putrescine

Summary

Summary: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.

Top Publications

  1. Tkachenko A, Shumkov M, Akhova A. Putrescine as a modulator of the level of RNA polymerase sigma S subunit in Escherichia coli cells under acid stress. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2006;71:185-93 pubmed
    ..A scheme for metabolic pathways describing the role of putrescine in the maintenance of intracellular pH and polyamine pool homeostasis during E...
  2. Kurihara S, Suzuki H, Oshida M, Benno Y. A novel putrescine importer required for type 1 pili-driven surface motility induced by extracellular putrescine in Escherichia coli K-12. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study describes a novel putrescine importer required for induction of type 1 pili-driven surface motility...
  3. Qian Z, Xia X, Lee S. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of putrescine: a four carbon diamine. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:651-62 pubmed publisher
    A four carbon linear chain diamine, putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), is an important platform chemical having a wide range of applications in chemical industry...
  4. Kendra P, Montgomery W, Epsky N, Heath R. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate lures. Environ Entomol. 2009;38:1259-66 pubmed
    ..lures for pest Anastrepha fruit flies are multicomponent blends that include ammonia and the diamine synergist putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane)...
  5. Kurihara S, Oda S, Tsuboi Y, Kim H, Oshida M, Kumagai H, et al. gamma-Glutamylputrescine synthetase in the putrescine utilization pathway of Escherichia coli K-12. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19981-90 pubmed publisher
    Glutamate-putrescine ligase (gamma-glutamylputrescine synthetase, PuuA, EC 6.3.1...
  6. Sequerra E, Gardino P, Hedin Pereira C, De Mello F. Putrescine as an important source of GABA in the postnatal rat subventricular zone. Neuroscience. 2007;146:489-93 pubmed
    ..of glutamate by the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), or, if an alternative pathway, the conversion of putrescine into GABA, also contributes to GABA synthesis...
  7. Johnson L, Mulcahy H, Kanevets U, Shi Y, Lewenza S. Surface-localized spermidine protects the Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane from antibiotic treatment and oxidative stress. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:813-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyamines from the outer surface were isolated and shown to contain putrescine and spermidine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...
  8. Arena M, Romano A, Capozzi V, Beneduce L, Ghariani M, Grieco F, et al. Expression of Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 tyrosine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase genes in wine correlates with substrate availability. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011;53:395-402 pubmed publisher
    Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 is able to produce both tyramine and putrescine via tyrosine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase enzymes, respectively, when cultured on synthetic media...
  9. Quinet M, Ndayiragije A, Lefèvre I, Lambillotte B, Dupont Gillain C, Lutts S. Putrescine differently influences the effect of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene synthesis in rice cultivars differing in salt resistance. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:2719-33 pubmed publisher
    ..and Pokkali, salt resistant] grown for 5 d and 12 d in nutrient solution in the presence or absence of putrescine (1 mM) and 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Alcázar R, Planas J, Saxena T, Zarza X, Bortolotti C, Cuevas J, et al. Putrescine accumulation confers drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxylase 2 gene. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2010;48:547-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumulation of putrescine and increased arginine decarboxlase activity (EC 4.1.1...
  2. Tkachenko A, Akhova A, Shumkov M, Nesterova L. Polyamines reduce oxidative stress in Escherichia coli cells exposed to bactericidal antibiotics. Res Microbiol. 2012;163:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The cells responded to oxidative stress by a 2-3-fold increase in cell polyamines (putrescine, spermidine) produced as a consequence of upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)...
  3. Vuohelainen S, Pirinen E, Cerrada Gimenez M, Keinänen T, Uimari A, Pietilä M, et al. Spermidine is indispensable in differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of polyamines in the regulation of adipogenesis may offer a potential application for the treatment of dysfunctional adipocytes in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome...
  4. Cvikrová M, Gemperlová L, Eder J, Zazimalova E. Excretion of polyamines in alfalfa and tobacco suspension-cultured cells and its possible role in maintenance of intracellular polyamine contents. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:1147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..content of PAs (both free and conjugated forms) was nearly 10 times higher in alfalfa, with high level of free putrescine (Put) (in exponential growth phase it represented about 65-73% of the intracellular Put pool)...
  5. Pintó Marijuan M, de Agazio M, Zacchini M, Santos M, Torne J, Fleck I. Response of transglutaminase activity and bound putrescine to changes in light intensity under natural or controlled conditions in Quercus ilex leaves. Physiol Plant. 2007;131:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..leaves in response to different levels of light intensity and amount. A diurnal trend of free and bound putrescine (F-Put and B-Put, respectively) and TGase activity was observed in plants under natural conditions in the forest,..
  6. Schneider J, Eberhardt D, Wendisch V. Improving putrescine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum by fine-tuning ornithine transcarbamoylase activity using a plasmid addiction system. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:169-78 pubmed publisher
    Corynebacterium glutamicum shows a great potential for the production of the polyamide monomer putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane)...
  7. Beswick T, Willert E, Phillips M. Mechanisms of allosteric regulation of Trypanosoma cruzi S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Biochemistry. 2006;45:7797-807 pubmed
    ..The function of AdoMetDC is regulated by the polyamine-precursor putrescine in a species-specific manner...
  8. Di Pierro P, Mariniello L, Sorrentino A, Villalonga R, Chico B, Porta R. Putrescine-polysaccharide conjugates as transglutaminase substrates and their possible use in producing crosslinked films. Amino Acids. 2010;38:669-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) was covalently linked to alginate and low-methoxyl pectin to synthesize new aminated polysaccharides...
  9. Zomkowski A, Santos A, Rodrigues A. Putrescine produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test and in the tail suspension test in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:1419-25 pubmed
    b>Putrescine, a polyamine present at high concentrations in the mammalian brain, was suggested to play a role in the modulation of depression...
  10. Biastoff S, Brandt W, Dräger B. Putrescine N-methyltransferase--the start for alkaloids. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:1708-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyses S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent methylation of the diamine putrescine...
  11. Valdés Santiago L, Guzmán de Peña D, Ruiz Herrera J. Life without putrescine: disruption of the gene-encoding polyamine oxidase in Ustilago maydis odc mutants. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..spermidine added to satisfy the auxotrophic requirement of odc/spe double mutants is partly back converted into putrescine. In this study, we have approached this problem through the disruption of the gene-encoding polyamine oxidase (..
  12. Uemura T, Yerushalmi H, Tsaprailis G, Stringer D, Pastorian K, Hawel L, et al. Identification and characterization of a diamine exporter in colon epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..family, was identified by proteomics methods as a component of a transporter capable of exporting the diamine putrescine in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells selected for resistance to growth inhibition by high exogenous ..
  13. Rodríguez Kessler M, Ruiz O, Maiale S, Ruiz Herrera J, Jiménez Bremont J. Polyamine metabolism in maize tumors induced by Ustilago maydis. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2008;46:805-14 pubmed publisher
    ..During the process, a striking increase in maize polyamine biosynthesis, mainly free and conjugated putrescine occurred in the tumors induced by the fungus, and in the neighbor plant tissues...
  14. Ladero V, Fernandez M, Calles Enríquez M, Sanchez Llana E, Cañedo E, Martín M, et al. Is the production of the biogenic amines tyramine and putrescine a species-level trait in enterococci?. Food Microbiol. 2012;30:132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..durans strains of different origin were analysed to determine their capacity to produce tyramine and putrescine. The presence of the genes responsible for this and the identity of their flanking regions were checked by PCR...
  15. Gardiner D, Kazan K, Praud S, Torney F, Rusu A, Manners J. Early activation of wheat polyamine biosynthesis during Fusarium head blight implicates putrescine as an inducer of trichothecene mycotoxin production. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:289 pubmed publisher
    ..g. putrescine and agmatine) and amino acids (e.g. arginine and ornithine) are potent inducers of DON by F...
  16. Gupta N, Zhang H, Liu P. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute putrescine depletion by difluoromethylornithine in rats. Neuroscience. 2009;161:691-706 pubmed publisher
    It has been long known that the physiological concentrations of polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for cell growth. However, the role of endogenous polyamines in behavior function is poorly understood at present...
  17. Ladero V, Rattray F, Mayo B, Martín M, Fernandez M, Alvarez M. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the biosynthesis gene cluster of putrescine-producing Lactococcus lactis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:6409-18 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris that are able to produce putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway...
  18. Thompson P, Wertheim B, Zell J, Chen W, McLaren C, Lafleur B, et al. Levels of rectal mucosal polyamines and prostaglandin E2 predict ability of DFMO and sulindac to prevent colorectal adenoma. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:797-805, 805.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed rectal mucosal levels of polyamines (spermidine, spermine, and putrescine) and PGE2, treatment regimens, and risk of CRA in 267 participants of a phase IIb/III chemoprevention trial of ..
  19. Biastoff S, Reinhardt N, Reva V, Brandt W, Dräger B. Evolution of putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase demanded alterations in substrate binding. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3367-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyses S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylation of putrescine in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. PMT presumably evolved from the ubiquitous spermidine synthase (SPDS)...
  20. Chen H, Jones A, Howe G. Constitutive activation of the jasmonate signaling pathway enhances the production of secondary metabolites in tomato. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2540-6 pubmed
  21. Kurihara S, Oda S, Kumagai H, Suzuki H. Gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate hydrolase in the putrescine utilization pathway of Escherichia coli K-12. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;256:318-23 pubmed
    ..The expression of PuuD was induced by putrescine and O2 (substrates of the Puu pathway), while the addition of succinate or NH4Cl (products of the Puu pathway) ..
  22. Onkokesung N, Gaquerel E, Kotkar H, Kaur H, Baldwin I, Galis I. MYB8 controls inducible phenolamide levels by activating three novel hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:polyamine transferases in Nicotiana attenuata. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:389-407 pubmed publisher
    ..approach, we show that a much larger spectrum of PAs composed of hydroxycinnamic acids and two polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, is regulated by this transcription factor...
  23. Olenyik T, Gilroy C, Ullman B. Oral putrescine restores virulence of ornithine decarboxylase-deficient Leishmania donovani in mice. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;176:109-11 pubmed publisher
    Administration of putrescine as a 1% solution in the drinking water ameliorated the profound loss of virulence exhibited by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) deficient Leishmania donovani in mice...
  24. Schneider J, Wendisch V. Putrescine production by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;88:859-68 pubmed publisher
    Here, we report the engineering of the industrially relevant Corynebacterium glutamicum for putrescine production. C. glutamicum grew well in the presence of up to 500 mM of putrescine...
  25. Blachier F, Davila A, Benamouzig R, Tome D. Channelling of arginine in NO and polyamine pathways in colonocytes and consequences. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2011;16:1331-43 pubmed
    ..through the stepwise conversion of L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, conversion of L-ornithine into putrescine and then synthesis of spermidine and spermine...
  26. Menezes D, Valentim C, Oliveira M, Vannier Santos M. Putrescine analogue cytotoxicity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:99-105 pubmed
    ..T. cruzi cannot synthesize putrescine, but its uptake from the extracellular milieu can promote parasite survival...
  27. Palmer A, Ghani R, Kaur N, Phanstiel O, Wallace H. A putrescine-anthracene conjugate: a paradigm for selective drug delivery. Biochem J. 2009;424:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Ant 4, a putrescine-anthracene conjugate, to target cytotoxic agents to human cancer cells as a paradigm for a novel method of ..
  28. Slezak K, Hanske L, Loh G, Blaut M. Increased bacterial putrescine has no impact on gut morphology and physiology in gnotobiotic adolescent mice. Benef Microbes. 2013;4:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Germ-free and conventional mice served as controls. The caecal putrescine concentration of the SIHUMI + Fv was 61.8 ?M (47.6-75.5 ?M), whereas that of conventional and SIHUMI mice was 28...
  29. Kurihara S, Sakai Y, Suzuki H, Muth A, Phanstiel O, Rather P. Putrescine importer PlaP contributes to swarming motility and urothelial cell invasion in Proteus mirabilis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15668-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol...
  30. Marcobal A, de las Rivas B, Moreno Arribas M, Muñoz R. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer as origin of putrescine production in Oenococcus oeni RM83. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:7954-8 pubmed
    ..chromosomal DNA fragment containing the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase has been determined in the putrescine producer Oenococcus oeni RM83...
  31. Bale S, Lopez M, Makhatadze G, Fang Q, Pegg A, Ealick S. Structural basis for putrescine activation of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13404-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) activates the autoprocessing and decarboxylation reactions of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), a critical enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway...
  32. Schneider B, Hernandez V, Reitzer L. Putrescine catabolism is a metabolic response to several stresses in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:537-50 pubmed publisher
    Genes whose products degrade arginine and ornithine, precursors of putrescine synthesis, are activated by either regulators of the nitrogen-regulated (Ntr) response or ?(S) -RNA polymerase...
  33. Takao K, Rickhag M, Hegardt C, Oredsson S, Persson L. Induction of apoptotic cell death by putrescine. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:621-8 pubmed
    ..The induction of cell death was correlated with a dramatic increase in cellular putrescine levels...
  34. Ioannidis N, Cruz J, Kotzabasis K, Kramer D. Evidence that putrescine modulates the higher plant photosynthetic proton circuit. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29864 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that putrescine can alter the partitioning of pmf both in vivo (in Arabidopsis mutant lines and in Nicotiana wild type) and in ..
  35. Shu S, Guo S, Sun J, Yuan L. Effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cucumis sativus and its protection by exogenous putrescine. Physiol Plant. 2012;146:285-96 pubmed publisher
    ..apparatus, the present study investigated the effects of salt stress with and without foliar application of putrescine (Put) on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber...
  36. Polo L, Gil Ortiz F, Cantín A, Rubio V. New insight into the transcarbamylase family: the structure of putrescine transcarbamylase, a key catalyst for fermentative utilization of agmatine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31528 pubmed publisher
    ..aspartate transcarbamylase and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) are well characterized, little was known about putrescine transcarbamylase (PTC), the enzyme that generates CP for ATP production in the fermentative catabolism of ..
  37. Zhang Y, Niu X, Brelidze T, Magleby K. Ring of negative charge in BK channels facilitates block by intracellular Mg2+ and polyamines through electrostatics. J Gen Physiol. 2006;128:185-202 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 1.0 to 721 +/- 9 mM (150 mM symmetrical KCl). Polyamines with fewer amine groups blocked less: putrescine < spermidine < spermine...
  38. Girdhar S, Barta J, Santoyo F, Smith T. Dietary putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) influences recovery of Turkey poults challenged with a mixed coccidial infection. J Nutr. 2006;136:2319-24 pubmed
    Exogenous dietary putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) can increase growth rates of neonatal animals, including calves, chicks, and piglets, under nutritional stress...
  39. Larque E, Sabater Molina M, Zamora S. Biological significance of dietary polyamines. Nutrition. 2007;23:87-95 pubmed
    Polyamines are classically known by their names of putrescine, spermine, and spermidine. They are synthesized endogenously from ornithine and are interconvertible...
  40. Hasne M, Coppens I, Soysa R, Ullman B. A high-affinity putrescine-cadaverine transporter from Trypanosoma cruzi. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:78-91 pubmed publisher
    ..parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is incapable of polyamine biosynthesis de novo and therefore obligatorily relies upon putrescine acquisition from the host to meet its nutritional requirements...
  41. Vannier Santos M, Menezes D, Oliveira M, de Mello F. The putrescine analogue 1,4-diamino-2-butanone affects polyamine synthesis, transport, ultrastructure and intracellular survival in Leishmania amazonensis. Microbiology. 2008;154:3104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Promastigotes of Leishmania species have high levels of putrescine and spermidine and their growth can be inhibited by polyamine biosynthesis antagonists...
  42. Landete J, Arena M, Pardo I, Manca de Nadra M, Ferrer S. Comparative survey of putrescine production from agmatine deamination in different bacteria. Food Microbiol. 2008;25:882-7 pubmed publisher
    This article aims to study putrescine production in Lactobacillus hilgardii strain X(1)B, an agmatine degrader isolated from wine, and to compare it with three other different species, previously reported as putrescine producers from ..
  43. Chou H, Kwon D, Hegazy M, Lu C. Transcriptome analysis of agmatine and putrescine catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1966-75 pubmed publisher
    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are major organic polycations essential for a wide spectrum of cellular processes...
  44. Uemura T, Gerner E. Polyamine transport systems in mammalian cells and tissues. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;720:339-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the methods of polyamine transport analysis in the colon and the small intestine using -membrane vesicles, culture cells, and mouse models...
  45. Meiswinkel T, Gopinath V, Lindner S, Nampoothiri K, Wendisch V. Accelerated pentose utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum for accelerated production of lysine, glutamate, ornithine and putrescine. Microb Biotechnol. 2013;6:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Productivity of the amino acids glutamate, lysine and ornithine, as well as the diamine putrescine was increased as well as final titres except for lysine where titres remained unchanged...
  46. Tebayashi S, Horibata Y, Mikagi E, Kashiwagi T, Mekuria D, Dekebo A, et al. Induction of resistance against the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, by jasmonic acid in sweet pepper. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:1521-6 pubmed
    ..Treatment of the cotyledons with CP resulted in a significant decrease in the number of punctures made by L. trifolii, indicating that the JA treatment enhanced the deterrence against the leafminer by inducing CP accumulation...
  47. Mattoo A, Minocha S, Minocha R, Handa A. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine. Amino Acids. 2010;38:405-13 pubmed publisher
    Distribution of biogenic amines-the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm)-differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells...
  48. Alet A, Sanchez D, Cuevas J, Del Valle S, Altabella T, Tiburcio A, et al. Putrescine accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines enhances tolerance to dehydration and freezing stress. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:278-86 pubmed
    Polyamines have been globally associated to plant responses to abiotic stress. Particularly, putrescine has been related to a better response to cold and dehydration stresses...
  49. Liao S, Poonpairoj P, Ko K, Takatuska Y, Yamaguchi Y, Abe N, et al. Occurrence of agmatine pathway for putrescine synthesis in Selenomonas ruminatium. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:445-55 pubmed
    Selenomonas ruminantium synthesizes cadaverine and putrescine from L-lysine and L-ornithine as the essential constituents of its peptidoglycan by a constitutive lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (LDC/ODC). S...
  50. Marina M, Maiale S, Rossi F, Romero M, Rivas E, Gárriz A, et al. Apoplastic polyamine oxidation plays different roles in local responses of tobacco to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the biotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas viridiflava. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:2164-78 pubmed publisher
    ..sclerotiorum resulted in increased arginine decarboxylase expression and activity in host tissues, as well as putrescine and spermine accumulation in leaf apoplast...
  51. Ouameur A, Bourassa P, Tajmir Riahi H. Probing tRNA interaction with biogenic polyamines. RNA. 2010;16:1968-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the interaction between tRNA and the three biogenic polyamines putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and cobalt(III)hexamine at physiological conditions, using FTIR spectroscopy, capillary ..
  52. Meiswinkel T, Rittmann D, Lindner S, Wendisch V. Crude glycerol-based production of amino acids and putrescine by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Bioresour Technol. 2013;145:254-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides growth, production of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-arginine as well as of the diamine putrescine based on crude glycerol qualities from biodiesel factories was demonstrated.
  53. Carvajal Gamez B, Arroyo R, Camacho Nuez M, Lira R, Martínez Benitez M, Alvarez Sánchez M. Putrescine is required for the expression of eif-5a in Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;180:8-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a putrescine analogue, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB), on tveif-5a mRNA and TveIF-5A protein expression...