methylamines

Summary

Summary: Derivatives of methylamine (the structural formula CH3NH2).

Top Publications

  1. Zou Q, Bennion B, Daggett V, Murphy K. The molecular mechanism of stabilization of proteins by TMAO and its ability to counteract the effects of urea. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:1192-202 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TMAO stabilizes proteins via enhancement of water structure, such that interactions with the amide unit are discouraged...
  2. Wang J, Yang H, Zuo Z, Yan X, Wang Y, Luo X, et al. Molecular dynamics simulations on the mechanism of transporting methylamine and ammonia by ammonium transporter AmtB. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:15172-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, methylamine molecule is a good mimic for investigating the translocation mechanism of ammonium transporter AmtB...
  3. Munroe K, Magers D, Hammer N. Raman spectroscopic signatures of noncovalent interactions between trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and water. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:7699-707 pubmed publisher
  4. Koeth R, Wang Z, Levison B, Buffa J, Org E, Sheehy B, et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2013;19:576-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk...
  5. Meersman F, Bowron D, Soper A, Koch M. Counteraction of urea by trimethylamine N-oxide is due to direct interaction. Biophys J. 2009;97:2559-66 pubmed publisher
  6. Bennett B, de Aguiar Vallim T, Wang Z, Shih D, Meng Y, Gregory J, et al. Trimethylamine-N-oxide, a metabolite associated with atherosclerosis, exhibits complex genetic and dietary regulation. Cell Metab. 2013;17:49-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of natural genetic variation among inbred strains of mice indicates that FMO3 and TMAO are significantly correlated, and TMAO levels explain 11% of the variation in atherosclerosis...
  7. Kumar S, Lefevre S, Veenhuis M, van der Klei I. Extension of yeast chronological lifespan by methylamine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48982 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha grown at conditions that require primary peroxisome metabolism for growth...
  8. Kuffel A, Zielkiewicz J. The hydrogen bond network structure within the hydration shell around simple osmolytes: urea, tetramethylurea, and trimethylamine-N-oxide, investigated using both a fixed charge and a polarizable water model. J Chem Phys. 2010;133:035102 pubmed publisher
  9. Wang Z, Klipfell E, Bennett B, Koeth R, Levison B, Dugar B, et al. Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease. Nature. 2011;472:57-63 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications78

  1. Erupe M, Liberman Martin A, Silva P, Malloy Q, Yonis N, Cocker D, et al. Determination of methylamines and trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter by non-suppressed ion chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:2070-3 pubmed publisher
    ..method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of methylamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine) and trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter air samples...
  2. Tang W, Wang Z, Levison B, Koeth R, Britt E, Fu X, et al. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1575-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans...
  3. Holthauzen L, ROSGEN J, Bolen D. Hydrogen bonding progressively strengthens upon transfer of the protein urea-denatured state to water and protecting osmolytes. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1310-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Street T, Krukenberg K, ROSGEN J, Bolen D, Agard D. Osmolyte-induced conformational changes in the Hsp90 molecular chaperone. Protein Sci. 2010;19:57-65 pubmed publisher
  5. Meersman F, Bowron D, Soper A, Koch M. An X-ray and neutron scattering study of the equilibrium between trimethylamine N-oxide and urea in aqueous solution. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2011;13:13765-71 pubmed publisher
    ..14 M(-1), which is of the same order as the experimental urea-protein binding constants per site reported in the literature. This confirms that the two osmolytes act independently at least in the physiological range...
  6. Yamazaki H, Fujieda M, Togashi M, Saito T, Preti G, Cashman J, et al. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients. Life Sci. 2004;74:2739-47 pubmed
    ..several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU. ..
  7. Uversky V, Li J, Fink A. Trimethylamine-N-oxide-induced folding of alpha-synuclein. FEBS Lett. 2001;509:31-5 pubmed
    ..The latter conformation was significantly helical and probably represents the physiologically folded form of the protein. ..
  8. Devlin G, Parfrey H, Tew D, Lomas D, Bottomley S. Prevention of polymerization of M and Z alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) with trimethylamine N-oxide. Implications for the treatment of alpha1-at deficiency. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;24:727-32 pubmed
    ..These data show that TMAO can be used to control the conformational transitions of folded alpha1-AT but that it is ineffective in promoting folding of the polypeptide chain within the secretory pathway. ..
  9. Rezus Y, Bakker H. Destabilization of the hydrogen-bond structure of water by the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:4038-44 pubmed
    ..We also investigate the influence of the simultaneous presence in a solution of TMAO and urea, and of TMAO and NMA. It turns out that the effects of TMAO and urea are additive, whereas those of TMAO and NMA are nonadditive. ..
  10. Chistoserdova L, Lapidus A, Han C, Goodwin L, Saunders L, Brettin T, et al. Genome of Methylobacillus flagellatus, molecular basis for obligate methylotrophy, and polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4020-7 pubmed
    ..capsulatus and M. extorquens than to the ones in the more closely related M. petroleiphilum species, providing the first genomic evidence for the polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy in Betaproteobacteria...
  11. Treberg J, Speers Roesch B, Piermarini P, Ip Y, Ballantyne J, Driedzic W. The accumulation of methylamine counteracting solutes in elasmobranchs with differing levels of urea: a comparison of marine and freshwater species. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:860-70 pubmed
    We compared levels of the major organic osmolytes in the muscle of elasmobranchs, including the methylamines trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), betaine and sarcosine as well as the beta-amino acids taurine and beta-alanine, and the activities ..
  12. Suska A, Ibáñez A, Lundstrom I, Berghard A. G protein-coupled receptor mediated trimethylamine sensing. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;25:715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..For the detection of TMA vapor, the cells were covered with agarose, which allowed for intact cell viability for at least 6h in air. The developed gas measurement platform was able to detect TMA from 1 to 100 ppm within 35 min. ..
  13. Lambert D, Mamer O, Akerman B, Choiniere L, Gaudet D, Hamet P, et al. In vivo variability of TMA oxidation is partially mediated by polymorphisms of the FMO3 gene. Mol Genet Metab. 2001;73:224-9 pubmed
    ..quot; With the use of substrate loading or with the interaction of other known modulators of FMO3 activity such as hormonal influences, these genotypes may predispose to mild TMAU. ..
  14. Gavaghan McKee C, Wilson I, Nicholson J. Metabolic phenotyping of nude and normal (Alpk:ApfCD, C57BL10J) mice. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:378-84 pubmed
  15. Sinibaldi R, Casieri C, Melchionna S, Onori G, Segre A, Viel S, et al. The role of water coordination in binary mixtures. A study of two model amphiphilic molecules in aqueous solutions by molecular dynamics and NMR. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:8885-92 pubmed
    ..This effect does not take place in TMAO solutions, where the hydration shell is more compact and stable, maintaining its structure over a wider range of solute concentrations...
  16. Mitchell S, Smith R. Trimethylaminuria: the fish malodor syndrome. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;29:517-21 pubmed
    ..The present article summarizes this progress, draws attention to the different types of fish malodor syndrome, and highlights the current needs in the treatment of such patients. ..
  17. Burrows J, Willis L, Perlmutter D. Chemical chaperones mediate increased secretion of mutant alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) Z: A potential pharmacological strategy for prevention of liver injury and emphysema in alpha 1-AT deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1796-801 pubmed
  18. Chistoserdova L, Chen S, Lapidus A, Lidstrom M. Methylotrophy in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 from a genomic point of view. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2980-7 pubmed
  19. Hernandez D, Addou S, Lee D, Orengo C, Shephard E, Phillips I. Trimethylaminuria and a human FMO3 mutation database. Hum Mutat. 2003;22:209-13 pubmed
    ..The database currently contains 24 entries and is accessible on the World Wide Web via the URL http://human-fmo3.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/Human_FMO3. Additional entries can be submitted via the curator of the database or via a web-based form. ..
  20. Mayer M, Schaaf G, Mouro I, Lopez C, Colin Y, Neumann P, et al. Different transport mechanisms in plant and human AMT/Rh-type ammonium transporters. J Gen Physiol. 2006;127:133-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, homologous AMT/Rh-type proteins function in a distinct manner; while LeAMT1;2 carries specifically NH4+, or cotransports NH3/H+, RhCG mediates electroneutral NH3 transport. ..
  21. Pradeep L, Udgaonkar J. Osmolytes induce structure in an early intermediate on the folding pathway of barstar. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40303-13 pubmed
  22. Zerbst Boroffka I, Kamaltynow R, Harjes S, Kinne Saffran E, Gross J. TMAO and other organic osmolytes in the muscles of amphipods (Crustacea) from shallow and deep water of Lake Baikal. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2005;142:58-64 pubmed
    ..The elevated intracellular osmotic pressure is balanced by upregulating the extracellular hemolymph NaCl concentration...
  23. Bain M, Faull R, Fornasini G, Milne R, Evans A. Accumulation of trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:1300-4 pubmed
    ..The clinical significance of TMA may be related to its potential to contribute to neurological toxicity and 'uraemic breath' in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
  24. Russo A, ROSGEN J, Bolen D. Osmolyte effects on kinetics of FKBP12 C22A folding coupled with prolyl isomerization. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:851-66 pubmed
    ..This effect also plays a key role in decreasing the unfolding rate when, as is often the case, the activated complex exposes more backbone than is exposed in the native state...
  25. Fong R, Kim K, Yoshihara C, Inwood W, Kustu S. The W148L substitution in the Escherichia coli ammonium channel AmtB increases flux and indicates that the substrate is an ion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18706-11 pubmed
    ..We address the role of W148 in decreasing the activity and increasing the selectivity of AmtB and the implications of our findings with respect to the function of Rh proteins, the only known homologues of Amt/Mep proteins...
  26. Doolittle R. Some notes on crystallizing fibrinogen and fibrin fragments. Biophys Chem. 2003;100:307-13 pubmed
    ..The history of my interest in fibrinogen and its crystallization can be traced back in part to some early interactions with John Edsall...
  27. Yancey P. Organic osmolytes as compatible, metabolic and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:2819-30 pubmed
    ..These solutes are amino acids and derivatives, polyols and sugars, methylamines, methylsulfonium compounds and urea...
  28. Eggers D, Valentine J. Crowding and hydration effects on protein conformation: a study with sol-gel encapsulated proteins. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:911-22 pubmed
    ..In the crowded environment of a living cell, excluded volume effects, surface-induced water structure, and compatible solutes are expected to complement the dominant forces in protein folding...
  29. Ortiz Costa S, Sorenson M, Sola Penna M. Counteracting effects of urea and methylamines in function and structure of skeletal muscle myosin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;408:272-8 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the effects of urea and the methylamines trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) and glycine betaine (betaine) on activity and structure of skeletal muscle myosin...
  30. Di Michele A, Freda M, Onori G, Paolantoni M, Santucci A, Sassi P. Modulation of hydrophobic effect by cosolutes. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:21077-85 pubmed
    ..This confers the compatibility to these two osmolytes, which can be accumulated at high concentrations without interfering with biochemical processes in the cell...
  31. Mayer M, Ludewig U. Role of AMT1;1 in NH4+ acquisition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2006;8:522-8 pubmed
  32. Paul S, Patey G. Hydrophobic interactions in urea-trimethylamine-N-oxide solutions. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:11106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely the surfactant-like influence of TMAO that accounts for the elimination of the hydrophobic attraction. The implications of our results for explanations of the action of TMAO in protein solutions are discussed...
  33. Nascimento C, Leandro J, Tavares de Almeida I, Leandro P. Modulation of the activity of newly synthesized human phenylalanine hydroxylase mutant proteins by low-molecular-weight compounds. Protein J. 2008;27:392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Coli molecular chaperones we postulate that glycerol and TMAO rescue results from a direct stabilizing effect of the newly synthesized mutant hPAH enzymes...
  34. Tremblay P, Hallenbeck P. Ammonia-induced formation of an AmtB-GlnK complex is not sufficient for nitrogenase regulation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1588-94 pubmed
    ..These results show that formation of an AmtB-GlnK complex is insufficient in itself for nitrogenase regulation and suggest that partial ammonia transport or occupation of the pore by ammonia is essential for this function...
  35. Bolen D, Rose G. Structure and energetics of the hydrogen-bonded backbone in protein folding. Annu Rev Biochem. 2008;77:339-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This reciprocal relationship establishes the essential link between protein thermodynamics and the protein's hydrogen-bonded backbone structure...
  36. Wolrath H, Borén H, Hallén A, Forsum U. Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis. APMIS. 2002;110:819-24 pubmed
    ..It seems that high levels of TMA in samples of vaginal fluid are typical for BV regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis. However, low levels of TMA, <5 microg/g vaginal fluid, do not always correlate with BV...
  37. Ohashi T, Uchida K, Uchida S, Sasaki S, Nihei H. Intracellular mislocalization of mutant podocin and correction by chemical chaperones. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;119:257-64 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal defective cellular processing of the mutant podocin, and provide evidence for pharmacological correction of the processing defect...
  38. Zidi Yahiaoui N, Mouro Chanteloup I, D Ambrosio A, Lopez C, Gane P, Le Van Kim C, et al. Human Rhesus B and Rhesus C glycoproteins: properties of facilitated ammonium transport in recombinant kidney cells. Biochem J. 2005;391:33-40 pubmed
    ..Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 17222-17227] constitute a family of NH3 channels in mammalian cells...
  39. Hovagimyan K, Gerig J. Interactions of trimethylamine N-oxide and water with cyclo-alanylglycine. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:24142-51 pubmed
  40. Singh R, Haque I, Ahmad F. Counteracting osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide destabilizes proteins at pH below its pKa. Measurements of thermodynamic parameters of proteins in the presence and absence of trimethylamine N-oxide. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11035-42 pubmed
    ..Other conclusions of this study are that T(m) and delta G(D) degrees depend on TMAO concentration at each pH value and that delta H(m) and the delta C(p) are not significantly changed in presence of TMAO...
  41. Javelle A, Thomas G, Marini A, Kramer R, Merrick M. In vivo functional characterization of the Escherichia coli ammonium channel AmtB: evidence for metabolic coupling of AmtB to glutamine synthetase. Biochem J. 2005;390:215-22 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, studies on competition between ammonium and methylammonium suggest that AmtB has a binding site for NH4+ on the periplasmic face...
  42. Westhoff C, Siegel D, Burd C, Foskett J. Mechanism of genetic complementation of ammonium transport in yeast by human erythrocyte Rh-associated glycoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17443-8 pubmed
    ..This report clarifies and expands previous observations of RhAG-mediated transport in yeast and supports the hypothesis that ammonium transport is coupled to the H(+) gradient and that RhAG functions as a NH(4)(+)/H(+) exchanger...
  43. Bennion B, Daggett V. Counteraction of urea-induced protein denaturation by trimethylamine N-oxide: a chemical chaperone at atomic resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6433-8 pubmed
    ..Instead, it prevents unfolding of the protein by structuring the solvent. In particular, TMAO orders the solvent and discourages it from competing with intraprotein H bonds and breaking up the hydrophobic core of the protein...
  44. Marinov D, Rey J, Sigrist M. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation of methylamines by a continuous-wave difference-frequency-generation-based system. Appl Opt. 2008;47:1956-62 pubmed
    ..Future developments are discussed to further improve these detection limits that are currently still about 2 orders of magnitude higher than required for direct methylamine monitoring in human breath...
  45. Bolen D. Effects of naturally occurring osmolytes on protein stability and solubility: issues important in protein crystallization. Methods. 2004;34:312-22 pubmed
  46. Handlogten M, Hong S, Westhoff C, Weiner I. Apical ammonia transport by the mouse inner medullary collecting duct cell (mIMCD-3). Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289:F347-58 pubmed
  47. Ratnaparkhi G, Varadarajan R. Osmolytes stabilize ribonuclease S by stabilizing its fragments S protein and S peptide to compact folding-competent states. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28789-98 pubmed
    ..The increased stabilization thus results from a decrease in conformational entropy of the unfolded state...
  48. Mercier N, Moldes M, El Hadri K, Feve B. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activation promotes adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. Biochem J. 2001;358:335-42 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that SSAO may contribute to the control of adipose tissue development...
  49. Athawale M, Dordick J, Garde S. Osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide does not affect the strength of hydrophobic interactions: origin of osmolyte compatibility. Biophys J. 2005;89:858-66 pubmed
    ..The precise balance of the effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments of the molecule appears to explain the virtual noneffect of TMAO on the strength of hydrophobic interactions...
  50. Treberg J, Wilson C, Richards R, Ewart K, Driedzic W. The freeze-avoidance response of smelt Osmerus mordax: initiation and subsequent suppression of glycerol, trimethylamine oxide and urea accumulation. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:1419-27 pubmed
    ..In January samples, AFP activity (thermal hysteresis) did not vary significantly between groups but mRNA levels were significantly lower in the smelt held at warm temperatures...
  51. Henkels C, Kurz J, Fierke C, Oas T. Linked folding and anion binding of the Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P protein. Biochemistry. 2001;40:2777-89 pubmed
    ..Evidence that the osmolyte-induced and the ligand-induced folded conformations of the P protein are structurally similar is also presented...
  52. Hu C, Lynch G, Kokubo H, Pettitt B. Trimethylamine N-oxide influence on the backbone of proteins: an oligoglycine model. Proteins. 2010;78:695-704 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a clear mechanism showing that even a modest concentration of TMAO forces the protein backbone to adopt a more collapsed structure in the absence of side chain effects...
  53. Shimizu M, Cashman J, Yamazaki H. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:2 pubmed
  54. Song J, Chuang D. Natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide corrects assembly defects of mutant branched-chain alpha-ketoacid decarboxylase in maple syrup urine disease. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40241-6 pubmed
    ..The above in vitro results offer the use of chemical chaperones such as TMAO as an approach to mitigate assembly defects caused by maple syrup urine disease mutations...
  55. Lever M, Randall K, Galinski E. Near infra-red spectra of urea with glycine betaine or trimethylamine N-oxide are additive. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1528:135-40 pubmed
    ..The exceptional properties of glycine betaine do not arise from specific intramolecular interactions between the charged groups...
  56. Ludewig U. Electroneutral ammonium transport by basolateral rhesus B glycoprotein. J Physiol. 2004;559:751-9 pubmed
    ..Methylammonium uptake is inhibited by ammonium and this inhibition saturates with a Ki approximately 3 mm. Electric current measurements and intracellular pHi determinations suggest that RhBG acts as an electroneutral NH4+ -H+ exchanger...
  57. Wolrath H, Ståhlbom B, Hallen A, Forsum U. Trimethylamine and trimethylamine oxide levels in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis reflect a local metabolism in vaginal secretion as compared to urine. APMIS. 2005;113:513-6 pubmed
    ..The results show that a local production of TMA occurs in the vagina that is not part of the general metabolism of TMA-TMAO...
  58. Paul S, Patey G. Structure and interaction in aqueous urea-trimethylamine-N-oxide solutions. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:4476-82 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the mechanism of TMAO counter denaturation is simply that water and urea prefer to solvate TMAO rather than the protein, hence inhibiting its unfolding...
  59. Mak D, Dang B, Weiner I, Foskett J, Westhoff C. Characterization of ammonia transport by the kidney Rh glycoproteins RhBG and RhCG. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F297-305 pubmed
  60. Rother M, Boccazzi P, Bose A, Pritchett M, Metcalf W. Methanol-dependent gene expression demonstrates that methyl-coenzyme M reductase is essential in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A and allows isolation of mutants with defects in regulation of the methanol utilization pathway. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5552-9 pubmed
    ..This genetic system can therefore be employed for the testing of essential genes and for the identification of genes under a common regulatory mechanism by making regulatory mutations phenotypically selectable...
  61. Yamazaki H, Fujieda M, Cashman J, Kamataki T. Mild trimethylaminuria observed in a Japanese cohort with liver damage. Am J Med. 2005;118:803-5 pubmed
  62. Jourand P, Giraud E, Bena G, Sy A, Willems A, Gillis M, et al. Methylobacterium nodulans sp. nov., for a group of aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic, legume root-nodule-forming and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:2269-73 pubmed
    ..The name Methylobacterium nodulans sp. nov. (type strain, ORS 2060(T)=CNCM I 2342(T)=LMG 21967(T)) is proposed for this group of root-nodule-forming bacteria...
  63. Ripoche P, Bertrand O, Gane P, Birkenmeier C, Colin Y, Cartron J. Human Rhesus-associated glycoprotein mediates facilitated transport of NH(3) into red blood cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17222-7 pubmed
    ..In RBCs, RhAG may transport NH(3) to detoxifying organs, like kidney and liver, and together with nonerythroid tissue orthologs may contribute to the regulation of the systemic acid-base balance...
  64. Yamazaki H, Fujita H, Gunji T, Zhang J, Kamataki T, Cashman J, et al. Stop codon mutations in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) gene responsible for trimethylaminuria in a Japanese population. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;90:58-63 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that individuals homozygous for either of the nonsense mutations, Arg500Stop and/or Cys197Stop alleles, in the FMO3 gene can possess abnormal TMA N-oxygenation...
  65. Qu Y, Bolen D. Hydrogen exchange kinetics of RNase A and the urea:TMAO paradigm. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5837-49 pubmed
    ..Under these experimental conditions, the use of DeltaG(HX) as a basis for HX analysis of RNase A urea denaturation is invalid...
  66. Cashman J, Camp K, Fakharzadeh S, Fennessey P, Hines R, Mamer O, et al. Biochemical and clinical aspects of the human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3) related to trimethylaminuria. Curr Drug Metab. 2003;4:151-70 pubmed
    ..The remarkable progress in the biochemical, genetic, clinical basis for understanding the trimethylaminuria condition is summarized and points to needs in the treatment of individuals suffering from trimethylaminuria...
  67. Krätzer C, Carini P, Hovey R, Deppenmeier U. Transcriptional profiling of methyltransferase genes during growth of Methanosarcina mazei on trimethylamine. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..mazei is able to adapt to changing trimethylamine concentrations and the consumption of intermediate compounds. Hence, we assume that the organism possesses a regulatory network for optimal substrate utilization...
  68. Celinski S, Scholtz J. Osmolyte effects on helix formation in peptides and the stability of coiled-coils. Protein Sci. 2002;11:2048-51 pubmed
    ..Together these results support the tenets of the osmophobic hypothesis and highlight the importance of the polypeptide backbone in protein folding and stability...
  69. Soupene E, Lee H, Kustu S. Ammonium/methylammonium transport (Amt) proteins facilitate diffusion of NH3 bidirectionally. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3926-31 pubmed
    ..These proteins are examples of protein facilitators for a gas...