dextroamphetamine

Summary

Summary: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.

Top Publications

  1. Brams M, Giblin J, Gasior M, Gao J, Wigal T. Effects of open-label lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on self-reported quality of life in adults with ADHD. Postgrad Med. 2011;123:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess improvements in quality of life measurements during the open-label portion of a trial examining duration of efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in a simulated adult workplace environment...
  2. Jasinski D, Krishnan S. Abuse liability and safety of oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in individuals with a history of stimulant abuse. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Abuse-related liking scores of LDX at a dose corresponding to a 50% higher amphetamine base (LDX 150 mg) were similar to d-amphetamine 40 mg...
  3. Krishnan S, Zhang Y. Relative bioavailability of lisdexamfetamine 70-mg capsules in fasted and fed healthy adult volunteers and in solution: a single-dose, crossover pharmacokinetic study. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;48:293-302 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that food does not have a significant effect on d-amphetamine or lisdexamfetamine bioavailability in healthy adults and that lisdexamfetamine was well tolerated...
  4. Weisler R, Young J, Mattingly G, Gao J, Squires L, Adler L. Long-term safety and effectiveness of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. CNS Spectr. 2009;14:573-85 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  5. Sofuoglu M, Mooney M, Kosten T, Waters A, Hashimoto K. Minocycline attenuates subjective rewarding effects of dextroamphetamine in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;213:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to determine minocycline's effects on the acute physiological, behavioral, and subjective responses to dextroamphetamine (DAMP) in healthy volunteers.
  6. Najib J. The efficacy and safety profile of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug of d-amphetamine, for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. Clin Ther. 2009;31:142-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a once-daily medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (aged 6-12 years) and adults...
  7. Ballard M, Gallo D, de Wit H. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs' effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood...
  8. Dew R, Kollins S. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a new option in stimulant treatment for ADHD. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010;11:2907-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This review assesses current research on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a relatively recent addition to the range of treatment options...
  9. Gabbay F, Duncan C, McDonald C. Brain potential indices of novelty processing are associated with preference for amphetamine. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;18:470-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings have implications for vulnerability to addiction and illustrate the promise of ERPs in parsing elemental phenotypes...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Galloway G, Buscemi R, Coyle J, Flower K, Siegrist J, Fiske L, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sustained-release dextroamphetamine for treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;89:276-82 pubmed publisher
    ..MA) dependence entered a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of oral dextroamphetamine (d-AMP) as a replacement therapy for MA dependence...
  2. Haffey M, Buckwalter M, Zhang P, Homolka R, Martin P, Lasseter K, et al. Effects of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetic profiles of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and extended-release mixed amphetamine salts in adults. Postgrad Med. 2009;121:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a long-acting prodrug stimulant, and mixed amphetamine salts extended-release (MAS XR), alone or with omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)...
  3. Killgore W, Kahn Greene E, Grugle N, Killgore D, Balkin T. Sustaining executive functions during sleep deprivation: A comparison of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil. Sleep. 2009;32:205-16 pubmed
  4. Brown T, Landgraf J. Improvements in executive function correlate with enhanced performance and functioning and health-related quality of life: evidence from 2 large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in ADHD. Postgrad Med. 2010;122:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess whether improvement in executive function correlates with perceived improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are treated with stimulant medication...
  5. McCarthy S, Cranswick N, Potts L, Taylor E, Wong I. Mortality associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment: a retrospective cohort study of children, adolescents and young adults using the general practice research database. Drug Saf. 2009;32:1089-96 pubmed publisher
  6. May D, Kratochvil C. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: recent advances in paediatric pharmacotherapy. Drugs. 2010;70:15-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Such recent developments and ongoing study of additional potential pharmacological interventions may lead to additional future treatment options for children with ADHD...
  7. Hodgkins P, Sasane R, Meijer W. Pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: incidence, prevalence, and treatment patterns in the Netherlands. Clin Ther. 2011;33:188-203 pubmed publisher
  8. Wieronska J, Stachowicz K, Acher F, Lech T, Pilc A. Opposing efficacy of group III mGlu receptor activators, LSP1-2111 and AMN082, in animal models of positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220:481-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we propose that among group III mGlu receptors, mGlu4 receptor may be a promising target for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs. ..
  9. McCarthy S, Wilton L, Murray M, Hodgkins P, Asherson P, Wong I. Persistence of pharmacological treatment into adulthood, in UK primary care, for ADHD patients who started treatment in childhood or adolescence. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:219 pubmed publisher
  10. Hamidovic A, Dlugos A, Palmer A, de Wit H. Polymorphisms in dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) are associated with stimulant effects of D-amphetamine: an exploratory pharmacogenetic study using healthy volunteers. Behav Genet. 2010;40:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a pleiotropic effect of this polymorphic locus on both ADHD and sensitivity to the subjective effects of amphetamine...
  11. Adler L, Weisler R, Goodman D, Hamdani M, Niebler G. Short-term effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on cardiovascular parameters in a 4-week clinical trial in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:1652-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the short-term impact of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on cardiovascular parameters in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  12. Koran L, Aboujaoude E, Gamel N. Double-blind study of dextroamphetamine versus caffeine augmentation for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:1530-5 pubmed publisher
    Two small, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover studies found dextroamphetamine (d-amphetamine) 30 mg clearly superior to placebo in relieving symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
  13. Findling R, Ginsberg L, Jain R, Gao J. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an open-label, dose-optimization study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:649-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  14. Adler L, Goodman D, Kollins S, Weisler R, Krishnan S, Zhang Y, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:1364-73 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 30, 50, and 70 mg/day lisdexamfetamine dimesylate compared with placebo in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  15. Findling R, Childress A, Krishnan S, McGough J. Long-term effectiveness and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. CNS Spectr. 2008;13:614-20 pubmed
    ..In short-term studies, once-daily LDX provided efficacy throughout the day. This study presented here was conducted to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of LDX in 6- to 12-year-olds with ADHD...
  16. Findling R, Childress A, Cutler A, Gasior M, Hamdani M, Ferreira Cornwell M, et al. Efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) efficacy and safety versus placebo in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  17. Sofuoglu M, Poling J, Waters A, Sewell A, Hill K, Kosten T. Disulfiram enhances subjective effects of dextroamphetamine in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;90:394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to determine the effects of disulfiram on acute physiological and subjective responses to dextroamphetamine in healthy volunteers...
  18. Wigal T, Brams M, Gasior M, Gao J, Giblin J. Effect size of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Postgrad Med. 2011;123:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine duration of efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by effect size in performance and symptom improvement in a simulated adult workplace environment (AWE)...
  19. Brown T, Brams M, Gao J, Gasior M, Childress A. Open-label administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves executive function impairments and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Postgrad Med. 2010;122:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Poor self-regulation and control of emotional behaviors frequently are seen in patients with ADHD. This study assessed EF behaviors in adults with ADHD at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX)...
  20. Mattingly G. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a prodrug stimulant for the treatment of ADHD in children and adults. CNS Spectr. 2010;15:315-25 pubmed
    ..This review of LDX presents the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of this novel stimulant medication, and is intended to help clinicians understand its role in treating children and adults with ADHD...
  21. Boellner S, Stark J, Krishnan S, Zhang Y. Pharmacokinetics of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and its active metabolite, d-amphetamine, with increasing oral doses of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, cros. Clin Ther. 2010;32:252-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Information on the pharmacokinetic profile of LDX in children with ADHD is lacking...
  22. Ermer J, Homolka R, Martin P, Buckwalter M, Purkayastha J, Roesch B. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: linear dose-proportionality, low intersubject and intrasubject variability, and safety in an open-label single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy adult volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50:1001-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the pharmacokinetic parameters of d-amphetamine were dose-proportional and predictable over a wide range of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate doses...
  23. Profaci C, Krolikowski K, Olszewski R, Neale J. Group II mGluR agonist LY354740 and NAAG peptidase inhibitor effects on prepulse inhibition in PCP and D-amphetamine models of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;216:235-43 pubmed publisher
  24. Ginsberg L, Katic A, Adeyi B, Dirks B, Babcock T, Lasser R, et al. Long-term treatment outcomes with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder stratified by baseline severity. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:1097-107 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the impact of baseline severity on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) efficacy in a long-term study of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  25. Adler L, Dirks B, Deas P, Raychaudhuri A, Dauphin M, Lasser R, et al. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder who report clinically significant impairment in executive function: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74:694-702 pubmed publisher
  26. Hamidovic A, Dlugos A, Skol A, Palmer A, de Wit H. Evaluation of genetic variability in the dopamine receptor D2 in relation to behavioral inhibition and impulsivity/sensation seeking: an exploratory study with d-amphetamine in healthy participants. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;17:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The significant relationship between DRD2 genotype and both behavioral inhibition and impulsivity suggests a possible common genetic influence on behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity...
  27. Body S, Cheung T, Hampson C, den Boon F, Bezzina G, Fone K, et al. Attenuation of the effects of d-amphetamine on interval timing behavior by central 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;203:547-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of d-amphetamine can be antagonized by selective D(1)-like and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists. It is not known whether d-amphetamine's effect requires an intact 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) pathway...
  28. Yan T, Hunt S, Stanford S. Behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities in mice lacking functional tachykinin-1 (NK1) receptors: a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2009;57:627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that mutations in the NK1R gene (tacr1 in humans) could contribute to this disorder, and that drugs that activate NK1R could offer therapeutic relief...
  29. Coghill D, Banaschewski T, Lecendreux M, Soutullo C, Johnson M, Zuddas A, et al. European, randomized, phase 3 study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23:1208-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean changes in vital signs were modest and consistent with the known profile of LDX. LDX was effective and generally well tolerated in children and adolescents with ADHD...
  30. Biala G, Kruk M, Budzynska B. Effects of the cannabinoid receptor ligands on anxiety-related effects of d-amphetamine and nicotine in the mouse elevated plus maze test. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60:113-22 pubmed
    ..25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and rimonabant (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). These results provide evidence that the endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in the anxiety-related responses to d-amphetamine and/or nicotine...
  31. Wigal T, Brams M, Gasior M, Gao J, Squires L, Giblin J. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: novel findings using a simulated adult workplace environment design. Behav Brain Funct. 2010;6:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Duration of efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was assessed in adults (18-55 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the simulated adult workplace environment...
  32. McCarthy S, Wilton L, Murray M, Hodgkins P, Asherson P, Wong I. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:78 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care...
  33. Lopez F, Ginsberg L, Arnold V. Effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on parent-rated measures in children aged 6 to 12 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a secondary analysis. Postgrad Med. 2008;120:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised Short Version (CPRS-R:S) and its subscales...
  34. da Rosa D, Valvassori S, Steckert A, Arent C, Ferreira C, Lopes Borges J, et al. Differences between dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine: behavioral changes and oxidative damage in brain of Wistar rats. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119:31-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study methamphetamine (m-AMPH) and dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH) were compared to determine the potency of the two drugs on behavior and oxidative damage in brain of rats...
  35. Madaan V. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for childhood ADHD. Drugs Today (Barc). 2008;44:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug comprised of dextroamphetamine covalently attached to an essential amino acid, L-lysine...
  36. Faraone S. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: the first long-acting prodrug stimulant treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008;9:1565-74 pubmed
    ..Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is the first long-acting prodrug stimulant and is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is a therapeutically inactive molecule...
  37. Ramtvedt B, Røinås E, Aabech H, Sundet K. Clinical gains from including both dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in stimulant trials. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013;23:597-604 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical gains from including both dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in stimulant trials.
  38. Huck N, McBride S, Kendall A, Grugle N, Killgore W. The effects of modafinil, caffeine, and dextroamphetamine on judgments of simple versus complex emotional expressions following sleep deprivation. Int J Neurosci. 2008;118:487-502 pubmed publisher
    ..47 h of sleep deprivation, the study examined the effect of three stimulant medications (modafinil 400 mg, dextroamphetamine 20 mg, caffeine 600 mg) or placebo on the ability of 54 healthy participants to discriminate and label ..
  39. Herrmann N, Rothenburg L, Black S, Ryan M, Liu B, Busto U, et al. Methylphenidate for the treatment of apathy in Alzheimer disease: prediction of response using dextroamphetamine challenge. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients participated in a dextroamphetamine challenge test (one 10-mg oral dose) before treatment with methylphenidate to gauge the functional integrity ..
  40. Greenwald M, Lundahl L, Steinmiller C. Sustained release d-amphetamine reduces cocaine but not 'speedball'-seeking in buprenorphine-maintained volunteers: a test of dual-agonist pharmacotherapy for cocaine/heroin polydrug abusers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:2624-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is warranted to ascertain whether SR-AMP combined with BUP could be a useful dual-agonist pharmacotherapy...
  41. Herin D, Rush C, Grabowski J. Agonist-like pharmacotherapy for stimulant dependence: preclinical, human laboratory, and clinical studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1187:76-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This report reviews preclinical, human laboratory, and clinical trial data supporting the agonist-like approach, including risks and benefits. Future directions for development of agonist-like medications are also discussed...
  42. Sofuoglu M, Poling J, Hill K, Kosten T. Atomoxetine attenuates dextroamphetamine effects in humans. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2009;35:412-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although preclinical studies support the contribution of the noradrenergic system activation in mediating the acute effects of amphetamines, these findings have not been followed up in clinical studies...
  43. Killgore W, Rupp T, Grugle N, Reichardt R, Lipizzi E, Balkin T. Effects of dextroamphetamine, caffeine and modafinil on psychomotor vigilance test performance after 44 h of continuous wakefulness. J Sleep Res. 2008;17:309-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Some deficits can be temporarily reversed by stimulant medications including caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil...
  44. Jasinski D, Krishnan S. Human pharmacology of intravenous lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: abuse liability in adult stimulant abusers. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..LDX was well tolerated in this population. In contrast to d-amphetamine, LDX administered intravenously did not produce significant subjective abuse-related liking scores at assessed doses...
  45. McCarthy S, Asherson P, Coghill D, Hollis C, Murray M, Potts L, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: treatment discontinuation in adolescents and young adults. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The fall in prescribing is greater than the reported age-related decrease in symptoms, raising the possibility that treatment is prematurely discontinued in some young adults in whom symptoms persist. ..
  46. Dlugos A, Hamidovic A, Palmer A, de Wit H. Further evidence of association between amphetamine response and SLC6A2 gene variants. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;206:501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that the intronic norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphism rs36017 modulates feelings of elation after administration of 20 mg D-amphetamine in healthy volunteers...
  47. Cheung T, Bezzina G, Body S, Fone K, Bradshaw C, Szabadi E. Tolerance to the effect of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) on free-operant timing behaviour: interaction between behavioural and pharmacological mechanisms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;192:521-35 pubmed
    ..There have been no previous investigations of tolerance to the effect of DOI on free-operant timing behaviour...
  48. Brown R, Amler R, Freeman W, Perrin J, Stein M, Feldman H, et al. Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: overview of the evidence. Pediatrics. 2005;115:e749-57 pubmed
    ..Comparison among stimulants (mainly methylphenidate and amphetamines) did not indicate that 1 class outperformed the other...
  49. Zeeuws I, Soetens E. Verbal memory performance improved via an acute administration of D-amphetamine. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007;22:279-87 pubmed
    ..An improved long-term retention of verbal memory was observed after an acute D-amphetamine administration. It was proposed that D-amphetamine modulates consolidation, but a possible drug effect on retrieval could not be rejected...
  50. Lott D, Kim S, Cook E, de Wit H. Serotonin transporter genotype and acute subjective response to amphetamine. Am J Addict. 2006;15:327-35 pubmed
    ..The separate and combined analyses of the gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Intron 2 VNTR suggest that these two HTT polymorphisms may contribute to acute subjective responses to d-amphetamine with a small effect...
  51. Frey B, Valvassori S, Réus G, Martins M, Petronilho F, Bardini K, et al. Effects of lithium and valproate on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2006;31:326-32 pubmed
    ..We studied the effects of the mood stabilizers lithium and valproate on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress in an animal model of mania...
  52. Géranton S, Heal D, Stanford S. Differences in the mechanisms that increase noradrenaline efflux after administration of d-amphetamine: a dual-probe microdialysis study in rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;139:1441-8 pubmed
  53. Tremblay L, Naranjo C, Cardenas L, Herrmann N, Busto U. Probing brain reward system function in major depressive disorder: altered response to dextroamphetamine. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:409-16 pubmed
    The state of the brain reward system in major depressive disorder was assessed with dextroamphetamine, which probes the release of dopamine within the mesocorticolimbic system, a major component of the brain reward system, and produces ..