propylamines

Summary

Summary: Derivatives of propylamine (the structural formula NH2CH2CH2CH3).

Top Publications

  1. Dahmane T, Rappaport F, Popot J. Amphipol-assisted folding of bacteriorhodopsin in the presence or absence of lipids: functional consequences. Eur Biophys J. 2013;42:85-101 pubmed publisher
    ..BR interactions with lipids, however, contribute to an effective photocycle...
  2. Arnsten A, Pliszka S. Catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical function: relevance to treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related disorders. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;99:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Stronger PFC regulation of attention, behavior, and emotion likely contributes to the therapeutic effects of these medications for the treatment of ADHD...
  3. McCarthy S, Wilton L, Murray M, Hodgkins P, Asherson P, Wong I. Persistence of pharmacological treatment into adulthood, in UK primary care, for ADHD patients who started treatment in childhood or adolescence. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:219 pubmed publisher
  4. Giusti F, Popot J, Tribet C. Well-defined critical association concentration and rapid adsorption at the air/water interface of a short amphiphilic polymer, amphipol A8-35: a study by Förster resonance energy transfer and dynamic surface tension measurements. Langmuir. 2012;28:10372-80 pubmed publisher
  5. Stiefel G, Besag F. Cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate, amphetamines and atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Drug Saf. 2010;33:821-42 pubmed publisher
  6. Wilens T, Adler L, Tanaka Y, Xiao F, D Souza D, Gutkin S, et al. Correlates of alcohol use in adults with ADHD and comorbid alcohol use disorders: exploratory analysis of a placebo-controlled trial of atomoxetine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:2309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder are often comorbid in adults. The effects of ADHD treatment on comorbid alcohol use disorder have not been extensively studied...
  7. Hodgkins P, Sasane R, Meijer W. Pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: incidence, prevalence, and treatment patterns in the Netherlands. Clin Ther. 2011;33:188-203 pubmed publisher
  8. Pan Z, Huang J, Cui W, Long C, Zhang Y, Wang H. Targeting hypertension with a new adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener iptakalim. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;56:215-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In additional to strong antihypertensive efficacy, iptakalim seems to have a favorable safety and tolerability profile. Iptakalim is a promising new generation antihypertensive drug...
  9. Zhao R, Wang H. Chemerin/ChemR23 signaling axis is involved in the endothelial protection by K(ATP) channel opener iptakalim. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32:573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the modulation of the chemerin/ChemR23 axis by iptakalim-induced opening of K(ATP) channels and to determine the role of the chemerin/ChemR23 axis in the iptakalim-mediated endothelial protection...

More Information

Publications85

  1. Gamo N, Wang M, Arnsten A. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhance prefrontal function through ?2-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:1011-23 pubmed publisher
  2. Paterson N, Ricciardi J, Wetzler C, Hanania T. Sub-optimal performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats was sensitive to methylphenidate, atomoxetine and d-amphetamine, but unaffected by the COMT inhibitor tolcapone. Neurosci Res. 2011;69:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, tolcapone had no effects on sub-optimal performance in the variable ITI 5-CSRTT. These results suggest minimal potential of tolcapone as a therapeutic agent for ADHD and implicate cortical NE, not DA, in impulsive action...
  3. Kaplan G, Newcorn J. Pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011;58:99-120, xi pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it addresses treatment selection, guidelines for monitoring treatment, and recent controversies in the field...
  4. Koda K, Ago Y, Cong Y, Kita Y, Takuma K, Matsuda T. Effects of acute and chronic administration of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on extracellular levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. J Neurochem. 2010;114:259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that acute and chronic administration of the ADHD drugs selectively activate the prefrontal catecholamine systems in mice...
  5. Duan R, Cui W, Wang H. Association of the antihypertensive response of iptakalim with KCNJ11 (Kir6.2 gene) polymorphisms in Chinese Han hypertensive patients. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32:1078-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the relationship between the antihypertensive response of iptakalim and KCNJ11 polymorphisms in Chinese Han hypertensive patients...
  6. Baarendse P, Vanderschuren L. Dissociable effects of monoamine reuptake inhibitors on distinct forms of impulsive behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219:313-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, impulsive behavior is behaviorally and neurally heterogeneous, and several caveats remain in our understanding of the role of monoamines in impulse control...
  7. McCarthy S, Wilton L, Murray M, Hodgkins P, Asherson P, Wong I. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:78 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care...
  8. Ramos Quiroga J, Montoya A, Kutzelnigg A, Deberdt W, Sobanski E. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the European adult population: prevalence, disease awareness, and treatment guidelines. Curr Med Res Opin. 2013;29:1093-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder with childhood onset and persistence into adolescence and adulthood...
  9. Boeckxstaens G, Beaumont H, Mertens V, Denison H, Ruth M, Adler J, et al. Effects of lesogaberan on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter function in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:409-17 pubmed publisher
  10. Tang Y, Long C, Wang R, Cui W, Wang H. Activation of SUR2B/Kir6.1 subtype of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel improves pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling via protecting endothelial function. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;56:345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that natakalim reduces heart failure caused by pressure overloading by activating the SUR2B/Kir6.1 KATP channel subtype and protecting against endothelial dysfunction...
  11. Escobar R, Schacht A, Wehmeier P, Wagner T. Quality of life and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder core symptoms: a pooled analysis of 5 non-US atomoxetine clinical trials. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that measuring quality of life adds clinically relevant insight beyond core symptom evaluation in children and adolescents with ADHD...
  12. Rösler M, Casas M, Konofal E, Buitelaar J. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11:684-98 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine available literature regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults...
  13. Graham J, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Danckaerts M, Dittmann R, et al. European guidelines on managing adverse effects of medication for ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:17-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the effects examined appeared to be minimal in impact or difficult to distinguish from risk to untreated populations. However, several areas require further study to allow a more precise understanding of these risks...
  14. Graf H, Abler B, Freudenmann R, Beschoner P, Schaeffeler E, Spitzer M, et al. Neural correlates of error monitoring modulated by atomoxetine in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:890-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of atomoxetine (80 mg) on error monitoring as a second key component of cognitive control...
  15. Marquand A, De Simoni S, O Daly O, Williams S, Mourão Miranda J, Mehta M. Pattern classification of working memory networks reveals differential effects of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and placebo in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:1237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, interactions between drug effects and motivational state are crucial in defining the effects of MPH and ATX. ..
  16. Tifrea D, Sun G, Pal S, Zardeneta G, Cocco M, Popot J, et al. Amphipols stabilize the Chlamydia major outer membrane protein and enhance its protective ability as a vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29:4623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, amphipols can be used in vaccine formulations to stabilize a membrane-protein component and enhance its immunogenicity...
  17. Hennessy S, Schelleman H, Daniel G, Bilker W, Kimmel S, Guevara J, et al. Cardiovascular safety of ADHD medications: rationale for and design of an investigator-initiated observational study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010;19:934-41 pubmed publisher
  18. Wehmeier P, Dittmann R, Schacht A, Minarzyk A, Lehmann M, Sevecke K, et al. Effectiveness of atomoxetine and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as perceived by patients, parents, and physicians in an open-label study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007;17:813-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from the GIPD suggest that patient quality of life improves with time on atomoxetine. The effectiveness of atomoxetine in an open-label study was very similar to the effectiveness shown in placebo-controlled trials. ..
  19. Wilens T, Adler L, Weiss M, Michelson D, Ramsey J, Moore R, et al. Atomoxetine treatment of adults with ADHD and comorbid alcohol use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;96:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The study aim was to determine if atomoxetine was superior to placebo in improving ADHD and alcohol use in recently abstinent adults with ADHD and comorbid alcohol use disorder...
  20. McCarthy S, Cranswick N, Potts L, Taylor E, Wong I. Mortality associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment: a retrospective cohort study of children, adolescents and young adults using the general practice research database. Drug Saf. 2009;32:1089-96 pubmed publisher
  21. Svanborg P, Thernlund G, Gustafsson P, Hägglöf B, Poole L, Kadesjö B. Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine as add-on to psychoeducation in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in stimulant-naïve Swedish children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;18:240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The large ES might be a result of including stimulant-naïve patients only, but also may indicate a positive interaction between atomoxetine treatment and psychoeducation, possibly by increased compliance. ..
  22. Heal D, Smith S, Kulkarni R, Rowley H. New perspectives from microdialysis studies in freely-moving, spontaneously hypertensive rats on the pharmacology of drugs for the treatment of ADHD. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;90:184-97 pubmed publisher
    ..When the findings are compared with the clinical efficacy of drugs used in treating ADHD, they indicate that the most efficacious drugs powerfully increase both norepinephrinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. ..
  23. Minamino T, Hori M. Protecting endothelial function: A novel therapeutic target of ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:448-9 pubmed
  24. Geller D, Donnelly C, Lopez F, Rubin R, Newcorn J, Sutton V, et al. Atomoxetine treatment for pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid anxiety disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46:1119-27 pubmed
    ..gov because the last patient visit occurred before July 1, 2005. Results, however, are publicly posted at lillytrials.com and clinicalstudyresults.org. The unique study ID at both sites is 6477a. ..
  25. Kratochvil C, Wilens T, Greenhill L, Gao H, Baker K, Feldman P, et al. Effects of long-term atomoxetine treatment for young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45:919-27 pubmed
    ..Long-term atomoxetine treatment appears generally well tolerated and effective in the treatment of young children with ADHD. ..
  26. Barry R, Clarke A, Hajos M, McCarthy R, Selikowitz M, Bruggemann J. Acute atomoxetine effects on the EEG of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2009;57:702-7 pubmed publisher
  27. Kemner J, Starr H, Ciccone P, Hooper Wood C, Crockett R. Outcomes of OROS methylphenidate compared with atomoxetine in children with ADHD: a multicenter, randomized prospective study. Adv Ther. 2005;22:498-512 pubmed
    ..Although community-based studies often lack the control of randomized, placebo-controlled trials, these results nevertheless suggest greater ADHD symptom improvement with OROS MPH compared with atomoxetine. ..
  28. Winterstein A, Gerhard T, Shuster J, Zito J, Johnson M, Liu H, et al. Utilization of pharmacologic treatment in youths with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Medicaid database. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:24-31 pubmed
    ..These findings emphasize the need for studies that analyze determinants of treatment as well as outcomes, both benefits and risks, associated with long-term medication use. ..
  29. Arnold L, Aman M, Cook A, Witwer A, Hall K, Thompson S, et al. Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45:1196-205 pubmed
    ..The effect appears as large as in a multisite methylphenidate trial in the same population, with fewer intolerable side effects. Further study in autism spectrum disorders is indicated. ..
  30. Párraga H, Párraga M, Harris D. Tic exacerbation and precipitation during atomoxetine treatment in two children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2007;37:415-24 pubmed
    ..Independent controlled studies are needed to determine if atomoxetine should be used in children with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders or TS. ..
  31. Chamberlain S, Muller U, Blackwell A, Clark L, Robbins T, Sahakian B. Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probabilistic learning in humans. Science. 2006;311:861-3 pubmed
  32. Cheng J, Chen R, Ko J, Ng E. Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents-meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;194:197-209 pubmed
    ..Atomoxetine is efficacious in reducing ADHD symptoms. It may have a role in treating comorbid ODD or depression, and probably in comorbid anxiety. ..
  33. Harpin V. Medication options when treating children and adolescents with ADHD: interpreting the NICE guidance 2006. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2008;93:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper aims to interpret these guidelines by reviewing the medication options in light of relevant research and clinical practice. The properties of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine are discussed. ..
  34. McAfee A, Holdridge K, Johannes C, Hornbuckle K, Walker A. The effect of pharmacotherapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on risk of seizures in pediatric patients as assessed in an insurance claims database. Curr Drug Saf. 2008;3:123-31 pubmed
    ..7, 1.1 - 2.6). In this study, there was no statistically significant association between use of atomoxetine or stimulants and seizure risk in children ages 6 to 17 years with ADHD and without prior seizure disorder. ..
  35. Buitelaar J, Wilens T, Zhang S, Ning Y, Feldman P. Comparison of symptomatic versus functional changes in children and adolescents with ADHD during randomized, double-blind treatment with psychostimulants, atomoxetine, or placebo. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects' symptomatic improvements appear to be reflected in improvements in their social and behavioral function as measured by the LPS. These initial findings warrant verification by replication with other outcome measures. ..
  36. Sears J, Patel N. Development of tics in a thirteen-year-old male following atomoxetine use. CNS Spectr. 2008;13:301-3 pubmed
    ..We present a unique case of a patient, without any prior history of a movement disorder, who developed tics following a single dose of atomoxetine that did not improve until interventional therapy was initiated. ..
  37. Lehmann A, Antonsson M, Holmberg A, Blackshaw L, Brändén L, Brauner Osborne H, et al. (R)-(3-amino-2-fluoropropyl) phosphinic acid (AZD3355), a novel GABAB receptor agonist, inhibits transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation through a peripheral mode of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:504-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, AZD3355 probably inhibits TLESR through stimulation of peripheral GABA(B) receptors and may offer a potential new approach to treatment of GERD...
  38. Gilbert D, Ridel K, Sallee F, Zhang J, Lipps T, Wassermann E. Comparison of the inhibitory and excitatory effects of ADHD medications methylphenidate and atomoxetine on motor cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:442-9 pubmed
    ..Cortical inhibition, shown previously to be abnormal in ADHD, may play a key role producing behavioral pathology. ..
  39. Wooltorton E. Suicidal ideation among children taking atomoxetine (Strattera). CMAJ. 2005;173:1447 pubmed
  40. Holick C, Turnbull B, Jones M, Chaudhry S, Bangs M, Seeger J. Atomoxetine and cerebrovascular outcomes in adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29:453-60 pubmed publisher
    ..34-1.47). These results do not support an increased risk of CV events with atomoxetine compared with the stimulant ADHD medication. Users of ADHD medications may be at an increased risk of TIA compared with the general population. ..
  41. Escobar R, Montoya A, Polavieja P, Cardo E, Artigas J, Hervas A, et al. Evaluation of patients' and parents' quality of life in a randomized placebo-controlled atomoxetine study in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to demonstrate the superior efficacy of atomoxetine with respect to placebo and to compare parent and child perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL)...
  42. Prasad S, Harpin V, Poole L, Zeitlin H, Jamdar S, Puvanendran K. A multi-centre, randomised, open-label study of atomoxetine compared with standard current therapy in UK children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:379-94 pubmed
    ..e., improvements in quality of life/functional outcomes) of atomoxetine compared with standard current therapy (SCT) in UK paediatric patients with ADHD and to explore clinician/parent/child perceptions of ADHD...
  43. Chang K, Nayar D, Howe M, Rana M. Atomoxetine as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with bipolar I or II disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:547-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted an 8-week, open label study to study the efficacy and tolerability of adjunct atomoxetine in euthymic children and adolescents with BPD and ADHD...
  44. Singh S, Mukherjee A, Khomutov A, Persson L, Heby O, Chatterjee M, et al. Antileishmanial effect of 3-aminooxy-1-aminopropane is due to polyamine depletion. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:528-34 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that APA is a potent inhibitor of L. donovani growth and that its leishmaniacidal effect is due to inhibition of ODC...
  45. Blondeau C, Dellu Hagedorn F. Dimensional analysis of ADHD subtypes in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:1340-50 pubmed
    ..The nature of the biological dysfunction sustaining each subtype (common or distinct) is unknown, and animal models encompassing different subtypes are needed...
  46. McCarthy S, Asherson P, Coghill D, Hollis C, Murray M, Potts L, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: treatment discontinuation in adolescents and young adults. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The fall in prescribing is greater than the reported age-related decrease in symptoms, raising the possibility that treatment is prematurely discontinued in some young adults in whom symptoms persist. ..
  47. Das Gupta R, Krause Ihle T, Bergmann B, Müller I, Khomutov A, Muller S, et al. 3-Aminooxy-1-aminopropane and derivatives have an antiproliferative effect on cultured Plasmodium falciparum by decreasing intracellular polyamine concentrations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2857-64 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the ODC inhibitors led to decreased cellular putrescine and spermidine levels in P. falciparum, supporting the fact that they exert their antimalarial activities by inhibition of the bifunctional ODC-AdoMetDC...
  48. Seneca N, Gulyas B, Varrone A, Schou M, Airaksinen A, Tauscher J, et al. Atomoxetine occupies the norepinephrine transporter in a dose-dependent fashion: a PET study in nonhuman primate brain using (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;188:119-27 pubmed
    ..Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies had failed to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring a dose-dependent and saturable NET occupancy in human brain using [11C]MeNER...
  49. Zhu Y, Zhang S, Xie W, Li Q, Zhou Y, Wang H. Iptakalim inhibited endothelin-1-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through the activation of K(ATP) channel. Vascul Pharmacol. 2008;48:92-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence that iptakalim may serve as another candidate drug to treat pulmonary hypertension...
  50. Horner W, Johnson D, Schmidt A, Rollema H. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine increase histamine release in rat prefrontal cortex. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;558:96-7 pubmed
    ..While the clinical response to ADHD drugs is typically attributed to modulation of norepinephrine and dopamine, this finding suggests enhanced histamine release may contribute to their efficacy as ADHD treatments...
  51. Spencer T, Newcorn J, Kratochvil C, Ruff D, Michelson D, Biederman J. Effects of atomoxetine on growth after 2-year treatment among pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e74-80 pubmed
    ..This meta-analysis examined the effect on growth of atomoxetine, now approved in the United States for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
  52. Sauer J, Ring B, Witcher J. Clinical pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44:571-90 pubmed
    ..In extensive metabolisers, potent and selective CYP2D6 inhibitors reduce atomoxetine clearance; however, administration of CYP inhibitors to poor metabolisers has no effect on the steady-state plasma concentrations of atomoxetine...
  53. Kaplan S, Heiligenstein J, West S, Busner J, Harder D, Dittmann R, et al. Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. J Atten Disord. 2004;8:45-52 pubmed
    ..To compare the safety and efficacy of atomoxetine, a selective inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter, versus placebo in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)...
  54. Paulzen M, Clement H, Grunder G. Enhancement of atomoxetine serum levels by co-administration of paroxetine. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:289-91 pubmed publisher
  55. Kelly R, Yeo K, Teng C, Smith B, Lowe S, Soon D, et al. Hemodynamic effects of acute administration of atomoxetine and methylphenidate. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;45:851-5 pubmed
  56. Xing B, Yin X. Electrochemiluminescence from hydrophilic thin film Ru(bpy)3(2+)-modified electrode prepared using natural halloysite nanotubes and polyacrylamide gel. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;24:2939-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to the previous works, the addition of carbon nanotubes into the modified electrode film leads to a decreased ECL emission, due to the reduction in the porosity of the film, which hinders the diffusion of the analyte...
  57. Newcorn J, Sutton V, Weiss M, Sumner C. Clinical responses to atomoxetine in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Integrated Data Exploratory Analysis (IDEA) study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to identify potential baseline (moderator) and on-treatment (mediator) predictors of responses...
  58. Allen A, Kurlan R, Gilbert D, Coffey B, Linder S, Lewis D, et al. Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders. Neurology. 2005;65:1941-9 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that atomoxetine does not significantly worsen tic severity relative to placebo in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid tic disorders...
  59. Montoya A, Hervas A, Cardo E, Artigas J, Mardomingo M, Alda J, et al. Evaluation of atomoxetine for first-line treatment of newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:2745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that first-line treatment with atomoxetine provides superior efficacy than placebo for up to 12 weeks in improving the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)...
  60. Gibson A, Bettinger T, Patel N, Crismon M. Atomoxetine versus stimulants for treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1134-42 pubmed
    ..To identify, review, and analyze studies comparing atomoxetine with psychostimulants with the intent of determining the role of atomoxetine in the pharmacologic management of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  61. Lile J, Stoops W, Durell T, Glaser P, Rush C. Discriminative-stimulus, self-reported, performance, and cardiovascular effects of atomoxetine in methylphenidate-trained humans. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;14:136-47 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the behavioral effects of atomoxetine overlap to a small degree with psychomotor stimulants and that it has low abuse potential...
  62. Gadde K, Yonish G, Wagner H, Foust M, Allison D. Atomoxetine for weight reduction in obese women: a preliminary randomised controlled trial. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1138-42 pubmed
    ..With the understanding that noradrenergic agents could be useful in assisting obese individuals to lose weight, we conducted this preliminary study to evaluate short-term efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in obese adults...
  63. Robinson E, Eagle D, Mar A, Bari A, Banerjee G, Jiang X, et al. Similar effects of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on three distinct forms of impulsivity in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:1028-37 pubmed
  64. Gualtieri C, Johnson L. Medications do not necessarily normalize cognition in ADHD patients. J Atten Disord. 2008;11:459-69 pubmed
    ..Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples...
  65. Trzepacz P, Williams D, Feldman P, Wrishko R, Witcher J, Buitelaar J. CYP2D6 metabolizer status and atomoxetine dosing in children and adolescents with ADHD. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:79-86 pubmed
    ..Results suggest genotyping is unnecessary during routine clinical management, because investigators were able to dose atomoxetine to comparable efficacy and safety levels in EMs and PMs without knowledge of genotype metabolizer status...
  66. Wang Y, Zheng Y, Du Y, Song D, Shin Y, Cho S, et al. Atomoxetine versus methylphenidate in paediatric outpatients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind comparison trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2007;41:222-30 pubmed
    ..To (i) test whether atomoxetine is non-inferior to methylphenidate in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in paediatric patients; and (ii) determine the tolerability of the two drugs...
  67. Ramoz N, Boni C, Downing A, Close S, Peters S, Prokop A, et al. A haplotype of the norepinephrine transporter (Net) gene Slc6a2 is associated with clinical response to atomoxetine in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:2135-42 pubmed publisher
  68. Takahashi M, Takita Y, Yamazaki K, Hayashi T, Ichikawa H, Kambayashi Y, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine in Japanese children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This first placebo-controlled Japan study of an ADHD nonstimulant therapy assessed atomoxetine efficacy and safety to determine the optimal dose for controlling ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents...
  69. Navarra R, Graf R, Huang Y, Logue S, Comery T, Hughes Z, et al. Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attention and impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:34-41 pubmed
    ..Those data suggest that the 5CSRT test can be used to differentiate stimulant and non-stimulant pharmacotherapies on measures of impulsivity...
  70. Perwien A, Kratochvil C, Faries D, Vaughan B, Spencer T, Brown R. Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: what are the long-term health-related quality-of-life outcomes?. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006;16:713-24 pubmed
    ..This study examines the long-term effects of pharmacological treatment with atomoxetine on HRQL in children and adolescents with ADHD...
  71. Tzavara E, Bymaster F, Overshiner C, Davis R, Perry K, Wolff M, et al. Procholinergic and memory enhancing properties of the selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:187-95 pubmed
    ..We showed that, consistent with its cortical procholinergic and catecholamine-enhancing profile, atomoxetine (1-3 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated performance in the object recognition test and the radial arm-maze test...
  72. Spencer T, Kratochvil C, Sangal R, Saylor K, Bailey C, Dunn D, et al. Effects of atomoxetine on growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following up to five years of treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007;17:689-700 pubmed
    ..To examine the effects on growth of long-term pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we present findings from an ongoing 5-year study of the efficacy and safety of treatment with atomoxetine...
  73. Sangal R, Owens J, Allen A, Sutton V, Schuh K, Kelsey D. Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on sleep in children with ADHD. Sleep. 2006;29:1573-85 pubmed
    ..This study also compared the efficacy of these medications for treating ADHD in these children...
  74. Wilens T, Newcorn J, Kratochvil C, Gao H, Thomason C, Rogers A, et al. Long-term atomoxetine treatment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr. 2006;149:112-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in adolescent subjects treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for up to 2 years...
  75. Brown R, Perwien A, Faries D, Kratochvil C, Vaughan B. Atomoxetine in the management of children with ADHD: effects on quality of life and school functioning. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006;45:819-27 pubmed
    ..The effects of atomoxetine on other functional outcomes including academic performance and health-related outcomes are of interest, albeit less compelling for this particular investigation, than for the effects on overt symptom display...
  76. Michelson D, Read H, Ruff D, Witcher J, Zhang S, McCracken J. CYP2D6 and clinical response to atomoxetine in children and adolescents with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46:242-51 pubmed
    ..Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation or as a consequence of coadministration with drugs that inhibit CYP2D6...