spermine

Summary

Summary: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.

Top Publications

  1. Giskeødegård G, Bertilsson H, Selnæs K, Wright A, Bathen T, Viset T, et al. Spermine and citrate as metabolic biomarkers for assessing prostate cancer aggressiveness. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62375 pubmed publisher
    ..High grade cancer tissue was distinguished from low grade cancer tissue by decreased concentrations of spermine (p?=?0.0044) and citrate (p?=?7...
  2. Lantz K, Hart S, Planey S, Roitman M, Ruiz White I, Wolfe H, et al. Inhibition of PTP1B by trodusquemine (MSI-1436) causes fat-specific weight loss in diet-induced obese mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish trodusquemine as an effective central and peripheral PTP1B inhibitor with the potential to elicit noncachectic fat-specific weight loss and improve insulin and leptin levels...
  3. Alet A, Sanchez D, Cuevas J, Marina M, Carrasco P, Altabella T, et al. New insights into the role of spermine in Arabidopsis thaliana under long-term salt stress. Plant Sci. 2012;182:94-100 pubmed publisher
    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are traditionally implicated in the response of plants to environmental cues...
  4. Pegg A, Michael A. Spermine synthase. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:113-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermine is present in many organisms including animals, plants, some fungi, some archaea, and some bacteria. It is synthesized by spermine synthase, a highly specific aminopropyltransferase...
  5. Soda K, Kano Y, Sakuragi M, Takao K, Lefor A, Konishi F. Long-term oral polyamine intake increases blood polyamine concentrations. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009;55:361-6 pubmed
    ..After 26 wk, the mean blood spermine concentration in mice receiving the test diet with high polyamine concentrations was 10.1+/-2...
  6. Rodríguez Lombardero S, Vizoso Vázquez A, Rodríguez Belmonte E, González Siso M, Cerdán M. SKY1 and IXR1 interactions, their effects on cisplatin and spermine resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Can J Microbiol. 2012;58:184-8 pubmed publisher
    ..IXR1 gene increases resistance to cisplatin, and deletion of the SKY1 gene increases resistance to cisplatin and spermine. Three S...
  7. Zhu S, Ashok M, Li J, Li W, Yang H, Wang P, et al. Spermine protects mice against lethal sepsis partly by attenuating surrogate inflammatory markers. Mol Med. 2009;15:275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..An endogenous ubiquitous polyamine, spermine, inhibits endotoxin-induced cytokine release in vitro, but its capacities to attenuate sepsis- and HMGB1-induced ..
  8. Tsujinaka S, Soda K, Kano Y, Konishi F. Spermine accelerates hypoxia-initiated cancer cell migration. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (HT-29) were cultured under either normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (2% O2) for 48 h with 0, 100, or 500 µM spermine, one of the natural polyamines with the strongest biological activity...
  9. Matsushita K, Fukumoto M, Kobayashi T, Kobayashi M, Ishizaki E, Minami M, et al. Diabetes-induced inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in the retinal microvasculature: role of spermine. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5979-90 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ray R, Li C, Bhattacharya S, Naren A, Johnson L. Spermine, a molecular switch regulating EGFR, integrin ?3, Src, and FAK scaffolding. Cell Signal. 2012;24:931-42 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction in polyamine biosynthesis, producing putrescine, which is subsequently converted to spermidine and spermine. We have shown that polyamines regulate proliferation, migration, and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells...
  2. Uimari A, Keinänen T, Karppinen A, Woster P, Uimari P, Janne J, et al. Spermine analogue-regulated expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase and its effects on depletion of intracellular polyamine pools in mouse fetal fibroblasts. Biochem J. 2009;422:101-9 pubmed publisher
    SSAT (Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, also known as SAT1), the key enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines, is turned over rapidly and there is only a low amount present in the cell...
  3. Doi I, Tsuji G, Kawakami K, Nakagawa O, Taniguchi Y, Sasaki S. The spermine-bisaryl conjugate as a potent inducer of B- to Z-DNA transition. Chemistry. 2010;16:11993-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have found that the bis(2-naphthyl)-maleimide-spermine conjugate (3c) exhibits a remarkable ability to cause the B?Z transition of d(CGCGCG)(2) at low salt ..
  4. Russo B, Horzempa J, O Dee D, Schmitt D, Brown M, Carlson P, et al. A Francisella tularensis locus required for spermine responsiveness is necessary for virulence. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3665-76 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis senses and adapts to host environments is incomplete. Polyamines, including spermine, regulate the interactions of F. tularensis with host cells...
  5. Peremarti A, Bassie L, Christou P, Capell T. Spermine facilitates recovery from drought but does not confer drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants expressing Datura stramonium S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;70:253-64 pubmed publisher
    ..To dissect the roles of putrescine from the higher polyamines spermidine and spermine, we generated transgenic rice plants constitutively expressing a heterologous S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (..
  6. Jiang H, Lim H, Kim Y, Arote R, Shin J, Kwon J, et al. Chitosan-graft-spermine as a gene carrier in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2011;77:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve transfection efficiency, we prepared a chitosan-graft-spermine (CHI-g-SPE) copolymer by an imine reaction between periodate-oxidized chitosan and spermine...
  7. Maslov M, Kabilova T, Petukhov I, Morozova N, Serebrennikova G, Vlassov V, et al. Novel cholesterol spermine conjugates provide efficient cellular delivery of plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA. J Control Release. 2012;160:182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..of lipids is based on the cholesterol residue and the hydrophilic one--on the naturally occurring polyamine--spermine. Ester and carbamate linker groups as well as oligomethylene spacers of various lengths were used to connect ..
  8. Ghonaim H, Li S, Blagbrough I. N1,N12-Diacyl spermines: SAR studies on non-viral lipopolyamine vectors for plasmid DNA and siRNA formulation. Pharm Res. 2010;27:17-29 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the efficiency of novel synthetic N(1),N(12)-diacyl spermines on DNA and siRNA binding, and to compare their transfection efficiency with viability in cell lines...
  9. Gentry A, Pitts S, Jablonsky M, Bailly C, Graves D, Osheroff N. Interactions between the etoposide derivative F14512 and human type II topoisomerases: implications for the C4 spermine moiety in promoting enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Biochemistry. 2011;50:3240-9 pubmed publisher
    F14512 is a novel etoposide derivative that contains a spermine in place of the C4 glycosidic moiety. The drug was designed to exploit the polyamine transport system that is upregulated in some cancers...
  10. Christian B, Haque M, Spremulli L. The effect of spermine on the initiation of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:942-6 pubmed publisher
    Polyamines are important in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic translational systems. Spermine is a quaternary aliphatic amine that is cationic under physiological conditions...
  11. Shu S, Yuan L, Guo S, Sun J, Yuan Y. Effects of exogenous spermine on chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in Cucumis sativus L. under salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;63:209-16 pubmed publisher
    The effects of exogenous spermine (Spm) on plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, ultrastructure and anti-oxidative metabolism of chloroplasts were investigated in Cucumis sativus L. under NaCl stress...
  12. Lu W, Wang H, Yuann J, Huang C, Hou M. The impact of spermine competition on the efficacy of DNA-binding Fe(II), Co(II), and Cu(II) complexes of dimeric chromomycin A(3). J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103:1626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of spermine on the interaction of Fe(II), Co(II), and Cu(II) complexes of dimeric Chro with DNA were studied...
  13. Wang S, Lee A, Lee Y, Lai Y, Chen J, Wu W, et al. Spermine attenuates the action of the DNA intercalator, actinomycin D, on DNA binding and the inhibition of transcription and DNA replication. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47101 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that ..
  14. Pucciarelli S, Moreschini B, Micozzi D, De Fronzo G, Carpi F, Polzonetti V, et al. Spermidine and spermine are enriched in whole blood of nona/centenarians. Rejuvenation Res. 2012;15:590-5 pubmed publisher
    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are a family of molecules that derive from ornithine through a decarboxylation process...
  15. Huang X, Bie Z. Cinnamic acid-inhibited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is mediated through decreased spermine and changes in the ratio of polyamines in cowpea. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 0.1 mM CA treatment increased the putrescine (Put) level, but decreased spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) levels, thereby reducing the (Spd+Spm)/Put (PAs) ratio in the leaves...
  16. Nagane K, Kitada M, Wakao S, Dezawa M, Tabata Y. Practical induction system for dopamine-producing cells from bone marrow stromal cells using spermine-pullulan-mediated reverse transfection method. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009;15:1655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..an efficient induction system of dopamine-producing neuronal cells from BMSCs in several species using the spermine-pullulan-mediated reverse transfection technique...
  17. Schwartz C, Wang X, Stevenson R, Pegg A. Spermine synthase deficiency resulting in X-linked intellectual disability (Snyder-Robinson syndrome). Methods Mol Biol. 2011;720:437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyamines, spermidine and spermine, are synthesized by two aminopropyltransferases, spermidine synthase and spermine synthase...
  18. Duan B, Wang Y, Yang T, Chu X, Yu Y, Huang Y, et al. Extracellular spermine exacerbates ischemic neuronal injury through sensitization of ASIC1a channels to extracellular acidosis. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that extracellular spermine, one of the endogenous polyamines, exacerbates ischemic neuronal injury through sensitization of ASIC1a channels ..
  19. Keniry M, Owen E. The flanking sequence contributes to the immobilisation of spermine at the G-quadruplex in the NHE (nuclease hypersensitivity element) III1 of the c-Myc promoter. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:1949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We have studied, by selective NMR experiments, the variation of spermine mobility and conformation in the presence of G-quadruplexes formed by sequences of the purine-rich strand of the ..
  20. Uimari A, Merentie M, Sironen R, Pirnes Karhu S, Peräniemi S, Alhonen L. Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase or treatment with N1-N11-diethylnorspermine attenuates the severity of zinc-induced pancreatitis in mouse. Amino Acids. 2012;42:461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the wild-type mice, polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase overexpressing (SSAT mice) and SSAT-deficient mice were used to characterize the new zinc-..
  21. Ishizaki E, Fukumoto M, Puro D. Functional K(ATP) channels in the rat retinal microvasculature: topographical distribution, redox regulation, spermine modulation and diabetic alteration. J Physiol. 2009;587:2233-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the oxidant-mediated activation of these channels is driven by the polyamine spermine, whose catabolism produces oxidants...
  22. Fiuza S, Holy J, Batista de Carvalho L, Marques M. Biologic activity of a dinuclear Pd(II)-spermine complex toward human breast cancer. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011;77:477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The results point to a distinct mechanism of action for each of these complexes, which may explain their synergistic action when coadministrated...
  23. Keniry M, Owen E. Insight into the molecular recognition of spermine by DNA quadruplexes from an NMR study of the association of spermine with the thrombin-binding aptamer. J Mol Recognit. 2013;26:308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine a number of intramolecular (1)H nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) connectivities in (13)C-labelled spermine bound to the thrombin-binding aptamer...
  24. Du Z, Chen M, He Q, Zhou Y, Jin T. Polymerized spermine as a novel polycationic nucleic acid carrier system. Int J Pharm. 2012;434:437-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermine, an endogenous amino-group bearing monomer that condenses DNA in sperm, was used as the basic building block to form polycationic nucleic acid carriers via condensation with one of three linker molecules - bischloroformate, ..
  25. García Martín M, Adrados M, Ortega M, Fernandez Gonzalez I, Lopez Larrubia P, Viano J, et al. Quantitative (1) H MR spectroscopic imaging of the prostate gland using LCModel and a dedicated basis-set: correlation with histologic findings. Magn Reson Med. 2011;65:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..by the combination of simulated (citrate, Cit; choline, Cho, and creatine, CR) and experimentally acquired (spermine, Spm) spectra...
  26. Cervelli M, Bellavia G, Fratini E, Amendola R, Polticelli F, Barba M, et al. Spermine oxidase (SMO) activity in breast tumor tissues and biochemical analysis of the anticancer spermine analogues BENSpm and CPENSpm. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:555 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the expression of spermine oxidase (SMO) and its prognostic significance in BC...
  27. Carlson P, Horzempa J, O Dee D, Robinson C, Neophytou P, Labrinidis A, et al. Global transcriptional response to spermine, a component of the intramacrophage environment, reveals regulation of Francisella gene expression through insertion sequence elements. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:6855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the polyamines spermine and spermidine are environmental signals that alter bacterial stimulation of host cells...
  28. Ouameur A, Bourassa P, Tajmir Riahi H. Probing tRNA interaction with biogenic polyamines. RNA. 2010;16:1968-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the interaction between tRNA and the three biogenic polyamines putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and cobalt(III)hexamine at physiological conditions, using FTIR spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis, and ..
  29. Burns M, Graminski G, Weeks R, Chen Y, O Brien T. Lipophilic lysine-spermine conjugates are potent polyamine transport inhibitors for use in combination with a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor. J Med Chem. 2009;52:1983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of a potent polyamine transport inhibitor allows, for the first time, for a real test of the hypothesis that starving cells of polyamines will lead to objective clinical response...
  30. Kumar N, Basundra R, Maiti S. Elevated polyamines induce c-MYC overexpression by perturbing quadruplex-WC duplex equilibrium. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:3321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..employed biophysical approach involving CD, UV and FRET to understand the role of polyamines (spermidine and spermine) on conformation, stability, molecular recognition of quadruplex and to investigate the effect of polyamines on ..
  31. Shi J, Fu X, Peng T, Huang X, Fan Q, Liu J. Spermine pretreatment confers dehydration tolerance of citrus in vitro plants via modulation of antioxidative capacity and stomatal response. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..the possibility of improving dehydration tolerance of citrus in vitro plants by exogenous application of spermine (Spm)...
  32. Mattoo A, Minocha S, Minocha R, Handa A. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine. Amino Acids. 2010;38:405-13 pubmed publisher
    Distribution of biogenic amines-the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm)-differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells...
  33. Purgianto A, Scheyer A, Loweth J, Ford K, Tseng K, Wolf M. Different adaptations in AMPA receptor transmission in the nucleus accumbens after short vs long access cocaine self-administration regimens. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:1789-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with data on cocaine infusions in each group, our results show that CP-AMPAR accumulation and enhanced glutamate transmission is associated with longer sessions (6 h), rather than the number of sessions or cocaine infusions...
  34. Guidotti S, Facchini A, Platano D, Olivotto E, Minguzzi M, Trisolino G, et al. Enhanced osteoblastogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells on spermine delivery via ?-catenin activation. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:1588-601 pubmed publisher
    The molecular mechanisms underlying spermine osteo-inductive activity on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) grown in 3-dimensional (3D) cultures were investigated...
  35. Sagor G, Berberich T, Takahashi Y, Niitsu M, Kusano T. The polyamine spermine protects Arabidopsis from heat stress-induced damage by increasing expression of heat shock-related genes. Transgenic Res. 2013;22:595-605 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of PA biosynthetic pathway genes upon exposure to heat shock (HS) in Arabidopsis and showed that the spermine (Spm) synthase gene (SPMS) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 2 gene are induced at the earliest stage, ..
  36. Jiang H, Hong S, Kim Y, Islam M, Kim H, Choi Y, et al. Aerosol delivery of spermine-based poly(amino ester)/Akt1 shRNA complexes for lung cancer gene therapy. Int J Pharm. 2011;420:256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we report the development of poly(amino ester) (PAE) based on glycerol propoxylate triacrylate (GPT) and spermine (SPE) as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy...
  37. Marverti G, Ligabue A, Guerrieri D, Paglietti G, Piras S, Costi M, et al. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltranferase modulation by novel folate cycle inhibitors in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;117:202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies showed that the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) affects polyamine metabolism in colon carcinoma cells through the induction of the key catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT).
  38. Kim J, Minai Tehrani A, Kim Y, Shin J, Hong S, Kim H, et al. Suppression of tumor growth in H-ras12V liver cancer mice by delivery of programmed cell death protein 4 using galactosylated poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan-graft-spermine. Biomaterials. 2012;33:1894-902 pubmed publisher
    ..many of the problems associated with PEI, we synthesized a galactosylated poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan-graft-spermine (GPCS) copolymer with low cytotoxicity and optimal gene delivery to hepatocytes using an amide bond between ..
  39. Amendola R, Cervelli M, Fratini E, Polticelli F, Sallustio D, Mariottini P. Spermine metabolism and anticancer therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2009;9:118-30 pubmed
    The natural polyamines (PA), putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) are ubiquitous constituents of eukaryotic cells...
  40. Hou M, Lu W, Huang C, Fan R, Yuann J. Effects of polyamines on the DNA-reactive properties of dimeric mithramycin complexed with cobalt(II): implications for anticancer therapy. Biochemistry. 2009;48:4691-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 37 degrees C), polyamines (spermine in particular) inhibited the DNA cleavage activity of the (Mith)(2)-Co(II) in a concentration-dependent manner...
  41. Agostinelli E, Condello M, Molinari A, Tempera G, Viceconte N, Arancia G. Cytotoxicity of spermine oxidation products to multidrug resistant melanoma M14 ADR2 cells: sensitization by the MDL 72527 lysosomotropic compound. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:485-98 pubmed
    ..counterparts to H2O2 and aldehydes, the products of bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO)-catalyzed oxidation of spermine. The metabolites formed by BSAO and spermine are more toxic than exogenous H2O2 and acrolein, even though their ..
  42. Takahashi T, Kakehi J. Polyamines: ubiquitous polycations with unique roles in growth and stress responses. Ann Bot. 2010;105:1-6 pubmed publisher
  43. Even Or O, Joseph A, Itskovitz Cooper N, Samira S, Rochlin E, Eliyahu H, et al. A new intranasal influenza vaccine based on a novel polycationic lipid-ceramide carbamoyl-spermine (CCS). II. Studies in mice and ferrets and mechanism of adjuvanticity. Vaccine. 2011;29:2474-86 pubmed publisher
    We recently showed that lipid assemblies comprised of a novel polycationic sphingolipid (ceramide carbamoyl-spermine, CCS) are an effective adjuvant/carrier when complexed with cholesterol (CCS/C) for influenza and other vaccines ..
  44. Gonzalez M, Marco F, Minguet E, Carrasco Sorli P, Blázquez M, Carbonell J, et al. Perturbation of spermine synthase gene expression and transcript profiling provide new insights on the role of the tetraamine spermine in Arabidopsis defense against Pseudomonas viridiflava. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:2266-77 pubmed publisher
    The role of the tetraamine spermine in plant defense against pathogens was investigated by using the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)-Pseudomonas viridiflava pathosystem...
  45. Alex S, Rekha M, Sharma C. Spermine grafted galactosylated chitosan for improved nanoparticle mediated gene delivery. Int J Pharm. 2011;410:125-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy is adopted here, by coupling galactose and spermine into the chitosan backbone...
  46. Tavladoraki P, Cervelli M, Antonangeli F, Minervini G, Stano P, Federico R, et al. Probing mammalian spermine oxidase enzyme-substrate complex through molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical characterization. Amino Acids. 2011;40:1115-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermine oxidase (SMO) and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO) are FAD-dependent enzymes that are involved in the highly regulated pathways of polyamine biosynthesis and degradation...
  47. Soda K, Dobashi Y, Kano Y, Tsujinaka S, Konishi F. Polyamine-rich food decreases age-associated pathology and mortality in aged mice. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:727-32 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to test whether oral intake of foods rich in polyamines (spermine and spermidine) suppresses age-associated pathology in aged mice...
  48. Mishina T, Fuchimukai K, Igarashi K, Tashiro K, Shiokawa K. Modification of secondary head-forming activity of microinjected ??-catenin mRNA by co-injected spermine and spermidine in Xenopus early embryos. Amino Acids. 2012;42:791-801 pubmed publisher
    Polyamines are essential for cell growth and differentiation. In Xenopus early embryos, per embryo level of spermine is extremely low as compared with that of spermidine...
  49. Sinha Hikim I, Shen R, Paul Lee W, Crum A, Vaziri N, Norris K. Effects of a novel cystine-based glutathione precursor on oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..GSH with added selenomethionine (F1), and NAC fortified with selenomethionine (F2) on oxidative stress induced by spermine (a uremic toxin) in cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
  50. Mandal S, Mandal A, Johansson H, Orjalo A, Park M. Depletion of cellular polyamines, spermidine and spermine, causes a total arrest in translation and growth in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2169-74 pubmed publisher
    The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are essential polycations, intimately involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation...
  51. Shim M, Kwon Y. Dual mode polyspermine with tunable degradability for plasmid DNA and siRNA delivery. Biomaterials. 2011;32:4009-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to obtain enhanced, non-cytotoxic, and molecularly tunable nonviral gene delivery, spermine, a bioavailable small cationic molecule, was polymerized with diacrylate cross-linkers with or without acid-..
  52. Raju S, Jayalakshmi S, Sreeramulu K. Differential elicitation of proteases and protease inhibitors in two different genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by salicylic acid and spermine. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:1015-22 pubmed publisher
    Elicitation of proteases and protease inhibitors (PIs) by salicylic acid (SA) and spermine (Spm) was investigated in roots and shoots of two different genotypes of chickpea cultivars ICCV10 and L550, which were resistant and susceptible ..
  53. Serafini Fracassini D, Di Sandro A, Del Duca S. Spermine delays leaf senescence in Lactuca sativa and prevents the decay of chloroplast photosystems. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2010;48:602-11 pubmed publisher
    ..C. 2.3.2.13). The retardation of leaf senescence of Lactuca sativa L. by spermine (Spm) was examined during induced cell death using leaf discs, or during the normal developmental senescence of ..