promethazine

Summary

Summary: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.

Top Publications

  1. Dönmez Y, Akhmetova L, Iseri O, Kars M, Gunduz U. Effect of MDR modulators verapamil and promethazine on gene expression levels of MDR1 and MRP1 in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;67:823-8 pubmed publisher
    ..as calcium channel blocker verapamil) or interact with phospholipid membranes (such as antihistaminic drug promethazine)...
  2. Hindmarch I, Shamsi Z, Kimber S. An evaluation of the effects of high-dose fexofenadine on the central nervous system: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32:133-9 pubmed
  3. Galeotti N, Ghelardini C, Bartolini A. Antihistamine antinociception is mediated by Gi-protein activation. Neuroscience. 2002;109:811-8 pubmed
    ..The administration of diphenhydramine (20 mg kg(-1) s.c.), pyrilamine (15 mg kg(-1) s.c.) and promethazine (6 mg kg(-1) s.c.) produced an increase of the pain threshold which peaked 15 min after injection...
  4. Wittekindt O, Schmitz A, Lehmann Horn F, Hänsel W, Grissmer S. The human Ca2+-activated K+ channel, IK, can be blocked by the tricyclic antihistamine promethazine. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50:458-67 pubmed
    ..The representative phenothiazine derivative promethazine (PTZ) blocked IK channels almost independently from the extracellular pH(o) with an IC(50) of 49 +/- 0...
  5. Kawase M, Motohashi N, Sakagami H, Kanamoto T, Nakashima H, Ferenczy L, et al. Antimicrobial activity of trifluoromethyl ketones and their synergism with promethazine. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001;18:161-5 pubmed
    ..Compound 18 was also effective against yeasts. The combination of promethazine with 18 was significantly synergistic against E. coli strains, especially the proton pump deficient mutant...
  6. Bate A, Kalin J, Fooksman E, Amorose E, Price C, Williams H, et al. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of quaternized promazine and promethazine derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:1346-8 pubmed
    Quaternized chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, and promethazine derivatives were synthesized and examined as antitubercular agents against both actively growing and non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv...
  7. Asghar M, Khan I, Bano N. In vitro antioxidant and radical-scavenging capacities of Citrullus colocynthes (L) and Artemisia absinthium extracts using promethazine hydrochloride radical cation and contemporary assays. Food Sci Technol Int. 2011;17:481-94 pubmed publisher
    A new, quick and economical decolorization assay based upon the generation of a radical cation made from promethazine hydrochloride (PMZH) is described for screening of antioxidant activity of plants/herbal extracts...
  8. Chia Y, Lo Y, Liu K, Tan P, Chung N, Ko N. The effect of promethazine on postoperative pain: a comparison of preoperative, postoperative, and placebo administration in patients following total abdominal hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004;48:625-30 pubmed
    ..We investigated the influence of timing of promethazine administration on postoperative pain outcomes.
  9. Owczuk R, Twardowski P, Dylczyk Sommer A, Wujtewicz M, Sawicka W, Drogoszewska B, et al. Influence of promethazine on cardiac repolarisation: a double-blind, midazolam-controlled study. Anaesthesia. 2009;64:609-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effect of promethazine on the parameters of ventricular repolarisation: QTc interval and transmural dispersion of repolarisation...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Solt I, Ganadry S, Weiner Z. The effect of meperidine and promethazine on fetal heart rate indices during the active phase of labor. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:178-80 pubmed
    ..Visual interpretation of fetal heart rare monitoring is subject to intra- and inter-observer variability...
  2. Huf G, da Silva Freire Coutinho E, Fagundes H, Oliveira E, Lopez J, Gewandszajder M, et al. Current practices in managing acutely disturbed patients at three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil: a prevalence study. BMC Psychiatry. 2002;2:4 pubmed
    ..In order to prepare for a randomised trial, due to start in the psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio de Janeiro in 2001, a survey of current practice was necessary...
  3. Adikwu M, Holtje H. Mechanistic appraisal of the charge-transfer complexes of promethazine with chloranil: a modelling approach. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:669-74 pubmed
    ..In this study, the above mechanisms were examined as well as other possible mechanisms. Promethazine was chosen as the model drug containing aromatic systems capable of pi-pi interaction as well as N-methyl group ..
  4. Gbotosho G, Happi C, Sijuade A, Ogundahunsi O, Sowunmi A, Oduola A. Comparative study of interactions between chloroquine and chlorpheniramine or promethazine in healthy volunteers: a potential combination-therapy phenomenon for resuscitating chloroquine for malaria treatment in Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102:3-9 pubmed publisher
    Although, in in-vitro and limited in-vivo studies, chlorpheniramine (CP) and promethazine (PR) have each been shown to reverse chloroquine (CQ) resistance, the pharmacokinetic basis of this reversal has not been fully elucidated...
  5. de Silva H, Pathmeswaran A, Ranasinha C, Jayamanne S, Samarakoon S, Hittharage A, et al. Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000435 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a ..
  6. Page C, Duffull S, Whyte I, Isbister G. Promethazine overdose: clinical effects, predicting delirium and the effect of charcoal. QJM. 2009;102:123-31 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical effects of promethazine in overdose and explore the relationship between delirium and possible predictor variables.
  7. Williams D, Jensen S, Nimorakiotakis B, Muller R, Winkel K. Antivenom use, premedication and early adverse reactions in the management of snake bites in rural Papua New Guinea. Toxicon. 2007;49:780-92 pubmed
    ..To examine antivenom use, premedication, early adverse reactions and patient outcomes after snake bite in rural Papua New Guinea...
  8. Lehtinen J, Lilius E. Promethazine renders Escherichia coli susceptible to penicillin G: real-time measurement of bacterial susceptibility by fluoro-luminometry. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;30:44-51 pubmed
    ..membrane permeability of Escherichia coli with tricyclic cationic compounds, such as the non-antibiotic drug promethazine. We also established the activity of these compounds as modifiers of antibiotic resistance in bacteria by a ..
  9. Khalil S, Philbrook L, Rabb M, Wells L, Aves T, Villanueva G, et al. Ondansetron/promethazine combination or promethazine alone reduces nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery. J Clin Anesth. 1999;11:596-600 pubmed
    To determine the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting when a combination of ondansetron and promethazine is given prophylactically, and to ascertain the effect of postoperative nausea and vomiting on recovery room duration and ..
  10. de Matos Alves Pinto L, Malheiros S, Lino A, de Paula E, Perillo M. Hydroxyzine, promethazine and thioridazine interaction with phospholipid monomolecular layers at the air-water interface. Biophys Chem. 2006;119:247-55 pubmed
    In this work the interaction of Hydroxyzine, Promethazine and Thioridazine with Langmuir films of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (dpPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (dpPA), is studied...
  11. Braude D, Crandall C. Ondansetron versus promethazine to treat acute undifferentiated nausea in the emergency department: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15:209-15 pubmed publisher
    The authors sought to compare ondansetron and promethazine among emergency department (ED) patients with undifferentiated nausea...
  12. Starke P, Weaver J, Chowdhury B. Boxed warning added to promethazine labeling for pediatric use. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2653 pubmed
  13. Suzuki A, Yasui Furukori N, Mihara K, Kondo T, Furukori H, Inoue Y, et al. Histamine H1-receptor antagonists, promethazine and homochlorcyclizine, increase the steady-state plasma concentrations of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol. Ther Drug Monit. 2003;25:192-6 pubmed
    The effects of histamine H1-receptor antagonists, promethazine and homochlorcyclizine, both of which are inhibitors of CYP2D6, on the steady-state plasma concentrations (Css) of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol were studied in 23 ..
  14. Vishne T, Amiaz R, Grunhaus L. Promethazine for the treatment of agitation after electroconvulsive therapy: a case series. J ECT. 2005;21:118-21 pubmed
    Agitation after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is observed in approximately 7% of patients. Promethazine is an antihistamine with sedative properties that has no antiseizure effects and therefore can be administered before ECT to prevent ..
  15. Jo S, Hong H, Chong S, Lee H, Choe H. H(1) antihistamine drug promethazine directly blocks hERG K(+) channel. Pharmacol Res. 2009;60:429-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative with antihistaminic (H(1)), sedative, antiemetic, anticholinergic, and antimotion sickness properties that can induce QT prolongation, which may lead to torsades de pointes...
  16. Petik D, Acs N, Banhidy F, Czeizel A. A study of the potential teratogenic effect of large doses of promethazine used for a suicide attempt by 32 pregnant women. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:87-96 pubmed publisher
    In Hungary, promethazine, a phenothiazine antihistamine, is the second most frequently used drug during pregnancy...
  17. Schroder S, Surmann P. Photoallergenic potential testing by online irradiation and HPLC. Pharmazie. 2010;65:339-42 pubmed
    ..b>Promethazine (PMZ) as a second drug was investigated by the developed screening system...
  18. Molnar A, Amaral L, Molnar J. Antiplasmid effect of promethazine in mixed bacterial cultures. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;22:217-22 pubmed
    b>Promethazine has been recognised as an effective antiplasmid agent in cultures containing a single bacterial species such as Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens...
  19. Smith W, Millington D, Koeberl D, Lesser P. Glutaric acidemia, type I, missed by newborn screening in an infant with dystonia following promethazine administration. Pediatrics. 2001;107:1184-7 pubmed
    We report a child initially diagnosed with promethazine-induced dystonia despite a lack of response to diphenhydramine therapy...
  20. Ruedas Rama M, Ruiz Medina A, Molina Diaz A. Bead injection spectroscopy-flow injection analysis (BIS-FIA): an interesting tool applicable to pharmaceutical analysis. Determination of promethazine and trifluoperazine. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004;35:1027-34 pubmed
    A bead injection spectroscopy-flow injection analysis (BIS-FIA) system for the spectrophotometric detection of promethazine and trifluoperazine is developed...
  21. Kai Y, Okamoto O, Fujiwara S. Fixed drug eruption caused by three unrelated drugs: promethazine, pethidine and omeprazole. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36:755-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An oral provocation test and a patch test were carried out, and the patient reacted to promethazine, which is a derivative of phenothiazine...
  22. Ridout F, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute doses of fexofenadine, promethazine, and placebo on cognitive and psychomotor function in healthy Japanese volunteers. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;90:404-10 pubmed
    ..Genetic variations in cross-cultural metabolic capability may attenuate the lack of central nervous system effects of fexofenadine...
  23. Ernst A, Weiss S, Park S, Takakuwa K, Diercks D. Prochlorperazine versus promethazine for uncomplicated nausea and vomiting in the emergency department: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;36:89-94 pubmed
    ..The most effective antiemetic agent is yet undetermined. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of prochlorperazine versus promethazine for uncomplicated nausea and vomiting in the ED.
  24. Moser J, Caldwell J, Rhule F. No more than necessary: safety and efficacy of low-dose promethazine. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:45-8 pubmed
    Limitations in antiemetic options have resulted in increased use of intravenous promethazine. However, this drug has significant sedative effects with its standard dosage of 25 mg, especially when used in conjunction with narcotic ..
  25. Scherl E, Wilson J. Comparison of dihydroergotamine with metoclopramide versus meperidine with promethazine in the treatment of acute migraine. Headache. 1995;35:256-9 pubmed
    ..a prospective, randomized, double-blind study where each patient received either 75 mg meperidine with 25 mg promethazine IM or .5 mg dihydroergotamine with 10 mg metoclopramide IV...
  26. Kavanagh J, Grant G, Anoopkumar Dukie S. Low dosage promethazine and loratadine negatively affect neuromotor function. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123:780-6 pubmed publisher
    Determine how the sedating antihistamine promethazine and non-sedating antihistamine loratadine at a dose of 10mg influence voluntary and involuntary motor processes in the hours following ingestion and the morning after ingestion.
  27. Huf G, Coutinho E, Adams C. Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in Brazil: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine. BMJ. 2007;335:869 pubmed
    To determine whether haloperidol alone results in swifter and safer tranquillisation and sedation than haloperidol plus promethazine.
  28. Auden S, Sobczyk W, Solinger R, Goldsmith L. Oral ketamine/midazolam is superior to intramuscular meperidine, promethazine, and chlorpromazine for pediatric cardiac catheterization. Anesth Analg. 2000;90:299-305 pubmed
    An IM combination of meperidine, promethazine, and chlorpromazine (DPT) has been given as sedation for pediatric procedures for more than 40 years...
  29. Dallman J, Ignelzi M, Briskie D. Comparing the safety, efficacy and recovery of intranasal midazolam vs. oral chloral hydrate and promethazine. Pediatr Dent. 2001;23:424-30 pubmed
    ..of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy and recovery time of intranasal midazolam spray administered using an atomizer to orally administered chloral hydrate and promethazine for the sedation of pediatric dental patients.
  30. Kamei H, Isaji A, Noda Y, Ishikawa K, Senzaki K, Yamada K, et al. Effects of single therapeutic doses of promethazine, fexofenadine and olopatadine on psychomotor function and histamine-induced wheal- and flare-responses: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers. Arch Dermatol Res. 2012;304:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study to concurrently compare the clinical effectiveness of promethazine, a first-generation antihistamine, and fexofenadine and olopatadine, second-generation antihistamines, by ..
  31. Cleren C, Starkov A, Calingasan N, Lorenzo B, Chen J, Beal M. Promethazine protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;20:701-8 pubmed
    b>Promethazine (PMZ) is an FDA-approved antihistaminergic drug that was identified as a potentially neuroprotective compound in the NINDS screening program...
  32. Hindmarch I, Johnson S, Meadows R, Kirkpatrick T, Shamsi Z. The acute and sub-chronic effects of levocetirizine, cetirizine, loratadine, promethazine and placebo on cognitive function, psychomotor performance, and weal and flare. Curr Med Res Opin. 2001;17:241-55 pubmed
    ..effects of acute and sub-chronic doses of levocetirizine (L-CTZ), cetirizine (CTZ), loratadine (LOR) and promethazine (PRM) versus placebo, using a battery of psychomotor and cognitive tests together with measures of the weal and ..
  33. Raveendran N, Tharyan P, Alexander J, Adams C. Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in India: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine. BMJ. 2007;335:865 pubmed
    To compare the effect of intramuscular olanzapine with intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine on rapid tranquillisation of agitated or violent people with mental illness.
  34. Bui T, Redden R, Murphy S. A comparison study between ketamine and ketamine-promethazine combination for oral sedation in pediatric dental patients. Anesth Prog. 2002;49:14-8 pubmed
    ..1 mg/kg of promethazine orally. Nitrous oxide in oxygen was supplemented between 35 and 50%...
  35. Parlow J, Meikle A, van Vlymen J, Avery N. Post discharge nausea and vomiting after ambulatory laparoscopy is not reduced by promethazine prophylaxis. Can J Anaesth. 1999;46:719-24 pubmed
    To determine the incidence of post-discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) following outpatient laparoscopic procedures in women, and to assess the efficacy of the prophylactic administration of promethazine prior to discharge from hospital.
  36. Alexander J, Tharyan P, Adams C, John T, Mol C, Philip J. Rapid tranquillisation of violent or agitated patients in a psychiatric emergency setting. Pragmatic randomised trial of intramuscular lorazepam v. haloperidol plus promethazine. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;185:63-9 pubmed
    ..The pharmacological management of violence in people with psychiatric disorders is under-researched...
  37. Facchini G, Eberlin S, Clerici S, Alves Pinheiro A, Costa A. Ultraviolet A photosensitivity profile of dexchlorpheniramine maleate and promethazine-based creams: Anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and skin barrier protection properties. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2017;16:e59-e67 pubmed publisher
    ..which are used in inflammatory and/or allergic skin conditions: dexchlorpheniramine maleate (DCP; 10 mg/g) and promethazine (PTZ; 20 mg/g)...
  38. Wolfart K, Spengler G, Kawase M, Motohashi N, Molnar J, Viveiros M, et al. Synergistic interaction between proton pump inhibitors and resistance modifiers: promoting effects of antibiotics and plasmid curing. In Vivo. 2006;20:367-72 pubmed
    ..by resistance modifiers such as the Ca2+ channel blocker (+/-) verapamil (VP) and the calmodulin antagonist promethazine (PMZ)...
  39. Ohashi N, Furuuchi S, Yoshikawa M. Usefulness of the hydrogen--deuterium exchange method in the study of drug metabolism using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1998;18:325-34 pubmed
    ..Metabolite samples of denopamine and promethazine prepared in vitro were introduced to a triple stage quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer via a high performance ..
  40. Hoffmeister C, Trevisan G, Rossato M, de Oliveira S, Gomez M, Ferreira J. Role of TRPV1 in nociception and edema induced by monosodium urate crystals in rats. Pain. 2011;152:1777-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present findings demonstrate that MSU produces nociceptive and edematogenic responses mediated by TRPV1 receptor activation and mast cell degranulation. ..
  41. Yuan B, Huang J, Sun J, You T. A novel technique for NACE coupled with simultaneous electrochemiluminescence and electrochemical detection for fast analysis of tertiary amines. Electrophoresis. 2009;30:479-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Triethylamine (TEA), tripropylamine (TPrA), chlorpromazine, promethazine, and dioxopromethazine (DPZ) were selected to validate NACE-ECL/EC dual detection strategy...
  42. Cowings P, Toscano W, Deroshia C, Taylor B, Hines A, Bright A, et al. Converging indicators for assessing individual differences in adaptation to extreme environments. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007;78:B195-215 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator. ..
  43. Jiang J, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Song G. [Rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine with MRM by LC-MS/MS]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2013;48:94-7 pubmed
    ..phenazone, guaifenesin, chlorphenamine maleate, dextromethorphen hydrobromide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride, propyphenazone, benorilate and diclofenac sodium) with MRM by LC-MS/MS...
  44. Cowings P, Toscano W, DeRoshia C, Miller N. Promethazine as a motion sickness treatment: impact on human performance and mood states. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2000;71:1013-22 pubmed
    Intramuscular (i.m.) injections of promethazine in 25 mg or 50 mg dosages are commonly used to treat space motion sickness in astronauts. The present study examined the effects of i.m...
  45. Pazoki Toroudi H, Ajami M, Habibey R. Pre-medication and renal pre-conditioning: a role for alprazolam, atropine, morphine and promethazine. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010;24:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Different doses of morphine (0.5, 2 and 5 mg/kg), promethazine (1, 2 and 5 mg/kg), atropine (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg) and alprazolam (0.08, 0.32 and 0...
  46. Kishi T, Matsunaga S, Iwata N. Intramuscular olanzapine for agitated patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychiatr Res. 2015;68:198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..for OLA-IM versus HAL-IM plus midazolam; and 3 comparisons with 412 patients for OLA-IM versus HAL-IM plus promethazine, 2 comparisons with 355 patients for OLA-IM versus lorazepam-IM (LOR-IM); and 1 comparison with 67 patients for ..
  47. Fahler J, Wall G, Leman B. Gastroparesis-associated refractory nausea treated with aprepitant. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46:e38 pubmed publisher
    ..for nausea and vomiting, including metoclopramide 10 mg 3 times daily, ondansetron 8 mg 2 times daily, and promethazine (various doses from 12.5 to 25 mg orally up to 3 times daily)...
  48. Hafner A, Filipovic Grcic J, Voinovich D, Jalsenjak I. Development and in vitro characterization of chitosan-based microspheres for nasal delivery of promethazine. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2007;33:427-36 pubmed
    Conventional and composed promethazine-loaded microspheres were prepared by spray drying of chitosan solution systems and double water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion systems, respectively...
  49. Konig H, Honkisch R, Rose A, Mittendorf M. [Comparative clinical studies of oral premedication in childhood with reference to various pharmaceuticals]. Anaesthesiol Reanim. 1990;15:311-20 pubmed
    ..Oral praemedication proved to be a valuable and practicable method which was well tolerated by the great majority of the children. ..
  50. Sheth H, Verrico M, Skledar S, Towers A. Promethazine adverse events after implementation of a medication shortage interchange. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:255-61 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, promethazine was selected as the approved intravenous antiemetic for therapeutic interchange in December 2001...
  51. Joseph N, Tom Esther N, Télesphore Benoît N, Paul Désiré D, Oumarou Bibi Farouck A, Théophile D, et al. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pittosporum mannii Hook. f. (Pittosporaceae) stem barks on spontaneous and spasmogen-induced contractile activity of isolated rat duodenum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;172:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..713 µg/mL) and promethazine (0.5 µg/mL)...
  52. Kronstrand R, Forsman M, Roman M. Quantitative analysis of drugs in hair by UHPLC high resolution mass spectrometry. Forensic Sci Int. 2018;283:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..fentanyl, hydroxyzine, ketobemidone, codeine, cocaine, MDMA, methadone, methamphetamine, morphine, oxycodone, promethazine, propiomazine, propoxyphene, tramadol, zaleplone, zolpidem, and zopiclone...
  53. Keene J, Buckley K, Small S, Geldzahler G. Accidental intra-arterial injection: a case report, new treatment modalities, and a review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:965-8 pubmed
  54. Chen P, Hu X, Liu S, Liu Z, Song Y. Study on the resonance nonlinear scattering spectra of the interactions of promethazine hydrochloride and chlorpromazine hydrochloride with 12-tungstophosphoric acid and their analytical applications. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2010;77:207-12 pubmed publisher
    In pH 1.0 HCl medium, 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TP) reacted with promethazine hydrochloride (PMZ) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) to form ion-association complexes, which led to a great enhancement of the resonance nonlinear ..
  55. Cleren C, Calingasan N, Starkov A, Jacquard C, Chen J, Brouillet E, et al. Promethazine protects against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:208-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Promethazine (PMZ), an FDA-approved antihistaminergic drug, was identified as a potentially neuroprotective compound in a NINDS screening program...
  56. Callan J, Kostic M, Bachrach E, Rieg T. Prochlorperazine vs. promethazine for headache treatment in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial. J Emerg Med. 2008;35:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Although promethazine is used frequently, it has never been studied as a single-agent treatment in undifferentiated headache...
  57. Molnar J, Holland I, Mandi Y. Selection of ion mutants in Escherichia coli by treatment with phenothiazines. Genet Res. 1977;30:13-20 pubmed
  58. Attama A, Ezeamama U. Systematic delivery of chloroquine and promethazine using pH-sensitive polymers. Drug Deliv. 2005;12:103-7 pubmed
    Two pH sensitive polymers (Eudragit L30 D55 and L100) were used as coating materials, respectively, for promethazine hydrochloride and chloroquine phosphate granules formulated with sodium carboxylmethylcellulose and Carbopol 940, ..
  59. Mendhekar D, Andrade C. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome with promethazine. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005;39:113-4 pubmed
  60. Oduola O, Happi T, Gbotosho G, Ogundahunsi O, Falade C, Akinboye D, et al. Plasmodium berghei: efficacy and safety of combinations of chloroquine and promethazine in chloroquine resistant infections in gravid mice. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2004;33:77-81 pubmed
    Efficacy and safety of combinations ofChloroquine (CQ) and doses of Promethazine (PR) against CQ resistant Plasmodium berghei infections in gravid mice was evaluated...
  61. Song Y, Webb M. Comparison of the effect of orally versus submucosally administered meperidine on the behavior of pediatric dental patients: a retrospective study. Anesth Prog. 2003;50:129-33 pubmed
    ..No difference was found in the increase in cooperation between the oral and the submucosal meperidine groups. While no difference was found between the 2 groups, a larger prospective study is needed to confirm these findings...
  62. Singh N, Pandey R, Saksena A, Jaiswal J. A comparative evaluation of oral midazolam with other sedatives as premedication in pediatric dentistry. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2002;26:161-4 pubmed
    ..midazolam in children as a sedative agent and to compare it with two other older agents, triclofos and promethazine. The study was conducted on ninety child patients requiring some short dental procedure...
  63. Gong H, Brik A, Tashkin D, Dauphinee B. Effects of inhaled thiazinamium chloride on histamine-induced and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Ann Allergy. 1989;62:230-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that aerosolized TC is effective in attenuating histamine-induced but not exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in the doses studied. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the role of TC in asthma therapy...
  64. Ben Shlomo I, Amodai I, Levran D, Dor J, Etchin A, Perl A. Midazolam-fentanyl sedation in conjunction with local anesthesia during oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1992;9:83-5 pubmed
  65. Haware R, Chaudhari P, Parakh S, Bauer Brandl A. Development of a melting tablet containing promethazine HCl against motion sickness. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9:1006-15 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to design a 'Traveller Friendly Drug Delivery System' for PM-HCl. Conventional promethazine (PM-HCl) tablets are bitter, need to be taken 1 h before symptoms and water is also needed...
  66. Zhang H, Huang X, Zhang M. Thermodynamic studies on the interaction of dioxopromethazine to beta-cyclodextrin and bovine serum albumin. J Fluoresc. 2008;18:753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of inclusion reaction was speculated and the slow release characteristics of beta-CD to DOPM was attempted to explain at molecule level...
  67. Peters R, Yacoubian G, Rhodes W, Forsythe K, Bowers K, Eulian V, et al. Beliefs and social norms about codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) use and addiction among multi-ethnic college students. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2007;39:277-82 pubmed
    ..relevant beliefs and norms concerning the consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction of codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) among 61 college-age students who identified themselves as current CPHCS ..
  68. Gravel A, Arnold A, Dufourc E, Marcotte I. An NMR investigation of the structure, function and role of the hERG channel selectivity filter in the long QT syndrome. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:1494-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The SF moiety appears to be a possible target for promethazine in the ALQTS mechanism, but not as much for bepridil, cetirizine, diphenhydramine and fluvoxamine...
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