;32:166-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, in this conscious animal model, TEA almost completely and rather selectively blocked probably mediated by a reflex activation of unblocked sympathetic efferents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  10. Böhmer G, Schmid K, Baumann M. Evidence for a respiration-modulated cholinergic action on the activity of medullary respiration-related neurons in the rabbit. An iontophoretic study. Pflugers Arch. 1989;415:72-80 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that the efficacy of (i) a central inspiration terminating mechanism and (ii) the onset of discharge of expiratory neurons is modulated by acetylcholine...
  11. Nelson M, Debas H, Mulvihill S. Vagal stimulation of rat exocrine pancreatic secretion occurs via multiple mediators. Gastroenterology. 1993;105:221-8 pubmed
  12. Iguchi A, Gotoh M, Matsunaga H, Yatomi A, Uemura K, Miura H, et al. Central nervous system-mediated glucagon secretion is enhanced by alpha 2-adrenoreceptor activation. Endocrinology. 1989;125:1581-6 pubmed
    ..From this evidence it is suggested that central nervous system-mediated glucagon release is enhanced by alpha 2-adrenoreceptor stimulation by either catecholamines or the autonomic nervous system...
  13. Saito M, Minokoshi Y, Shimazu T. Accelerated norepinephrine turnover in peripheral tissues after ventromedial hypothalamic stimulation in rats. Brain Res. 1989;481:298-303 pubmed
    ..Epinephrine turnover in the adrenal gland was accelerated by stimulation of not only the VMH but also the LH. It was concluded that the VMH is intimately associated with sympathetic facilitation in peripheral tissues...
  14. Ishizuka O, Igawa Y, Mattiasson A, Andersson K. Capsaicin-induced bladder hyperactivity in normal conscious rats. J Urol. 1994;152:525-30 pubmed
    ..In the rat, intravesical capsaicin may be a suitable model for studies of afferent activity caused by stimuli releasing peptides from sensory nerves in the bladder, thereby provoking bladder hyperactivity...
  15. Pichet R, Cantin M, Thibault G, Lavallee M. Hemodynamic and renal responses to physiological levels of atrial natriuretic factor in conscious dogs. Hypertension. 1989;14:104-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, in conscious dogs, physiologically relevant increases in plasma levels of ANF reached diuretic and natriuretic thresholds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  16. Ogunbiyi P, Misra H. Alterations of guinea pig alveolar macrophage oxidative metabolism by nicotine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989;98:25-30 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of some pulmonary diseases...
  17. Yardley C, Stein R, Weaver L. Tonic influences from the rostral medulla affect sympathetic nerves differentially. Am J Physiol. 1989;256:R323-31 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that the tonic discharge of neurons in the RVLM has unequal influences on renal and mesenteric nerves...
  18. Miki K, Hayashida Y, Sagawa S, Shiraki K. Renal sympathetic nerve activity and natriuresis during water immersion in conscious dogs. Am J Physiol. 1989;256:R299-305 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 2.0 mmHg relative to the control level, respectively. It is concluded that the reduction of RSNA observed during WI plays a major role in the natriuresis in the dog...
  19. Waddell D, Rein A, Panarites C, Coleman P, Weiss C. Cost implications of introducing an alternative treatment for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in a managed care setting. Am J Manag Care. 2001;7:981-91 pubmed
    ..To illustrate the current cost of treating osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and to demonstrate potential savings associated with the new treatment modality of viscosupplementation in a managed care setting...
  20. Okamoto T, Kurahashi K, Fujiwara M, Oikawa H. GABAA-receptor-mediated inhibition of the delayed increase in intragastric pressure to stimulation of vagal afferent fibres in cats. Br J Pharmacol. 1988;95:163-8 pubmed
    ..5. The present experiments demonstrate that GABAA-receptors are involved in the inhibitory action of GABA on the delayed contraction of the stomach to vagal afferent stimulation...
  21. Whim M, Lloyd P. Neuropeptide cotransmitters released from an identified cholinergic motor neuron modulate neuromuscular efficacy in Aplysia. J Neurosci. 1990;10:3313-22 pubmed
    ..With respect to behavior, this modulation of muscle contractions would be most likely to occur during food-induced arousal when both motor neurons fire at high frequency with brief interburst intervals...
  22. Minano F, Sancibrian M, Serrano J. Hypothermic effect of GABA in conscious stressed rats: its modification by cholinergic agonists and antagonists. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1987;39:721-6 pubmed
    ..Muscarinic receptors may play an important role in the effect of GABA. The results support the hypothesis of nicotinic presynaptic receptors modulating noradrenergic nerve endings that play a part in the hypothermic response of GABA...
  23. Hugonet F, Nagain C, Chariot J, Tsocas A, Roze C. [Relative importance of cholecystokinin and cholinergic nerve mechanisms in the regulation of pancreatic secretion in rats]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1990;14:750-6 pubmed
    ..01), and the bicarbonate response by 50 percent (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  24. Nakazato Y, Ohga A, Oleshansky M, Tomita U, Yamada Y. Voltage-independent catecholamine release mediated by the activation of muscarinic receptors in guinea-pig adrenal glands. Br J Pharmacol. 1988;93:101-9 pubmed
    ..Activation of muscarinic or nicotinic receptors appears to stimulate catecholamine release through different mechanisms with respect to both voltage-dependence and Ca requirements...
  25. Kizawa Y, Takayanagi I, Shinkai M, Ohno Y. Pharmacological action of nicotine in the isolated urinary bladder from rabbit: special reference to the chronic nicotine treatment. Gen Pharmacol. 1988;19:269-71 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that chronic nicotine treatment might cause a decrease of the amounts of nicotinic receptors and also receptors for mediators released by nicotine...
  26. Rothwell N, Stock M. Effect of diet and fenfluramine on thermogenesis in the rat: possible involvement of serotonergic mechanisms. Int J Obes. 1987;11:319-24 pubmed
  27. Randich A, Roose M, Gebhart G. Characterization of antinociception produced by glutamate microinjection in the nucleus tractus solitarius and the nucleus reticularis ventralis. J Neurosci. 1988;8:4675-84 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with a role for the NTS and NRV in the production of antinociception...
  28. Nakamura K, Hatano Y, Mori K. The site of action of trimethaphan-induced neuromuscular blockade in isolated rat and frog muscle. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1988;32:125-30 pubmed
  29. Sano H, Hattori N, Todome Y, Tsuruoka J, Takahashi H, Terashima Y. Plasma insulin and glucagon responses to intravenous infusion of propionate and their autonomic control in sheep. J Anim Sci. 1993;71:3414-22 pubmed
  30. Leenen F, Yuan B, Tsoporis J, Lee R. Arterial hypertrophy and pressor responsiveness during development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 1994;12:23-32 pubmed
  31. See N, Bass P. Nutrient-induced changes in the permeability of the rat jejunal mucosa. J Pharm Sci. 1993;82:721-4 pubmed
    ..This suggestion is consistent with the hypothesis that the modulation of mucosal permeability results from the activation of sodium-dependent cotransport systems...
  32. Haghparast A, Khani A, Naderi N, Alizadeh A, Motamedi F. Repeated administration of nicotine attenuates the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;88:385-92 pubmed
    ..The data suggests that the inhibitory effect of nicotine on the morphine tolerance and dependence is mediated by central nicotinic receptors and there is a cross-dependence between nicotine and morphine...
  33. Bachoo M, Yip R, Polosa C. Effect of naloxone and prolonged preganglionic stimulation on noncholinergic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1990;68:1093-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the process underlying the fade involves only the conditioned axons. Recovery from the fade was slow, the response approaching control by 24 h post-stimulus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  34. Petrali J, Maxwell D, Lenz D, Mills K. Effect of an anticholinesterase compound on the ultrastructure and function of the rat blood-brain barrier: a review and experiment. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 1991;23:331-8 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  35. Nylander O, Hallgren A, Holm L. Duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion, permeability, and blood flow. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:G1029-38 pubmed
    ..A positive linear correlation exists between MABP and mucosal permeability, suggesting that marked changes of MABP may influence permeation of small water-soluble solutes across duodenal mucosa...
  36. Okada S, Yamaguchi Shima N, Shimizu T, Arai J, Lianyi L, Wakiguchi H, et al. Role of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in centrally administered corticotropin-releasing factor-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;587:322-9 pubmed publisher
  37. Valentino R, Dingledine R. Presynaptic inhibitory effect of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1981;1:784-92 pubmed
    ..This effect of ACh is widespread, occurring in all regions of Ammon's horn tested as well as in stratum moleculare of fascia dentata...
  38. Blum B, Israeli J, Hart O, Mihiz M, Farchi M. Sympatho-inhibitory mechanisms acting at sympathetic ganglia to attenuate hypothalamic-induced pressor effect in the cat. Experientia. 1987;43:1106-9 pubmed
  39. Bicknell R, Leng G, Lincoln D, Russell J. Naloxone excites oxytocin neurones in the supraoptic nucleus of lactating rats after chronic morphine treatment. J Physiol. 1988;396:297-317 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate tolerance to initial inhibitory effects of morphine on oxytocin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  40. Pozo F, Fueyo A, Esteban M, Rojo Ortega J, Marin B. Reflex pressor response to gastric mechanical stimulation in rats. J Physiol (Paris). 1987;82:18-24 pubmed
    ..Vagal efferent pathways could be also involved...
  41. Bedford T, Tipton C. Exercise training and the arterial baroreflex. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1987;63:1926-32 pubmed
    ..These findings support the concept that the trained individual is at disadvantage during hypotensive episodes and that endurance training will attenuate the sympathetic component of the arterial baroreflex...
  42. Sloan J, Martin W, Bostwick M. Mechanisms involved in the respiratory depressant actions of nicotine in anesthetized rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989;34:559-64 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that central opioidergic and nicotinic processes are involved in nicotine's respiratory depressant and lethal effects...
  43. de Groat W, Kawatani M. Reorganization of sympathetic preganglionic connections in cat bladder ganglia following parasympathetic denervation. J Physiol. 1989;409:431-49 pubmed
    ..This change may contribute to the development of the autonomous hyperactive bladder seen under conditions of peripheral nerve or conus medullaris lesions of the spinal cord...
  44. Yamazaki R, Tsuchida K, Aihara H. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists on cardiac output and blood pressure in spinally anesthetized ganglion-blocked dogs. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1988;295:80-93 pubmed
  45. Koelbel C, Mayer E, Van Deventer G, Snape W, Patel A. Characterization of the effects of neurokinins on canine antral muscle. Am J Physiol. 1988;255:G779-86 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NKA is the natural ligand mediating the myogenic inotropic response in both muscle layers and the cholinergic response in longitudinal muscle...
  46. Böhmer G, Schmid K, Schmidt P, Stehle J. Cholinergic effects on spike-density and burst-duration of medullary respiration-related neurones in the rabbit: an iontophoretic study. Neuropharmacology. 1987;26:1561-72 pubmed
    ..The functional significance of cholinergic effects on respiration-related neurones is discussed with special emphasis of effects on burst duration...
  47. Liu X, Lin K. [Effect and its mechanism of substance P on contractile activity of isolated antral muscle strips of rat]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 1994;46:1-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that SP might be a non-cholinergic excitatory transmitter. Its spasmogenic action might be mediated by activating 5-HT neurons, which elicited release of histamine or directly acted on muscle cells...
  48. Deschamps A, Fournier A, Magder S. Influence of neuropeptide Y on regional vascular capacitance in dogs. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:H165-70 pubmed
    ..Extrasplanchnic Cv increased with NPY, but splanchnic Cv did not change. Thus exogenous NPY infusion decreases splanchnic capacitance, which could potentially increase venous return and cardiac output...
  49. Gotoh M, Iguchi A, Yatomi A, Uemura K, Miura H, Futenma A, et al. Vagally mediated insulin secretion by stimulation of brain cholinergic neurons with neostigmine in bilateral adrenalectomized rats. Brain Res. 1989;493:97-102 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that stimulation of central cholinergic-muscarinic neurons with third cerebral ventricular injection of neostigmine results in vagally mediated insulin secretion in bilateral adrenalectomized fed rats...
  50. King K, Wilson N, Ledsome J. The influence of carotid sinus pressure on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide in anaesthetized rabbits. Life Sci. 1989;44:2081-8 pubmed
  51. Abdel Rahman A. Inadequate blockade by hexamethonium of the baroreceptor heart rate response in anesthetized and conscious rats. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1989;297:68-85 pubmed
  52. Jung G, Louie D, Owyang C. Pancreatic polypeptide inhibits pancreatic enzyme secretion via a cholinergic pathway. Am J Physiol. 1987;253:G706-10 pubmed
    ..This newly identified pathway provides a novel mechanism for hormonal inhibition of pancreatic enzyme secretion via modulation of the classic neurotransmitter function...
  53. Levin R, Kitada S, Hayes L, Kau S, Fromm Freeck S, Howe B, et al. Experimental hyperreflexia: effect of intravesical administration of various agents. Pharmacology. 1991;42:54-60 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the acute hyperreflexic (rabbit) preparation provides a highly reproducible and consistent model for the study of the effect of drugs on hyperreflexia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..