Summary: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)

Top Publications

  1. Fernàndez Roig S, Cavallé Busquets P, Fernandez Ballart J, Ballesteros M, Berrocal Zaragoza M, Salat Batlle J, et al. Low folate status enhances pregnancy changes in plasma betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations and the association between betaine and homocysteine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:1252-9 pubmed publisher
    Folate, choline, and betaine participate in homocysteine metabolism. It is not known whether they interact during pregnancy.
  2. Lai S, Lai M. Characterization and regulation of the osmolyte betaine synthesizing enzymes GSMT and SDMT from halophilic methanogen Methanohalophilus portucalensis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25090 pubmed publisher
    The halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis can synthesize the osmolyte betaine de novo in response to extracellular salt stress...
  3. Diehl R, Guinn E, Capp M, Tsodikov O, Record M. Quantifying additive interactions of the osmolyte proline with individual functional groups of proteins: comparisons with urea and glycine betaine, interpretation of m-values. Biochemistry. 2013;52:5997-6010 pubmed publisher
    ..are predicted from ?-values and ASA information and compared with experimental data, with results for glycine betaine and urea, and with predictions from transfer free energy analysis...
  4. Schulze S, Köster S, Geldmacher U, Terwisscha van Scheltinga A, Kuhlbrandt W. Structural basis of Na(+)-independent and cooperative substrate/product antiport in CaiT. Nature. 2010;467:233-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3-A and from Escherichia coli (EcCaiT) at 3.5-A resolution. CaiT belongs to the family of betaine/carnitine/choline transporters (BCCT), which are mostly Na(+) or H(+) dependent, whereas EcCaiT is Na(+) and H(+) ..
  5. Moazzami A, Zhang J, Kamal Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G, Johansson J, et al. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients. J Nutr. 2011;141:2126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A metabolomics analysis of plasma showed an increase in 5 metabolites, including 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and dimethyl sulfone, after RP...
  6. Gloyn A, Faber J, Malmodin D, Thanabalasingham G, Lam F, Ueland P, et al. Metabolic profiling in Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and young onset type 2 diabetes fails to detect robust urinary biomarkers. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40962 pubmed publisher
    ..No single metabolite contributed significantly to the separation of the patient groups. However, betaine, valine, glycine and glucose were elevated in the urine of HNF1A-MODY subjects compared to the other subgroups...
  7. Price R, Keaveney E, Hamill L, Wallace J, Ward M, Ueland P, et al. Consumption of wheat aleurone-rich foods increases fasting plasma betaine and modestly decreases fasting homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol in adults. J Nutr. 2010;140:2153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although underlying mechanisms and components are unclear, betaine, found at high levels in wheat aleurone, may play a role...
  8. Liu Y, Liu Y, Morita T, Sugiyama K. Effects of betaine supplementation and choline deficiency on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58:69-77 pubmed
    The effect of betaine status on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated to determine whether folate deficiency impairs homocysteine removal not only by the methionine synthase (MS) pathway but also by the betaine-..
  9. Yde C, Westerhuis J, Bertram H, Bach Knudsen K. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:1603-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The LF diet resulted in a higher betaine concentration in the blood than the two high-fibre diets (P=0·008)...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Hoffmann T, Wensing A, Brosius M, Steil L, Volker U, Bremer E. Osmotic control of opuA expression in Bacillus subtilis and its modulation in response to intracellular glycine betaine and proline pools. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:510-22 pubmed publisher
    Glycine betaine is an effective osmoprotectant for Bacillus subtilis. Its import into osmotically stressed cells led to the buildup of large pools, whose size was sensitively determined by the degree of the osmotic stress imposed...
  2. Tang W, Wang Z, Levison B, Koeth R, Britt E, Fu X, et al. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1575-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans...
  3. Dominguez Salas P, Moore S, Cole D, da Costa K, Cox S, Dyer R, et al. DNA methylation potential: dietary intake and blood concentrations of one-carbon metabolites and cofactors in rural African women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:1217-27 pubmed publisher
    Animal models show that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B-12, choline, and betaine can induce differences in offspring phenotype mediated by epigenetic changes in DNA...
  4. Perez C, Koshy C, Ressl S, Nicklisch S, Kramer R, Ziegler C. Substrate specificity and ion coupling in the Na+/betaine symporter BetP. EMBO J. 2011;30:1221-9 pubmed publisher
    BetP is an Na(+)-coupled betaine-specific transporter of the betaine-choline-carnitine (BCC) transporter family involved in the response to hyperosmotic stress...
  5. Oliva J, Zhong J, Buslon V, French S. The effect of SAMe and betaine on Hepa 1-6, C34 and E47 liver cell survival in vitro. Exp Mol Pathol. 2012;92:126-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the survival of liver cells treated with SAMe and betaine using Hepa 1-6 and E47/C34 cell lines...
  6. Lever M, George P, Atkinson W, Molyneux S, Elmslie J, Slow S, et al. Plasma lipids and betaine are related in an acute coronary syndrome cohort. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21666 pubmed publisher
    Low plasma betaine has been associated with unfavorable plasma lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk. In some studies raised plasma betaine after supplementation is associated with elevations in plasma lipids...
  7. Qian Y, Song J. [Effects of salinity and betaine on BHMT mRNA expression in Lateolabrax japonicus]. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2011;32:277-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteines (Hcy) to form dimethylglycine and Met, respectively...
  8. Spielmeyer A, Pohnert G. Influence of temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and glycine betaine by marine phytoplankton. Mar Environ Res. 2012;73:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we addressed glycine betaine (GBT) that fulfills a similar function as osmolyte like DMSP...
  9. Wang L, Chen L, Tan Y, Wei J, Chang Y, Jin T, et al. Betaine supplement alleviates hepatic triglyceride accumulation of apolipoprotein E deficient mice via reducing methylation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha promoter. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:34 pubmed publisher
    b>Betaine is a methyl donor and has been considered as a lipotropic effect substance. But its mechanism remains unclear. Hepatic steatosis is associated with abnormal expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism...
  10. Shek Y, Chalikian T. Interactions of glycine betaine with proteins: insights from volume and compressibility measurements. Biochemistry. 2013;52:672-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of cytochrome c, ribonuclease A, lysozyme, and ovalbumin in aqueous solutions of the stabilizing osmolyte glycine betaine (GB) at concentrations between 0 and 4 M...
  11. Obeid R. The metabolic burden of methyl donor deficiency with focus on the betaine homocysteine methyltransferase pathway. Nutrients. 2013;5:3481-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The methyl group can directly be delivered by dietary methyl donors, including methionine, folate, betaine, and choline. The liver and the muscles appear to be the major organs for methyl group metabolism...
  12. Menna M, Aiello A, D Aniello F, Fattorusso E, Imperatore C, Luciano P, et al. Further investigation of the Mediterranean sponge Axinella polypoides: isolation of a new cyclonucleoside and a new betaine. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:2509-18 pubmed publisher
    ..into the metabolic content of the Mediterranean sponge Axinella-polypoides resulted in the isolation of the new betaine 5 and the new cyclonucleoside 8...
  13. Wu B, Dyer R, King D, Richardson K, Innis S. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43448 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age.
  14. Imbard A, Smulders Y, Barto R, Smith D, Kok R, Jakobs C, et al. Plasma choline and betaine correlate with serum folate, plasma S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013;51:683-92 pubmed
    ..its synthesis requires methyl groups donated by S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet); and b) choline oxidation product betaine methylates homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine (Met) and produces dimethylglycine...
  15. Chai G, Jiang X, Ni Z, Ma Z, Xie A, Cheng X, et al. Betaine attenuates Alzheimer-like pathological changes and memory deficits induced by homocysteine. J Neurochem. 2013;124:388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of simultaneous supplement of betaine on Alzheimer-like pathological changes and memory deficits in hyperhomocysteinemic rats after a 2-week induction ..
  16. Perez C, Koshy C, Yildiz O, Ziegler C. Alternating-access mechanism in conformationally asymmetric trimers of the betaine transporter BetP. Nature. 2012;490:126-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Betaine and Na(+) symport has been extensively studied in the osmotically regulated transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a member of the betaine/choline/carnitine transporter family, which shares the conserved LeuT-like fold ..
  17. Ongagna Yhombi S, Boyd E. Biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, but not glycine betaine, is critical for survival of osmotically stressed Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:5038-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The V. parahaemolyticus genome contains biosynthesis systems for both ectoine and glycine betaine, which are known to act as compatible solutes in other species. We showed that V...
  18. Zeng F, Xu C, Liu Y, Fan Y, Lin X, Lu Y, et al. Choline and betaine intakes are associated with reduced risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in adults: a case-control study. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:808-16 pubmed publisher
    Intakes of choline and betaine have been inversely related to the risk of various neoplasms, but scant data exist on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between consumption of choline and betaine and risk of NPC.
  19. Ross A, Bruce S, Blondel Lubrano A, Oguey Araymon S, Beaumont M, Bourgeois A, et al. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:1492-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, ..
  20. Missihoun T, Schmitz J, Klug R, Kirch H, Bartels D. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis with different sub-cellular localization affect stress responses. Planta. 2011;233:369-82 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to those plants that do not naturally accumulate glycine betaine (GB), although its genome contains two genes, ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 that code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs)...
  21. Chen T, Murata N. Glycinebetaine protects plants against abiotic stress: mechanisms and biotechnological applications. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, transgenic approaches that increase tolerance to abiotic stress have enhanced our understanding of mechanisms that protect plants against such stress...
  22. Vanhauteghem D, Janssens G, Lauwaerts A, Sys S, Boyen F, Kalmar I, et al. Glycine and its N-methylated analogues cause pH-dependent membrane damage to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Amino Acids. 2012;43:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine), N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine) under varying pH conditions...
  23. Seddon J, Reynolds R, Shah H, Rosner B. Smoking, dietary betaine, methionine, and vitamin D in monozygotic twins with discordant macular degeneration: epigenetic implications. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1386-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated monozygotic twin pairs with discordant age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes to assess differences in behavioral and nutritional factors...
  24. Hoffmann L, Brauers G, Gehrmann T, Haussinger D, Mayatepek E, Schliess F, et al. Osmotic regulation of hepatic betaine metabolism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G835-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Betaine critically contributes to the control of hepatocellular hydration and provides protection of the liver from different kinds of stress...
  25. Zhang C, Pan M, Li B, Wang L, Mo X, Chen Y, et al. Choline and betaine intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk: a two-stage case-control study in China. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:250-8 pubmed publisher
    Few epidemiological studies have evaluated the association of choline and betaine intake with breast cancer risk and the results remain inconsistent...
  26. Lever M, George P, Elmslie J, Atkinson W, Slow S, Molyneux S, et al. Betaine and secondary events in an acute coronary syndrome cohort. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37883 pubmed publisher
    b>Betaine insufficiency is associated with unfavourable vascular risk profiles in metabolic syndrome patients. We investigated associations between betaine insufficiency and secondary events in acute coronary syndrome patients.
  27. Schwab U, Alfthan G, Aro A, Uusitupa M. Long-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65:70-6 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effects of betaine on serum lipid profile, plasma homocysteine concentration and hemostatic factors in healthy subjects.
  28. Kathirvel E, Morgan K, Nandgiri G, Sandoval B, Caudill M, Bottiglieri T, et al. Betaine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver and associated hepatic insulin resistance: a potential mechanism for hepatoprotection by betaine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1068-77 pubmed publisher
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a common liver disease, associated with insulin resistance. Betaine has been tested as a treatment for NAFL in animal models and in small clinical trials, with mixed results...
  29. Pekkinen J, Olli K, Huotari A, Tiihonen K, Keski Rahkonen P, Lehtonen M, et al. Betaine supplementation causes increase in carnitine metabolites in the muscle and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet as studied by nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:1959-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Betaine (BET) reduces diet-induced liver lipid accumulation, and may relieve obesity-related metabolic disturbances...
  30. Youssef N, Savage Ashlock K, McCully A, Luedtke B, Shaw E, Hoff W, et al. Trehalose/2-sulfotrehalose biosynthesis and glycine-betaine uptake are widely spread mechanisms for osmoadaptation in the Halobacteriales. ISME J. 2014;8:636-49 pubmed publisher
    ..OtsAB pathway) and trehalose glycosyl-transferring synthase pathway), as well as for glycine betaine uptake (BCCT family of secondary transporters and QAT family of ABC transporters). H...
  31. Vander Hoogerstraete T, Onghena B, Binnemans K. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of rare earths with the betaine-betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid system. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:21353-77 pubmed publisher
    ..of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and ..
  32. Strakova J, Williams K, Gupta S, Schalinske K, Kruger W, Rozen R, et al. Dietary intake of S-(alpha-carboxybutyl)-DL-homocysteine induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Nutr Res. 2010;30:492-500 pubmed publisher
    b>Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteine (Hcy), forming dimethylglycine and methionine...
  33. Liu J, Wisniewski M, Droby S, Vero S, Tian S, Hershkovitz V. Glycine betaine improves oxidative stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of the antagonistic yeast Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;146:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..viability of the yeast antagonist, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, as well as the effect of exogenous glycine betaine (GB) on yeast viability under oxidative stress, was determined. GB treatment improved the tolerance of C...
  34. Díaz Sánchez A, González Segura L, Mújica Jiménez C, Rudiño Piñera E, Montiel C, Martínez Castilla L, et al. Amino acid residues critical for the specificity for betaine aldehyde of the plant ALDH10 isoenzyme involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..or ?-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine ..
  35. Patterson A, Bonzo J, Li F, Krausz K, Eichler G, Aslam S, et al. Metabolomics reveals attenuation of the SLC6A20 kidney transporter in nonhuman primate and mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19511-22 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in the T2DM when compared with the normal group included glycine betaine (9-fold), citric acid (2.8-fold), kynurenic acid (1.8-fold), glucose (68-fold), and pipecolic acid (6.5-fold)...
  36. Wallace J, McCormack J, McNulty H, Walsh P, Robson P, Bonham M, et al. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: a randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1264-71 pubmed
    ..Choline can be oxidised to the methyl donor betaine, with short-term supplementation reported to lower plasma total homocysteine (tHcy); however, the effects of ..
  37. Guinn E, Pegram L, Capp M, Pollock M, Record M. Quantifying why urea is a protein denaturant, whereas glycine betaine is a protein stabilizer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16932-7 pubmed publisher
    To explain the large, opposite effects of urea and glycine betaine (GB) on stability of folded proteins and protein complexes, we quantify and interpret preferential interactions of urea with 45 model compounds displaying protein ..
  38. Pellanda H, Namour F, Fofou Caillierez M, Bressenot A, Alberto J, Chery C, et al. A splicing variant leads to complete loss of function of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) gene in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:385-92 pubmed publisher
    The remethylation of homocyteine into methionine is catalyzed either by methionine synthase (MTR) or by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), in the liver...
  39. Mukherjee S. Betaine and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: back to the future?. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:3663-4 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Betaine has been used for NASH, with mixed results, and may show promise in conjunction with other agents in clinical ..
  40. Trepanowski J, Farney T, McCarthy C, Schilling B, Craig S, Bloomer R. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:3461-71 pubmed publisher
    Trepanowski, JF, Farney, TM, McCarthy, CG, Schilling, BK, Craig, SA, and Bloomer, RJ. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, and associated biochemical parameters in ..
  41. Ibiebele T, Hughes M, Pandeya N, Zhao Z, Montgomery G, Hayward N, et al. High intake of folate from food sources is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer in an Australian population. J Nutr. 2011;141:274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the relation between intake of folate, B vitamins, and methyl-group donors (methionine, choline, betaine) from foods and supplements, polymorphisms in key folate-metabolizing genes, and risk of BE, esophageal ..
  42. Oliva J, Bardag Gorce F, Tillman B, French S. Protective effect of quercetin, EGCG, catechin and betaine against oxidative stress induced by ethanol in vitro. Exp Mol Pathol. 2011;90:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested 4 candidate agents: quercetin, EGCG, catechin and betaine, all of which occur naturally in food...
  43. Wang Z, Klipfell E, Bennett B, Koeth R, Levison B, Dugar B, et al. Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease. Nature. 2011;472:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine--choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine--were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort...
  44. Fan W, Zhang M, Zhang H, Zhang P. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37344 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible ..
  45. Wargo M. Choline catabolism to glycine betaine contributes to Pseudomonas aeruginosa survival during murine lung infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56850 pubmed publisher
    ..In P. aeruginosa, choline is oxidized to glycine betaine which can be used as an osmoprotectant, a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, and as an inducer of the virulence ..
  46. Kawakami S, Han K, Nakamura Y, Shimada K, Kitano T, Aritsuka T, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with betaine on a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58:371-5 pubmed
    The effects of betaine supplementation on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice were examined by measuring the accumulation of fat in the livers of NASH model mice compared to a control...
  47. Garrett Q, Khandekar N, Shih S, Flanagan J, Simmons P, Vehige J, et al. Betaine stabilizes cell volume and protects against apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells under hyperosmotic stress. Exp Eye Res. 2013;108:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of the organic osmolyte, betaine, to act as an osmoprotectant against hypertonic stress-induced human corneal epithelial cell shrinkage and ..
  48. Lever M, George P, Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Slow S, Molyneux S, et al. The contrasting relationships between betaine and homocysteine in two clinical cohorts are associated with plasma lipids and drug treatments. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32460 pubmed publisher
    Urinary betaine excretion positively correlated with plasma homocysteine in outpatients attending a lipid disorders clinic (lipid clinic study). We aimed to confirm this in subjects with established vascular disease.
  49. Lever M, Slow S, McGregor D, Dellow W, George P, Chambers S. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:34 pubmed publisher
    Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients), we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes ..
  50. Cibis E, Ryznar Luty A, Krzywonos M, Lutosławski K, Miśkiewicz T. Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process. J Environ Manage. 2011;92:1733-9 pubmed publisher
    ..a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent...
  51. Song H, Leninger M, Lee N, Liu P. Regioselectivity of the oxidative C-S bond formation in ergothioneine and ovothiol biosyntheses. Org Lett. 2013;15:4854-7 pubmed publisher
  52. Nau Wagner G, Opper D, Rolbetzki A, Boch J, Kempf B, Hoffmann T, et al. Genetic control of osmoadaptive glycine betaine synthesis in Bacillus subtilis through the choline-sensing and glycine betaine-responsive GbsR repressor. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2703-14 pubmed publisher
    Synthesis of the compatible solute glycine betaine confers a considerable degree of osmotic stress tolerance to Bacillus subtilis...
  53. Hoffmann T, Bremer E. Protection of Bacillus subtilis against cold stress via compatible-solute acquisition. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1552-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Bacillus subtilis uses the compatible solute glycine betaine as an effective cold stress protectant...