spermidine

Summary

Summary: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.

Top Publications

  1. Chadwick J, Jones M, Mercer A, Stocks P, Ward S, Park B, et al. Design, synthesis and antimalarial/anticancer evaluation of spermidine linked artemisinin conjugates designed to exploit polyamine transporters in Plasmodium falciparum and HL-60 cancer cell lines. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:2586-97 pubmed publisher
    A series of artemisinin-spermidine conjugates designed to utilise the upregulated polyamine transporter found in cancer cells have been prepared...
  2. Kaur H, Heinzel N, Schöttner M, Baldwin I, Galis I. R2R3-NaMYB8 regulates the accumulation of phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates, which are essential for local and systemic defense against insect herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1731-47 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuata are consistent with the predictions of the optimal defense theory: plants preferentially protect their most fitness-enhancing and vulnerable parts, young tissues and reproductive organs, to maximize their fitness...
  3. Wyllie S, Oza S, Patterson S, Spinks D, Thompson S, Fairlamb A. Dissecting the essentiality of the bifunctional trypanothione synthetase-amidase in Trypanosoma brucei using chemical and genetic methods. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..distinct catalytic domains for synthesis and hydrolysis of trypanothione (N(1),N(8)-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine)...
  4. Lentini A, Tabolacci C, Mattioli P, Provenzano B, Beninati S. Spermidine delays eye lens opacification in vitro by suppressing transglutaminase-catalyzed crystallin cross-linking. Protein J. 2011;30:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that exogenous SPD incubation led to a remarkable increase of mono(?-glutamyl)SPD, likely responsible of the inhibition of cross-linking of lens crystallins and of the transparency persistence...
  5. Ceylan S, Seidel V, Ziebart N, Berndt C, Dirdjaja N, Krauth Siegel R. The dithiol glutaredoxins of african trypanosomes have distinct roles and are closely linked to the unique trypanothione metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35224-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Grx1 and, less efficiently, also Grx2 catalyze the reduction of GSSG by trypanothione. Thus, the Grxs play exclusive roles in the trypanothione-based thiol redox metabolism of African trypanosomes...
  6. Bauer M, Carmona Gutierrez D, Ruckenstuhl C, Reisenbichler A, Megalou E, Eisenberg T, et al. Spermidine promotes mating and fertilization efficiency in model organisms. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:346-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermidine is a naturally occurring polyamine involved in multiple biological processes, including DNA metabolism, autophagy and aging. Like other polyamines, spermidine is also indispensable for successful reproduction at several stages...
  7. Pucciarelli S, Moreschini B, Micozzi D, De Fronzo G, Carpi F, Polzonetti V, et al. Spermidine and spermine are enriched in whole blood of nona/centenarians. Rejuvenation Res. 2012;15:590-5 pubmed publisher
    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are a family of molecules that derive from ornithine through a decarboxylation process...
  8. Peremarti A, Bassie L, Yuan D, Pelacho A, Christou P, Capell T. Transcriptional regulation of the rice arginine decarboxylase (Adc1) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (Samdc) genes by methyl jasmonate. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2010;48:553-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Exogenous MeJa transiently inhibited the expression of OsAdc1, OsSamdc and Spermidine synthase (OsSpds) genes in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway, probably through transcriptional repression...
  9. Choudhary S, Kanwar M, Bhardwaj R, Yu J, Tran L. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33210 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications61

  1. Cheng L, Sun R, Wang F, Peng Z, Kong F, Wu J, et al. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2012;13:283-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit...
  2. Eisenberg T, Knauer H, Schauer A, Buttner S, Ruckenstuhl C, Carmona Gutierrez D, et al. Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that administration of spermidine, a natural polyamine whose intracellular concentration declines during human ageing, markedly extended the ..
  3. Choi Y, Park H. Anti-inflammatory effects of spermidine in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19:31 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermidine, a naturally occurring polyamine, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities including cell growth and proliferation...
  4. Mattila E, Marttila H, Sahlberg N, Kohonen P, Tähtinen S, Halonen P, et al. Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling by small molecule agonist of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inhibition of the regulatory interaction in TCPTP is a desirable strategy for TCPTP activation and attenuation of oncogenic RTK signalling. However, this is challenging with low molecular weight compounds...
  5. Flohe L. The trypanothione system and the opportunities it offers to create drugs for the neglected kinetoplast diseases. Biotechnol Adv. 2012;30:294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..The key system component is the bis-glutathionyl derivative of spermidine, trypanothione...
  6. Diechtierow M, Krauth Siegel R. A tryparedoxin-dependent peroxidase protects African trypanosomes from membrane damage. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:856-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells lacking specifically the mitochondrial Px III showed a transient growth retardation and cardiolipin peroxidation but adapted within 24h to normal proliferation...
  7. Awad A, Kamel R, Sherief M. Effect of thymoquinone on hepatorenal dysfunction and alteration of CYP3A1 and spermidine/spermine N-1-acetyl-transferase gene expression induced by renal ischaemia-reperfusion in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1037-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thymoquinone reduced significantly this increase. I/R caused induction of mRNA expression of spermidine/spermine N-1-acetyl-transferase (SSAT), a catabolic enzyme that participates in polyamine metabolism, in liver ..
  8. Hyvonen M, Koponen T, Weisell J, Pietilä M, Khomutov A, Vepsalainen J, et al. Spermidine promotes adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by preventing interaction of ANP32 with HuR and PP2A. Biochem J. 2013;453:467-74 pubmed publisher
    We have shown previously that the polyamine spermidine is indispensable for differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
  9. Madeo F, Eisenberg T, Buttner S, Ruckenstuhl C, Kroemer G. Spermidine: a novel autophagy inducer and longevity elixir. Autophagy. 2010;6:160-2 pubmed
    b>Spermidine is a ubiquitous polycation that is synthesized from putrescine and serves as a precursor of spermine. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine all are polyamines that participate in multiple known and unknown biological processes...
  10. Johnson L, Mulcahy H, Kanevets U, Shi Y, Lewenza S. Surface-localized spermidine protects the Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane from antibiotic treatment and oxidative stress. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:813-26 pubmed publisher
    ..the characterization of novel DNA-induced genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are annotated as homologs of the spermidine synthesis genes speD (PA4773) and speE (PA4774)...
  11. Hu X, Zhang Y, Shi Y, Zhang Z, Zou Z, Zhang H, et al. Effect of exogenous spermidine on polyamine content and metabolism in tomato exposed to salinity-alkalinity mixed stress. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;57:200-9 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the effects of seeds pretreatment with exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the polyamine content and metabolism in the roots of two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Jinpengchaoguan and Zhongza No...
  12. McGinnis M, Parker Z, Walter N, Rutkovsky A, Cartaya Marin C, Karatan E. Spermidine regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation via transport and signaling pathways. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;299:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we have investigated the role of the polyamine spermidine in regulating biofilm formation in V. cholerae...
  13. De La Hera D, Corradi G, Adamo H, de Tezanos Pinto F. Parkinson's disease-associated human P5B-ATPase ATP13A2 increases spermidine uptake. Biochem J. 2013;450:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we showed that ATP13A2-expressing CHO cells exhibit a 2-fold higher accumulation of spermidine. Increasing concentrations of spermidine reduced the viability of CHO cells stably expressing ATP13A2...
  14. Uemura T, Higashi K, Takigawa M, Toida T, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K. Polyamine modulon in yeast-Stimulation of COX4 synthesis by spermidine at the level of translation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2538-45 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae deficient in ornithine decarboxylase (YPH499 Deltaspe1). Addition of spermidine to the medium recovered the spermidine content and enhanced cell growth of the YPH499 Deltaspe1 mutant by 3-5-..
  15. Morselli E, Galluzzi L, Kepp O, Criollo A, Maiuri M, Tavernarakis N, et al. Autophagy mediates pharmacological lifespan extension by spermidine and resveratrol. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1:961-70 pubmed
    ..Exogenous supply of the polyamine spermidine can prolong the lifespan of (while inducing autophagy in) yeast, nematodes and flies...
  16. Tummala R, Diegelman P, Hector S, Kramer D, Clark K, Zagst P, et al. Combination effects of platinum drugs and N1, N11 diethylnorspermine on spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, polyamines and growth inhibition in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and their oxaliplatin and cisplatin-resistant variants. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;67:401-14 pubmed publisher
  17. Onkokesung N, Gaquerel E, Kotkar H, Kaur H, Baldwin I, Galis I. MYB8 controls inducible phenolamide levels by activating three novel hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:polyamine transferases in Nicotiana attenuata. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:389-407 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that a much larger spectrum of PAs composed of hydroxycinnamic acids and two polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, is regulated by this transcription factor...
  18. Tirupathi Pichiah P, Suriyakalaa U, Kamalakkannan S, Kokilavani P, Kalaiselvi S, Sankarganesh D, et al. Spermidine may decrease ER stress in pancreatic beta cells and may reduce apoptosis via activating AMPK dependent autophagy pathway. Med Hypotheses. 2011;77:677-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ER stress arises due to unfolded protein response. Recently, spermidine get importance for increasing the longevity in most of the eukaryotes including yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, ..
  19. Chattopadhyay M, Chen W, Poy G, Cam M, Stiles D, Tabor H. Microarray studies on the genes responsive to the addition of spermidine or spermine to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae spermidine synthase mutant. Yeast. 2009;26:531-44 pubmed publisher
    The naturally occurring polyamines putrescine, spermidine or spermine are ubiquitous in all cells...
  20. Vuohelainen S, Pirinen E, Cerrada Gimenez M, Keinänen T, Uimari A, Pietilä M, et al. Spermidine is indispensable in differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have defined the roles of spermidine and spermine in adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by using (S')- and (R')- isomers of alpha-methylspermidine and (S,S'..
  21. Minois N, Carmona Gutierrez D, Bauer M, Rockenfeller P, Eisenberg T, Brandhorst S, et al. Spermidine promotes stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster through autophagy-dependent and -independent pathways. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e401 pubmed publisher
    The naturally occurring polyamine spermidine (Spd) has recently been shown to promote longevity across species in an autophagy-dependent manner...
  22. de Carvalho J, Dalboni M, Watanabe R, Peres A, Goes M, Manfredi S, et al. Effects of spermidine and p-cresol on polymorphonuclear cell apoptosis and function. Artif Organs. 2011;35:E27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of spermidine and p-cresol on apoptosis and function on PMN from healthy subjects...
  23. Bai L, Chang M, Shan J, Jiang R, Zhang Y, Zhang R, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase encoded by gene ste26 from Streptomyces sp. 139. Biochimie. 2011;93:1401-7 pubmed publisher
    ..purified the recombinant Ste26 protein and revealed its ability of transferring the acetyl group from AcCoA to spermidine and spermine, with spermine being the preferred substrate...
  24. Liu T, Chang H, Shieh R. Revisiting inward rectification: K ions permeate through Kir2.1 channels during high-affinity block by spermidine. J Gen Physiol. 2012;139:245-59 pubmed publisher
    ..1 currents. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that high-affinity spermidine block, rather than completely occluding the single-channel pore, induces a subconducting state in which ..
  25. Luo J, Fuell C, Parr A, Hill L, Bailey P, Elliott K, et al. A novel polyamine acyltransferase responsible for the accumulation of spermidine conjugates in Arabidopsis seed. Plant Cell. 2009;21:318-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified two sinapoyl spermidine derivatives, N-((4'-O-glycosyl)-sinapoyl),N'-sinapoylspermidine and N,N'-disinapoylspermidine, which comprise ..
  26. Xu Q, Shi G, Wang H, Yang H, Zhao J, Xu Y. [Roles of exogenous spermidine in improving Salvinia natans tolerance towards cadmium stress]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2008;19:2521-6 pubmed
    In this study, the effects of foliar spraying different concentration (0.05-1 mmol L(-1)) spermidine (Spd) on the photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein content, antioxidant system, and mineral nutrition of Salvinia natans leaves under ..
  27. Fiori L, Turecki G. Epigenetic regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) in suicide. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:1229-35 pubmed publisher
    We have recently shown that the expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) is downregulated across the brains of suicide completers, and that its expression is influenced by genetic variations in the promoter...
  28. Wallace H. The polyamines: past, present and future. Essays Biochem. 2009;46:1-9 pubmed publisher
    The polyamines, spermidine and spermine, were first discovered in 1678 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the early part of the 20th century their structure was determined and their pathway of biosynthesis established...
  29. Nambeesan S, Datsenka T, Ferruzzi M, Malladi A, Mattoo A, Handa A. Overexpression of yeast spermidine synthase impacts ripening, senescence and decay symptoms in tomato. Plant J. 2010;63:836-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the previous studies have involved three biogenic amines: putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and their derivatives...
  30. Wu J, Shang Z, Wu J, Jiang X, Moschou P, Sun W, et al. Spermidine oxidase-derived H?O? regulates pollen plasma membrane hyperpolarization-activated Ca(2+) -permeable channels and pollen tube growth. Plant J. 2010;63:1042-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermidine (Spd) has been correlated with various physiological and developmental processes in plants, including pollen tube growth...
  31. Kumar R, Chadha S, Saraswat D, Bajwa J, Li R, Conti H, et al. Histatin 5 uptake by Candida albicans utilizes polyamine transporters Dur3 and Dur31 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43748-58 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans polyamine transporters Dur3, Dur31, Dur33, Dur34, and were tested for Hst 5 sensitivity and uptake of spermidine. We found spermidine uptake and Hst 5 mediated killing were decreased significantly in ?dur3, ?dur31, and ?dur3/?..
  32. Soda K, Dobashi Y, Kano Y, Tsujinaka S, Konishi F. Polyamine-rich food decreases age-associated pathology and mortality in aged mice. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:727-32 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to test whether oral intake of foods rich in polyamines (spermine and spermidine) suppresses age-associated pathology in aged mice...
  33. Mishina T, Fuchimukai K, Igarashi K, Tashiro K, Shiokawa K. Modification of secondary head-forming activity of microinjected ??-catenin mRNA by co-injected spermine and spermidine in Xenopus early embryos. Amino Acids. 2012;42:791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..In Xenopus early embryos, per embryo level of spermine is extremely low as compared with that of spermidine. To disclose the possible function of polyamines in Xenopus early embryos, we tested the effect of co-injection ..
  34. Larocca T, Gioscia Ryan R, Hearon C, Seals D. The autophagy enhancer spermidine reverses arterial aging. Mech Ageing Dev. 2013;134:314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that spermidine, a nutrient associated with the anti-aging process autophagy, would improve arterial aging...
  35. Ramot Y, Tiede S, Biro T, Abu Bakar M, Sugawara K, Philpott M, et al. Spermidine promotes human hair growth and is a novel modulator of human epithelial stem cell functions. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22564 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown...
  36. Mandal S, Mandal A, Johansson H, Orjalo A, Park M. Depletion of cellular polyamines, spermidine and spermine, causes a total arrest in translation and growth in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2169-74 pubmed publisher
    The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are essential polycations, intimately involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation...
  37. Grienenberger E, Besseau S, Geoffroy P, Debayle D, Heintz D, Lapierre C, et al. A BAHD acyltransferase is expressed in the tapetum of Arabidopsis anthers and is involved in the synthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl spermidines. Plant J. 2009;58:246-59 pubmed publisher
    ..of metabolites that were putatively identified by tandem mass spectrometry as N(1),N(5),N(10)-trihydroxyferuloyl spermidine and N(1),N(5)-dihydroxyferuloyl-N(10)-sinapoyl spermidine...
  38. Morselli E, Mariño G, Bennetzen M, Eisenberg T, Megalou E, Schroeder S, et al. Spermidine and resveratrol induce autophagy by distinct pathways converging on the acetylproteome. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:615-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we show that the acetylase inhibitor spermidine stimulates autophagy independent of SIRT1 in human and yeast cells as well as in nematodes...
  39. Olin Sandoval V, González Chávez Z, Berzunza Cruz M, Martínez I, Jasso Chávez R, Becker I, et al. Drug target validation of the trypanothione pathway enzymes through metabolic modelling. FEBS J. 2012;279:1811-33 pubmed publisher
    ..58-0.7 and 0.49-0.58, respectively), followed by spermidine transport (0...
  40. Xiao Y, McCloskey D, Phillips M. RNA interference-mediated silencing of ornithine decarboxylase and spermidine synthase genes in Trypanosoma brucei provides insight into regulation of polyamine biosynthesis. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:747-55 pubmed publisher
    ..if this regulatory response is specific to AdoMetDC, we studied the effects of the RNAi-induced silencing of the spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) and ODC genes in bloodstream form T. brucei...
  41. Heinick A, Urban K, Roth S, Spies D, Nunes F, Phanstiel O, et al. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference. FASEB J. 2010;24:206-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we used norspermidine, a structural analog of the natural polyamine spermidine, to investigate polyamine uptake in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans...
  42. Finlayson R, Pearce A, Page M, Kaiser M, Bourguet Kondracki M, Harper J, et al. Didemnidines A and B, indole spermidine alkaloids from the New Zealand ascidian Didemnum sp. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:888-92 pubmed publisher
    Two new indole spermidine alkaloids, didemnidines A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from the New Zealand ascidian Didemnum sp...
  43. Kummasook A, Cooper C, Sakamoto A, Terui Y, Kashiwagi K, Vanittanakom N. Spermidine is required for morphogenesis in the human pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei. Fungal Genet Biol. 2013;58-59:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..was determined to be within the gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (sadA), an enzyme critical to spermidine biosynthesis...
  44. Comini M, Dirdjaja N, Kaschel M, Krauth Siegel R. Preparative enzymatic synthesis of trypanothione and trypanothione analogues. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1059-62 pubmed publisher
    ..agents of several tropical diseases, have a unique thiol metabolism based on trypanothione [bis(glutathionyl)spermidine]...
  45. Fellenberg C, Bottcher C, Vogt T. Phenylpropanoid polyamine conjugate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana flower buds. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:1392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..The implication of these findings for spermidine conjugate biosynthesis in flower buds of A. thaliana is discussed.
  46. Mattoo A, Minocha S, Minocha R, Handa A. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine. Amino Acids. 2010;38:405-13 pubmed publisher
    Distribution of biogenic amines-the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm)-differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells...
  47. Barbagallo M, Di Martino M, Marcocci L, Pietrangeli P, De Carolis E, Casalino M, et al. A new piece of the Shigella Pathogenicity puzzle: spermidine accumulation by silencing of the speG gene [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27226 pubmed publisher
    ..We have focused our attention on the speG gene, which encodes spermidine acetyltransferase, an enzyme catalysing the conversion of spermidine into the physiologically inert ..
  48. Lefèvre P, Palin M, Murphy B. Polyamines on the reproductive landscape. Endocr Rev. 2011;32:694-712 pubmed publisher
    ..Over the past 40 yr, investigation has shown that some of these, namely spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, are essential to male and female reproductive processes and to embryo/fetal development...
  49. Ouameur A, Bourassa P, Tajmir Riahi H. Probing tRNA interaction with biogenic polyamines. RNA. 2010;16:1968-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the interaction between tRNA and the three biogenic polyamines putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and cobalt(III)hexamine at physiological conditions, using FTIR spectroscopy, capillary ..
  50. Deeb F, Van Der Weele C, Wolniak S. Spermidine is a morphogenetic determinant for cell fate specification in the male gametophyte of the water fern Marsilea vestita. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3678-91 pubmed publisher
    Here, we show that the polyamine spermidine plays a key role as a morphogenetic determinant during spermatid development in the water fern Marsilea vestita...
  51. Deng K, He H, Qiu J, Lorber B, Bryson J, Filbin M. Increased synthesis of spermidine as a result of upregulation of arginase I promotes axonal regeneration in culture and in vivo. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9545-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that putrescine must be converted to spermidine both in culture and in vivo to overcome inhibition by MAG and that spermidine can promote optic nerve ..
  52. Chan Y, Chua K. Growth-related changes in intracellular spermidine and its effect on efflux pump expression and quorum sensing in Burkholderia pseudomallei. Microbiology. 2010;156:1144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular levels of spermidine and N-acetylspermidine increased with cell density in wild-type B...