ethambutol

Summary

Summary: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)

Top Publications

  1. Swaminathan S, Narendran G, Venkatesan P, Iliayas S, Santhanakrishnan R, Menon P, et al. Efficacy of a 6-month versus 9-month intermittent treatment regimen in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the efficacy of an intermittent 6-month regimen (Reg6M: 2EHRZ(3)/4HR(3) [ethambutol, 1,200 mg; isoniazid, 600 mg; rifampicin, 450 or 600 mg depending on body weight <60 or > or =60 kg; and ..
  2. Ge F, Zeng F, Liu S, Guo N, Ye H, Song Y, et al. In vitro synergistic interactions of oleanolic acid in combination with isoniazid, rifampicin or ethambutol against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:567-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of OA with isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) or ethambutol (EMB) showed favourable synergistic antimycobacterial effects against six drug-resistant strains, with ..
  3. Jenkins P, Campbell I, Banks J, Gelder C, Prescott R, Smith A. Clarithromycin vs ciprofloxacin as adjuncts to rifampicin and ethambutol in treating opportunist mycobacterial lung diseases and an assessment of Mycobacterium vaccae immunotherapy. Thorax. 2008;63:627-34 pubmed publisher
    The mainstays of treatment for pulmonary disease caused by opportunist mycobacteria are rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E). The role of macrolides, quinolones and immunotherapy with Mycobacterium vaccae is not clear...
  4. Jiang T, Zhan Y, Sun M, Liu S, Zang S, Ma Y, et al. The novel responses of ethambutol against Mycobacterium smegmatis mc²155 Revealed by proteomics analysis. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:341-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol (EMB), one of the effective anti-mycobacterial drugs, inhibits the biosynthesis of mycobacterium cell wall...
  5. He G, Zhao Y, Jiang G, Liu Y, Xia H, Wang S, et al. Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:166 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996-2004 to assess levels of drug resistance...
  6. Sirgel F, Warren R, Streicher E, Victor T, van Helden P, Bottger E. embB306 mutations as molecular indicators to predict ethambutol susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chemotherapy. 2012;58:358-63 pubmed publisher
    Discordant results in conventional susceptibility testing of ethambutol against Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to underreporting of drug resistance.
  7. Pommer R, Schoeler S, Mawrin C, Szibor R, Kirches E. The G11778A LHON mutation does not enhance ethambutol cytotoxicity in a cybrid model. Clin Neuropathol. 2008;27:414-23 pubmed
    ..The major side effect of the antibiotic ethambutol, commonly used in tuberculosis therapy, is a retinopathy, which may lead to selective RGC loss, if not detected ..
  8. Srivastava S, Musuka S, Sherman C, Meek C, Leff R, Gumbo T. Efflux-pump-derived multiple drug resistance to ethambutol monotherapy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethambutol. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1225-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol is used for the treatment of tuberculosis in cases where there is isoniazid resistance. We examined the emergence of drug resistance to ethambutol monotherapy in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies of a hollow-fiber system.
  9. Chung H, Yoon Y, Hwang J, Cho K, Koh J, Kim J. Ethambutol-induced toxicity is mediated by zinc and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cultured retinal cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235:163-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol, an efficacious antituberculosis agent, can cause irreversible visual loss in a small but significant fraction of patients. However, the mechanism of ocular toxicity remains to be established...

More Information

Publications63

  1. Kasperbauer S, Daley C. Diagnosis and treatment of infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;29:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment consists of a macrolide, rifamycin, and ethambutol given three times weekly for noncavitary disease and daily with or without an aminoglycoside for cavitary disease...
  2. Brossier F, Veziris N, Aubry A, Jarlier V, Sougakoff W. Detection by GenoType MTBDRsl test of complex mechanisms of resistance to second-line drugs and ethambutol in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1683-9 pubmed publisher
    The GenoType MTBDRsl test rapidly detects resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, and second-line aminoglycosides (amikacin and kanamycin) and cyclic peptide (capreomycin) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  3. Yendapally R, Lee R. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel ethambutol analogues. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:1607-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol is one of the front-line agents recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of tuberculosis...
  4. Talbert Estlin K, Sadun A. Risk factors for ethambutol optic toxicity. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:63-72 pubmed publisher
    Optic neuropathy is a well-known complication of ethambutol therapy and usually manifests as a decrease in visual acuity, cecocentral scotomas, and deficits in color vision.
  5. Kardon R, Morrisey M, Lee A. Abnormal multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in ethambutol toxicity. Semin Ophthalmol. 2006;21:215-22 pubmed
    To report the abnormal multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) findings in two cases of presumed ethambutol toxicity.
  6. Plinke C, Cox H, Kalon S, Doshetov D, Rüsch Gerdes S, Niemann S. Tuberculosis ethambutol resistance: concordance between phenotypic and genotypic test results. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2009;89:448-52 pubmed publisher
    embB306 mutations are potential markers for detecting ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
  7. Jadaun G, Das R, Upadhyay P, Chauhan D, Sharma V, Katoch V. Role of embCAB gene mutations in ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from India. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33:483-6 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, ethambutol (EMB) resistance-associated mutations were characterised in the embCAB genes of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) collected in India...
  8. Jaber A, Ahmad S, Mokaddas E. Minor contribution of mutations at iniA codon 501 and embC-embA intergenic region in ethambutol-resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kuwait. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2009;8:2 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB)...
  9. Guillet V, Chevrollier A, Cassereau J, Letournel F, Gueguen N, Richard L, et al. Ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy linked to OPA1 mutation and mitochondrial toxicity. Mitochondrion. 2010;10:115-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol (EMB), widely used in the treatment of tuberculosis, has been reported to cause Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in patients carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations...
  10. Chaoui I, Sabouni R, Kourout M, Jordaan A, Lahlou O, Elouad R, et al. Analysis of isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Morocco. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:278-84 pubmed
    ..the prevalence of the most common mutations associated with resistance to Isoniazid (INH), Streptomycin (SM) and Ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Morocco in order to select target mutations to develop tests ..
  11. Jönsson S, Davidse A, Wilkins J, van der Walt J, Simonsson U, Karlsson M, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of ethambutol in South African tuberculosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:4230-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol, one of four drugs in the first-line antitubercular regimen, is used to protect against rifampin resistance in the event of preexisting resistance to isoniazid...
  12. Lacoma A, Garcia Sierra N, Prat C, Maldonado J, Ruiz Manzano J, Haba L, et al. GenoType MTBDRsl for molecular detection of second-line-drug and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to fluoroquinolones (FLQ), injectable second-line antibiotics [kanamycin (KM) and capreomycin (CM)], and ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains and directly in clinical samples...
  13. Jadaun G, Agarwal C, Sharma H, Ahmed Z, Upadhyay P, Faujdar J, et al. Determination of ethambutol MICs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium isolates by resazurin microtitre assay. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:152-5 pubmed
    To test susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates to ethambutol by the Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) proportion method and resazurin microtitre assay (REMA) and to evaluate REMA for the determination of ethambutol MICs for ..
  14. Shen X, Shen G, Wu J, Gui X, Li X, Mei J, et al. Association between embB codon 306 mutations and drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2618-20 pubmed
    embB306 mutants were detected in both ethambutol (EMB)-resistant and EMB-susceptible strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains had a higher proportion of embB306 mutants than non-MDR strains (odds ratio, 6...
  15. Guerrero E, Lemus D, Yzquierdo S, Vílchez G, Muñoz M, Montoro E, et al. Association between embB mutations and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Cuba and the Dominican Republic: reproducible patterns and problems. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2013;45:21-6 pubmed
    The relation of ethambutol resistance to embB mutations remains unclear, and there are no reports on ethambutol resistance from the caribbean...
  16. Lienhardt C, Cook S, Burgos M, Yorke Edwards V, Rigouts L, Anyo G, et al. Efficacy and safety of a 4-drug fixed-dose combination regimen compared with separate drugs for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: the Study C randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;305:1415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of drugs for treatment of tuberculosis have been advocated to prevent the emergence of drug resistance...
  17. Starks A, Gumusboga A, Plikaytis B, Shinnick T, Posey J. Mutations at embB codon 306 are an important molecular indicator of ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1061-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is associated primarily with missense mutations in the embB gene...
  18. Lee E, Kim S, Choung H, Kim J, Yu Y. Incidence and clinical features of ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy in Korea. J Neuroophthalmol. 2008;28:269-77 pubmed publisher
    The incidence, clinical manifestations, and contributory factors in ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy (EON) have not been widely studied.
  19. Park Y, Ryoo S, Lee S, Jnawali H, Kim C, Kim H, et al. Correlation of the phenotypic ethambutol susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with embB gene mutations in Korea. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:529-34 pubmed publisher
    The phenotypic resistance to ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with embB gene mutations is still unclear. This study was designed to better understand EMB resistance due to embB gene mutation...
  20. Goude R, Amin A, Chatterjee D, Parish T. The arabinosyltransferase EmbC is inhibited by ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4138-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is an antimycobacterial drug used extensively for the treatment of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  21. Martin S, Bowden F. Ethambutol toxicity manifesting as acute onset psychosis. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:287-8 pubmed
    b>Ethambutol is commonly used for the treatment of tuberculous and atypical mycobacterial infection. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity other than optic neuropathy is not widely reported...
  22. Conde M, Efron A, Loredo C, De Souza G, Graça N, Cezar M, et al. Moxifloxacin versus ethambutol in the initial treatment of tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomised, controlled phase II trial. Lancet. 2009;373:1183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin is a promising new agent that might have additive activity to existing antituberculosis agents. We assessed the activity and safety of moxifloxacin in the initial stage of tuberculosis treatment...
  23. Feng Y, Liu S, Wang Q, Wang L, Tang S, Wang J, et al. Rapid diagnosis of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol using genotype MTBDRsl assay: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55292 pubmed publisher
    ..to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol, in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test.
  24. Chideya S, Winston C, Peloquin C, Bradford W, Hopewell P, Wells C, et al. Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes among a predominantly HIV-infected cohort of adults with tuberculosis from Botswana. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored the association between antituberculosis drug pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Botswana...
  25. Safi H, Lingaraju S, Amin A, Kim S, Jones M, Holmes M, et al. Evolution of high-level ethambutol-resistant tuberculosis through interacting mutations in decaprenylphosphoryl-?-D-arabinose biosynthetic and utilization pathway genes. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we genetically and biochemically characterized Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains selected in vitro for ethambutol resistance...
  26. Said H, Kock M, Ismail N, Baba K, Omar S, Osman A, et al. Evaluation of the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay for susceptibility testing of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The GenoType® MTBDRsl assay is a new rapid assay for the detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs...
  27. Moodley P, Shah N, Tayob N, Connolly C, Zetola N, Gandhi N, et al. Spread of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17513 pubmed publisher
    ..KZN is divided into 11 healthcare districts. We sought to determine the distribution of XDR TB cases in the province in relation to population density...
  28. Huang W, Chi T, Wu M, Jou R. Performance assessment of the GenoType MTBDRsl test and DNA sequencing for detection of second-line and ethambutol drug resistance among patients infected with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2502-8 pubmed publisher
    The GenoType MTBDRsl test and DNA sequencing were used to rapidly detect second-line drug- and ethambutol (EMB)-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  29. Menon V, Jain D, Saxena R, Sood R. Prospective evaluation of visual function for early detection of ethambutol toxicity. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1251-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to evaluate various visual parameters for early detection of ethambutol toxicity.
  30. Kim U, Hwang J. Early stage ethambutol optic neuropathy: retinal nerve fiber layer and optical coherence tomography. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:466-9 pubmed
    To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in early stage ethambutol optic neuropathy.
  31. Garrigó M, Aragón L, Alcaide F, Borrell S, Cardeñosa E, Galán J, et al. Multicenter laboratory evaluation of the MB/BacT Mycobacterium detection system and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system in comparison with the BACTEC 460TB system for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1766-70 pubmed
    ..960 systems, for testing the susceptibilities of 82 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin was evaluated in comparison with the radiometric BACTEC 460TB system...
  32. Tsai R, Chang C, Hseu C, Chang S, Wu J, Wang H, et al. Ethambutol induces PKC-dependent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on human retinal pigment cells. Exp Eye Res. 2008;87:594-603 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol (EMB)-induced ocular side effects may involve the influence on functions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), in addition to EMB-induced optic neuropathy...
  33. Bartacek A, Schutt D, Panosch B, Borek M. Comparison of a four-drug fixed-dose combination regimen with a single tablet regimen in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:760-6 pubmed
    ..the efficacy, safety and acceptability of two short-course regimens of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (HRZE) given either as fixed-dose combination (4-FDC) tablets or as single tablets (ST) in patients with newly ..
  34. Srivastava S, Ayyagari A, Dhole T, Nyati K, Dwivedi S. emb nucleotide polymorphisms and the role of embB306 mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to ethambutol. Int J Med Microbiol. 2009;299:269-80 pubmed publisher
    The emb locus has been considered a target for ethambutol (EMB)...
  35. Hemvani N, Patidar V, Chitnis D. A simple and economical in-house phage technique for the rapid detection of rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, directly on decontaminated sputum samples. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:e332-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of the present study was to set up a rapid phage assay for the testing of drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin, directly on decontaminated sputum samples.
  36. Plinke C, Walter K, Aly S, Ehlers S, Niemann S. Mycobacterium tuberculosis embB codon 306 mutations confer moderately increased resistance to ethambutol in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:2891-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a major component of the first-line therapy of tuberculosis. Mutations in codon 306 of embB (embB306) were suggested as a major resistance mechanism in clinical isolates...
  37. Tessema B, Beer J, Emmrich F, Sack U, Rodloff A. Analysis of gene mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:37 pubmed publisher
    ..to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and ethambutol (EMB) among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Northwest Ethiopia, and to assess the performance of the ..
  38. Shi R, Zhang J, Otomo K, Zhang G, Sugawara I. Lack of correlation between embB mutation and ethambutol MIC in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:4515-7 pubmed
    ..Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from China were subjected to drug susceptibility testing using ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and ofloxacin...
  39. Shi D, Li L, Zhao Y, Jia Q, Li H, Coulter C, et al. Characteristics of embB mutations in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Henan, China. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:2240-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine the association between embB mutations and drug resistance, and to further investigate the mechanism of embB mutations involved in the development of ethambutol and multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  40. Yun J, Lee J, Yang K, Cho S, Kim A, Kwon Y, et al. Ethambutol-mediated cell wall modification in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum increases the biotransformation rates of cyclohexanone derivatives. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2012;35:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..30% via altering the cell envelop structure of C. glutamicum with ethambutol, which inhibits arabinosyl transferases involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall arabinogalactan and mycolate ..
  41. Ahmad S, Itani L, Fares E, Araj G. Varying prevalence of embB codon 306 mutations in ethambutol-resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Beirut and Dubai. J Chemother. 2008;20:285-7 pubmed
  42. Ahmad S, Jaber A, Mokaddas E. Frequency of embB codon 306 mutations in ethambutol-susceptible and -resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kuwait. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2007;87:123-9 pubmed
    Recent reports of embB306 mutations in ethambutol-resistant and ethambutol-susceptible drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have questioned the significance of these mutations in conferring resistance to ethambutol (EMB).
  43. Bai G, Park Y, Choi Y, Bai J, Kim H, Chang C, et al. Trend of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Korea, 1994-2004. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:571-6 pubmed
    ..The 245 health centres through which the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) is implemented in Korea and the TB Laboratory Network of the Korean National Tuberculosis Association...
  44. Miotto P, Cabibbe A, Mantegani P, Borroni E, Fattorini L, Tortoli E, et al. GenoType MTBDRsl performance on clinical samples with diverse genetic background. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of the MTBDRsl in detecting resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQ), second-line injectable drugs (SLID), and ethambutol (EMB) on clinical isolates were similar (specificity ? 99%, sensitivity ? 70%, and positive predictive value (..
  45. Safi H, Fleischmann R, Peterson S, Jones M, Jarrahi B, Alland D. Allelic exchange and mutant selection demonstrate that common clinical embCAB gene mutations only modestly increase resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:103-8 pubmed publisher
    Mutations within codon 306 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis embB gene modestly increase ethambutol (EMB) MICs. To identify other causes of EMB resistance and to identify causes of high-level resistance, we generated EMB-resistant M...
  46. Swaminathan S, Deivanayagam C, Rajasekaran S, Venkatesan P, Padmapriyadarsini C, Menon P, et al. Long term follow up of HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with 6-month intermittent short course chemotherapy. Natl Med J India. 2008;21:3-8 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis occurs in 60%-70% of HIV-positive persons in India. The outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with 6-month intermittent short course antituberculosis regimens in India is not well described...
  47. Gupta A, Reddy V, Lavania M, Chauhan D, Venkatesan K, Sharma V, et al. jefA (Rv2459), a drug efflux gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers resistance to isoniazid & ethambutol. Indian J Med Res. 2010;132:176-88 pubmed
    ..The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of this ORF as a drug efflux pump, which might add new information in our understanding about the alternative mechanisms of drug resistance in mycobacteria...
  48. Liu Y, Dinkin M, Loewenstein J, Rizzo J, Cestari D. Multifocal electroretinographic abnormalities in ethambutol-induced visual loss. J Neuroophthalmol. 2008;28:278-82 pubmed publisher
    Two patients who developed decreased visual acuity after several months of ethambutol treatment for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection had bitemporal visual field defects that suggested optic chiasm damage...
  49. Safi H, Sayers B, Hazbon M, Alland D. Transfer of embB codon 306 mutations into clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains alters susceptibility to ethambutol, isoniazid, and rifampin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:2027-34 pubmed publisher
    Implicated as a major mechanism of ethambutol (EMB) resistance in clinical studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mutations in codon 306 of the embB gene (embB306) have also been detected in EMB-susceptible clinical isolates...
  50. Vistamehr S, Walsh T, Adelman R. Ethambutol neuroretinopathy. Semin Ophthalmol. 2007;22:141-6 pubmed
    To describe the clinical features of ethambutol neuroretinopathy.
  51. Coban A, Bilgin K, Akgunes A, Durupinar B. [Susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to primary antituberculous drugs on chocolate agar: a preliminary study]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2008;42:477-81 pubmed
    ..testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (ETM)...
  52. Plinke C, Cox H, Zarkua N, Karimovich H, Braker K, Diel R, et al. embCAB sequence variation among ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates without embB306 mutation. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1359-67 pubmed publisher
    Mechanisms of resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain inadequately described...
  53. Chai S, Foroozan R. Decreased retinal nerve fibre layer thickness detected by optical coherence tomography in patients with ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:895-7 pubmed
    It is difficult to assess the degree of optic nerve damage in patients with ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy, especially just after the onset of visual loss, when the optic disc typically looks normal.
  54. Perdigão J, Macedo R, Ribeiro A, Brum L, Portugal I. Genetic characterisation of the ethambutol resistance-determining region in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: prevalence and significance of embB306 mutations. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33:334-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line antitubercular drug that inhibits arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan biosynthesis. Resistance to EMB has traditionally been associated with embB mutations, especially in the Met306 codon...