amphetamines

Summary

Summary: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.

Top Publications

  1. McCabe S, Knight J, Teter C, Wechsler H. Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: prevalence and correlates from a national survey. Addiction. 2005;100:96-106 pubmed
    ..To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of non-medical use of prescription stimulants (Ritalin, Dexedrine or Adderall) among US college students in terms of student and college characteristics...
  2. Meyer M, Wilhelm J, Peters F, Maurer H. Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:1225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..and their metabolites in urine of rats treated with doses corresponding to those reported for abuse of amphetamines. Besides macro-based data evaluation, an automated evaluation using the automated mass spectral deconvolution ..
  3. McNiel A, Muzzin K, DeWald J, McCann A, Schneiderman E, Scofield J, et al. The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among dental and dental hygiene students. J Dent Educ. 2011;75:365-76 pubmed
    ..These results may help administrators and faculty members become aware of potential problems with the misuse of ADD stimulant medication...
  4. Silva A, Martins T, Baptista S, Gonçalves J, Agasse F, Malva J. Brain injury associated with widely abused amphetamines: neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and blood-brain barrier. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2010;3:239-54 pubmed
    ..This review goes beyond the previously well-documented evidence demonstrating that amphetamines cause neuronal injury...
  5. Olfson M, Huang C, Gerhard T, Winterstein A, Crystal S, Allison P, et al. Stimulants and cardiovascular events in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51:147-56 pubmed publisher
    This study examined associations between stimulant use and risk of cardiovascular events and symptoms in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and compared the risks associated with methylphenidate and amphetamines.
  6. Hennessy S, Schelleman H, Daniel G, Bilker W, Kimmel S, Guevara J, et al. Cardiovascular safety of ADHD medications: rationale for and design of an investigator-initiated observational study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010;19:934-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of an investigator-initiated observational study to examine the cardiovascular safety of the following commonly-used medications to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): amphetamines, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine.
  7. Sucic S, Dallinger S, Zdrazil B, Weissensteiner R, Jørgensen T, Holy M, et al. The N terminus of monoamine transporters is a lever required for the action of amphetamines. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:10924-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it is the site of action of antidepressants (which block the transporter) and of amphetamines (which induce substrate efflux)...
  8. Calipari E, Ferris M, Salahpour A, Caron M, Jones S. Methylphenidate amplifies the potency and reinforcing effects of amphetamines by increasing dopamine transporter expression. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2720 pubmed publisher
  9. Leyton V, Sinagawa D, Oliveira K, Schmitz W, Andreuccetti G, De Martinis B, et al. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;215:25-7 pubmed publisher
    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kuzenko N, Sareen J, Beesdo Baum K, Perkonigg A, Hofler M, Simm J, et al. Associations between use of cocaine, amphetamines, or psychedelics and psychotic symptoms in a community sample. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;123:466-74 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between use of cocaine, amphetamines, or psychedelics and psychotic symptoms.
  2. KATRITCH V, Reynolds K, Cherezov V, Hanson M, Roth C, Yeager M, et al. Analysis of full and partial agonists binding to beta2-adrenergic receptor suggests a role of transmembrane helix V in agonist-specific conformational changes. J Mol Recognit. 2009;22:307-18 pubmed publisher
  3. Herman L, Shtayermman O, Aksnes B, Anzalone M, Cormerais A, Liodice C. The use of prescription stimulants to enhance academic performance among college students in health care programs. J Physician Assist Educ. 2011;22:15-22 pubmed
    ..The study investigated the specific stimulants being used and the frequency of usage. It also examined the rates of nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse versus dependence...
  4. Hodgkins P, Shaw M, McCarthy S, Sallee F. The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: does composition matter?. CNS Drugs. 2012;26:245-68 pubmed publisher
  5. Capela J, da Costa Araújo S, Costa V, Ruscher K, Fernandes E, Bastos M, et al. The neurotoxicity of hallucinogenic amphetamines in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Neurotoxicology. 2013;34:254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..MDMA or "Ecstasy") and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) are hallucinogenic amphetamines with addictive properties...
  6. Gouzoulis Mayfrank E, Daumann J. Neurotoxicity of drugs of abuse--the case of methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDMA, ecstasy), and amphetamines. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2009;11:305-17 pubmed
    ..When given in high doses both MDMA and the stimulant amphetamines are clearly neurotoxic in laboratory animals...
  7. Stiefel G, Besag F. Cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate, amphetamines and atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Drug Saf. 2010;33:821-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Drugs such as methylphenidate, amphetamines and atomoxetine are frequently prescribed as part of management...
  8. Steinkellner T, Freissmuth M, Sitte H, Montgomery T. The ugly side of amphetamines: short- and long-term toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy'), methamphetamine and D-amphetamine. Biol Chem. 2011;392:103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we attempt to review amphetamine toxicity and in particular MDMA toxicity in the pathogenesis of exemplary human pathologies, independently of confounding environmental factors such as poly-drug use and drug purity...
  9. Davydova S, Cheido M, Gevorgyan M, Idova G. Effects of 5-HT2A receptor stimulation and blocking on immune response. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2010;150:219-21 pubmed
    ..These data indicate the involvement of 2A serotonin receptors in immunosuppressive mechanisms of serotoninergic system...
  10. Lee H, Lee J, Lin S, Chen P, Chen B. Simultaneous determination of HFBA-derivatized amphetamines and ketamines in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol. 2011;35:162-9 pubmed
    ..Upper limits of quantitation were 8000 ng/mL for all amphetamines and 6000 ng/mL for ketamine and norketamine...
  11. Vorce S, Holler J, Cawrse B, Magluilo J. Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines. J Anal Toxicol. 2011;35:183-7 pubmed
    ..DoD) operates six forensic urine drug-testing laboratories that screen close to 5 million urine samples for amphetamines yearly...
  12. Gray T, Lagasse L, Smith L, Derauf C, Grant P, Shah R, et al. Identification of prenatal amphetamines exposure by maternal interview and meconium toxicology in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31:769-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Interviews regarding maternal drug use were collected shortly after birth; meconium specimens were screened for amphetamines, cannabis, and cotinine by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
  13. Wieronska J, Stachowicz K, Acher F, Lech T, Pilc A. Opposing efficacy of group III mGlu receptor activators, LSP1-2111 and AMN082, in animal models of positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220:481-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we propose that among group III mGlu receptors, mGlu4 receptor may be a promising target for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs. ..
  14. Chèze M, Deveaux M, Martin C, Lhermitte M, Pépin G. Simultaneous analysis of six amphetamines and analogues in hair, blood and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Application to the determination of MDMA after low ecstasy intake. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;170:100-4 pubmed
    ..A first sample of urine was collected a few hours after (T+12h) and tested positive to amphetamines by immunoassay by a clinical laboratory...
  15. Sorkina T, Doolen S, Galperin E, Zahniser N, Sorkin A. Oligomerization of dopamine transporters visualized in living cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28274-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that DAT oligomers are formed in the ER and then are constitutively maintained both at the cell surface and during trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes...
  16. Berman S, O NEILL J, Fears S, Bartzokis G, London E. Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1141:195-220 pubmed publisher
    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance ..
  17. Bull E, Hutson P, Fone K. Decreased social behaviour following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is accompanied by changes in 5-HT2A receptor responsivity. Neuropharmacology. 2004;46:202-10 pubmed
  18. Pałucha Poniewiera A, Kłodzińska A, Stachowicz K, Tokarski K, Hess G, Schann S, et al. Peripheral administration of group III mGlu receptor agonist ACPT-I exerts potential antipsychotic effects in rodents. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55:517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that ACPT-I is a brain-penetrating compound and illustrates its promising therapeutic role for the treatment of schizophrenia...
  19. DeSantis A, Webb E, Noar S. Illicit use of prescription ADHD medications on a college campus: a multimethodological approach. J Am Coll Health. 2008;57:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors used quantitative and qualitative methodologies to investigate college students' perceptions and use of illegal Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) stimulants during spring and summer 2006...
  20. Yu B, Becnel J, Zerfaoui M, Rohatgi R, Boulares A, Nichols C. Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptor activation suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammation with extraordinary potency. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;327:316-23 pubmed publisher
  21. Bromley E. Stimulating a normal adjustment: misbehavior, amphetamines, and the electroencephalogram at the Bradley Home for children. J Hist Behav Sci. 2006;42:379-98 pubmed
    ..The use of amphetamines and the electroencephalogram reorganized concepts of maladjustment along neurological lines, even as the ..
  22. Gleason S, Lucaites V, Shannon H, Nelson D, Leander J. m-CPP hypolocomotion is selectively antagonized by compounds with high affinity for 5-HT(2C) receptors but not 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2B) receptors. Behav Pharmacol. 2001;12:613-20 pubmed
  23. Brown J, Yamamoto B. Effects of amphetamines on mitochondrial function: role of free radicals and oxidative stress. Pharmacol Ther. 2003;99:45-53 pubmed
    ..b>Amphetamines also inhibit mitochondrial function, although the mechanism involved in the inhibition is uncertain...
  24. Hameleers R, Blokland A, Steinbusch H, Visser Vandewalle V, Temel Y. Hypomobility after DOI administration can be reversed by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. Behav Brain Res. 2007;185:65-7 pubmed
    ..p.) reduced the behavioural activity of the animals and that STN HFS reversed these effects. This study provides the first evidence that the therapeutic effect of STN HFS may also be mediated by a 5-HT-dependent mechanism...
  25. Beaulieu J, Sotnikova T, Yao W, Kockeritz L, Woodgett J, Gainetdinov R, et al. Lithium antagonizes dopamine-dependent behaviors mediated by an AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5099-104 pubmed
  26. Berry M. Mammalian central nervous system trace amines. Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators. J Neurochem. 2004;90:257-71 pubmed
    ..These effects are seen as an altered neuronal sensitivity to monoamine neurotransmitters, with no change in neuronal excitability in the absence of neurotransmitter...
  27. Gandhi P, Ezeala G, Luyen T, Tu T, Tran M. Myocardial infarction in an adolescent taking Adderall. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62:1494-7 pubmed
  28. Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer E, Freissmuth M, Gether U, Sitte H. The role of zinc ions in reverse transport mediated by monoamine transporters. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21505-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, they indicate a physiological role of Zn2+, because Zn2+ also facilitated transport reversal of DAT in rat striatal slices...
  29. Kommalage M, Höglund A. Involvement of spinal serotonin receptors in the regulation of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;509:127-34 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of acetylcholine release in the spinal cord...
  30. Gonzalez Maeso J, Weisstaub N, Zhou M, Chan P, Ivic L, Ang R, et al. Hallucinogens recruit specific cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated signaling pathways to affect behavior. Neuron. 2007;53:439-52 pubmed
    ..These studies identify the long-elusive neural and signaling mechanisms responsible for the unique effects of hallucinogens...
  31. Stout P, Klette K, Horn C. Evaluation of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine concentrations in human urine samples and a comparison of the specificity of DRI amphetamines and Abuscreen online (KIMS) amphetamines screening immunoassays. J Forensic Sci. 2004;49:160-4 pubmed
    ..randomly collected human urine samples from Navy and Marine Corps members were simultaneously screened for amphetamines using the DRI and Abuscreen online immunoassays at a cutoff concentration of 500 ng/mL...
  32. Khoshbouei H, Sen N, Guptaroy B, Johnson L, Lund D, Gnegy M, et al. N-terminal phosphorylation of the dopamine transporter is required for amphetamine-induced efflux. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E78 pubmed
    ..These data raise the therapeutic possibility of interfering selectively with AMPH-induced DA efflux without altering physiological DA uptake...
  33. Obata H, Saito S, Sakurazawa S, Sasaki M, Usui T, Goto F. Antiallodynic effects of intrathecally administered 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists in rats with nerve injury. Pain. 2004;108:163-9 pubmed
  34. Schwarz A, Gozzi A, Reese T, Bertani S, Crestan V, Hagan J, et al. Selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist SB-277011-A potentiates phMRI response to acute amphetamine challenge in the rat brain. Synapse. 2004;54:1-10 pubmed
    ..The increased response following D(3) receptor antagonism is consistent with this receptor mediating an inhibitory action on brain activity following a dopaminergic stimulus...
  35. Boothman L, Sharp T. A role for midbrain raphe gamma aminobutyric acid neurons in 5-hydroxytryptamine feedback control. Neuroreport. 2005;16:891-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that activated local GABA neurons may play an important role in 5-HT2 receptor-mediated feedback control of DRN 5-HT neurons...
  36. Fleckenstein A, Volz T, Riddle E, Gibb J, Hanson G. New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98 pubmed
    ..All of these mechanisms have potential implications for both amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, as well as dopaminergic neurodegenerative diseases...
  37. Cadet J, Krasnova I, Jayanthi S, Lyles J. Neurotoxicity of substituted amphetamines: molecular and cellular mechanisms. Neurotox Res. 2007;11:183-202 pubmed
    The amphetamines, including amphetamine (AMPH), methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), are among abused drugs in the US and throughout the world...
  38. Gough B, Imam S, Blough B, Slikker W, Ali S. Comparative effects of substituted amphetamines (PMA, MDMA, and METH) on monoamines in rat caudate: a microdialysis study. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;965:410-20 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the comparative neurotoxicity of substituted amphetamines in rats...
  39. Filip M, Bubar M, Cunningham K. Contribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 5-HT2 receptor subtypes to the hyperlocomotor effects of cocaine: acute and chronic pharmacological analyses. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;310:1246-54 pubmed
    ..The present study implies that 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR exert oppositional influence upon hyperactivity evoked by acute administration of cocaine; this balance is altered following repeated cocaine administration...
  40. Huang M, Dai Y, Lee C, Liu C, Tsay W, Li J. Performance characteristics of DRI, CEDIA, and REMEDi systems for preliminary tests of amphetamines and opiates in human urine. J Anal Toxicol. 2006;30:61-4 pubmed
    Arrestee urine specimens (930) were tested with DRI, CEDIA, and REMEDi; those that tested positive for amphetamines and opiates (616 and 414, respectively) were then confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
  41. Mura P, Chatelain C, Dumestre V, Gaulier J, Ghysel M, Lacroix C, et al. Use of drugs of abuse in less than 30-year-old drivers killed in a road crash in France: a spectacular increase for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines. Forensic Sci Int. 2006;160:168-72 pubmed
    ..was conducted in France in order to determine the prevalence of cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine metabolites and amphetamines in blood samples from drivers killed in road accidents in 2003 and 2004 and to compare these values with those ..
  42. Kraemer T, Maurer H. Toxicokinetics of amphetamines: metabolism and toxicokinetic data of designer drugs, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and their N-alkyl derivatives. Ther Drug Monit. 2002;24:277-89 pubmed
    This paper reviews the toxicokinetics of amphetamines. The designer drugs MDA (methylenedioxy-amphetamine, R,S-1-(3;,4;-methylenedioxyphenyl)2-propanamine), MDMA (R,S-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), and MDE (R,S-..
  43. Schenk J. The functioning neuronal transporter for dopamine: kinetic mechanisms and effects of amphetamines, cocaine and methylphenidate. Prog Drug Res. 2002;59:111-31 pubmed
  44. Sulzer D, Sonders M, Poulsen N, Galli A. Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005;75:406-33 pubmed
    Amphetamine and substituted amphetamines, including methamphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), and the herbs khat and ephedra, encompass the only widely administered class of drugs that ..
  45. Callaghan P, Irvine R, Daws L. Differences in the in vivo dynamics of neurotransmitter release and serotonin uptake after acute para-methoxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine revealed by chronoamperometry. Neurochem Int. 2005;47:350-61 pubmed
    ..To study the effect of these amphetamines on clearance of 5-HT mediated specifically by the SERT, clearance of exogenously applied 5-HT was measured in ..
  46. Partilla J, Dempsey A, Nagpal A, Blough B, Baumann M, Rothman R. Interaction of amphetamines and related compounds at the vesicular monoamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;319:237-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, the VMAT(2) assays we have developed should prove useful for guiding the synthesis and evaluation of novel VMAT(2) agents as possible treatment agents for addictive disorders...
  47. Sotnikova T, Beaulieu J, Barak L, Wetsel W, Caron M, Gainetdinov R. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e271 pubmed
    ..Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs.
  48. Downes M, Whyte I. Amphetamine-induced movement disorder. Emerg Med Australas. 2005;17:277-80 pubmed
    Recreational use of amphetamines is common in Australia and New Zealand when compared with other developed nations...
  49. Fog J, Khoshbouei H, Holy M, Owens W, Vaegter C, Sen N, et al. Calmodulin kinase II interacts with the dopamine transporter C terminus to regulate amphetamine-induced reverse transport. Neuron. 2006;51:417-29 pubmed
    Efflux of dopamine through the dopamine transporter (DAT) is critical for the psychostimulatory properties of amphetamines, but the underlying mechanism is unclear...
  50. Teter C, McCabe S, LaGrange K, Cranford J, Boyd C. Illicit use of specific prescription stimulants among college students: prevalence, motives, and routes of administration. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26:1501-10 pubmed
    ..To explore the illicit use of specific prescription stimulants among college students and add to our understanding of reasons (motives) and routes of administration associated with illicit use of these drugs...
  51. Stowe C, Gardner S, Gist C, Schulz E, Wells T. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in male children receiving stimulant therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:1142-9 pubmed
    ..To determine whether cardiac indices are altered as assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in male children receiving either chronic methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine/levoamphetamine (Adderall) therapy...
  52. Svetlov S, Kobeissy F, Gold M. Performance enhancing, non-prescription use of Ritalin: a comparison with amphetamines and cocaine. J Addict Dis. 2007;26:1-6 pubmed
    ..effects and pharmacological pathways evoked by MPH are similar, but not identical to those produced by amphetamines and cocaine...
  53. Yamamoto B, Bankson M. Amphetamine neurotoxicity: cause and consequence of oxidative stress. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 2005;17:87-117 pubmed
    Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to occur in response to high doses of substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methlyene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)...