Summary: A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Dubinsky R, Gray C. CYTE-I-HD: phase I dose finding and tolerability study of cysteamine (Cystagon) in Huntington's disease. Mov Disord. 2006;21:530-3 pubmed
    ..b>Cysteamine, the dimer of cystamine, is an orphan drug approved for the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis and has a ..
  2. Jézégou A, Llinares E, Anne C, Kieffer Jaquinod S, O Regan S, Aupetit J, et al. Heptahelical protein PQLC2 is a lysosomal cationic amino acid exporter underlying the action of cysteamine in cystinosis therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E3434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, PQLC2 transports a lysine-like mixed disulfide that serves as a chemical intermediate in cysteamine therapy of cystinosis, and PQLC2 gene silencing trapped this intermediate in cystinotic cells...
  3. Kleta R, Gahl W. Pharmacological treatment of nephropathic cystinosis with cysteamine. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004;5:2255-62 pubmed
    ..g., swallowing disorders). Since the introduction of cysteamine into the pharmacological management of cystinosis, well-treated adolescent and young adult patients have ..
  4. Fidler M, Barshop B, Gangoiti J, Deutsch R, Martin M, Schneider J, et al. Pharmacokinetics of cysteamine bitartrate following gastrointestinal infusion. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63:36-40 pubmed
    Although cysteamine was first used in the treatment of cystinosis in 1976 and approved by the FDA as cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon) in 1994, surprisingly little pharmacological data are available for this compound...
  5. Anand T, Kumar D, Chauhan M, Manik R, Palta P. Cysteamine supplementation of in vitro maturation medium, in vitro culture medium or both media promotes in vitro development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2008;20:253-7 pubmed
    ..effects of supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC) or both IVM and IVC media with cysteamine on the yield, hatching rate (HR) and total cell number (TCN) of buffalo blastocysts were examined...
  6. Dohil R, Fidler M, Gangoiti J, Kaskel F, Schneider J, Barshop B. Twice-daily cysteamine bitartrate therapy for children with cystinosis. J Pediatr. 2010;156:71-75.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    Cystinosis causes renal and other organ failure. Regular 6-hourly cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon; Mylan, Morgantown, West Virginia) reduces intracellular cystine and the rate of organ deterioration...
  7. Min oo G, Ayi K, Bongfen S, Tam M, Radovanovic I, Gauthier S, et al. Cysteamine, the natural metabolite of pantetheinase, shows specific activity against Plasmodium. Exp Parasitol. 2010;125:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of mice with the pantetheinase metabolite cysteamine reduces blood-stage replication of P. chabaudi and significantly increases survival...
  8. Gangoiti J, Fidler M, Cabrera B, Schneider J, Barshop B, Dohil R. Pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated cysteamine bitartrate in healthy adults: a pilot study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;70:376-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteamine bitartrate is taken lifelong, every 6 h and for the treatment of cystinosis. Recent studies using cysteamine for for other diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders adopt the same dosing regimen for cysteamine...
  9. Gibrat C, Cicchetti F. Potential of cystamine and cysteamine in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..several neuroprotective agents emerging from experimental animal work, cystamine, as well as its reduced form cysteamine, have been identified as potential candidate drugs...

More Information


  1. Levtchenko E, de Graaf Hess A, Wilmer M, Van Den Heuvel L, Monnens L, Blom H. Comparison of cystine determination in mixed leukocytes vs polymorphonuclear leukocytes for diagnosis of cystinosis and monitoring of cysteamine therapy. Clin Chem. 2004;50:1686-8 pubmed
  2. Brodin Sartorius A, Tete M, Niaudet P, Antignac C, Guest G, Ottolenghi C, et al. Cysteamine therapy delays the progression of nephropathic cystinosis in late adolescents and adults. Kidney Int. 2012;81:179-89 pubmed publisher a multisystem autosomal recessive disease caused by cystine accumulation, which is usually treated by oral cysteamine. In order to determine long-term effects of this therapy, we enrolled 86 adult patients (mean age 26...
  3. Kutiyanawalla A, Terry A, Pillai A. Cysteamine attenuates the decreases in TrkB protein levels and the anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice induced by corticosterone treatment. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26153 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby TrkB signaling is regulated in chronic stress might provide valuable information for the development of new therapeutic strategies for several stress-related psychiatric disorders...
  4. Rodríguez González E, Lopez Bejar M, Izquierdo D, Paramio M. Developmental competence of prepubertal goat oocytes selected with brilliant cresyl blue and matured with cysteamine supplementation. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2003;43:179-87 pubmed
    ..was to assess the effect of oocyte selection using the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test plus the addition of cysteamine to the in vitro maturation (IVM) medium to improve the in vitro embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes...
  5. Kang M, Kim B, Eum J, Park S, Choi S, An J, et al. Design of a Pep-1 peptide-modified liposomal nanocarrier system for intracellular drug delivery: Conformational characterization and cellular uptake evaluation. J Drug Target. 2011;19:497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we found that the Pep1-Lipo formulation was a promising nanocarrier system for intracellular delivery of macromolecules...
  6. Kim S, Sohn E, Kim D, Jeong H, Kim M, Kang H, et al. Transduced PEP-1-FK506BP ameliorates atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:1477-85 pubmed publisher
  7. Shin Y, Seo J, Chung T, Hyon J, Wee W. Effect of cysteamine on oxidative stress-induced cell death of human corneal endothelial cells. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:910-7 pubmed publisher
    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of cysteamine against the oxidative stress-induced cell death of human corneal endothelial cells.
  8. Nesterova G, Gahl W. Nephropathic cystinosis: late complications of a multisystemic disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:863-78 pubmed
    ..Prior to renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine for children with nephropathic cystinosis, their lifespan was approximately 10 years...
  9. Gahl W, Balog J, Kleta R. Nephropathic cystinosis in adults: natural history and effects of oral cysteamine therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:242-50 pubmed
    The full burden of nephropathic cystinosis in adulthood and the effects of long-term oral cysteamine therapy on its nonrenal complications have not been elucidated.
  10. Merton J, Knijn H, Flapper H, Dotinga F, Roelen B, Vos P, et al. Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics. Theriogenology. 2013;80:365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to optimize embryo production through supplementation of cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) of both slaughterhouse- and OPU-derived oocytes...
  11. Urdaneta A, Jiménez Macedo A, Izquierdo D, Paramio M. Supplementation with cysteamine during maturation and embryo culture on embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes selected by the brilliant cresyl blue test. Zygote. 2003;11:347-54 pubmed
    Our previous studies have shown that the addition of 100 mircroM cysteamine to the in vitro maturation (IVM) medium increased the embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes...
  12. Dohil R, Newbury R, Sellers Z, Deutsch R, Schneider J. The evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disease in children with cystinosis receiving cysteamine. J Pediatr. 2003;143:224-30 pubmed
    b>Cysteamine prevents organ damage in children with cystinosis, but may cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In this study we evaluated the nature of GI disease, and the value of omeprazole in controlling GI symptoms in these children.
  13. Whitaker B, Knight J. Exogenous gamma-glutamyl cycle compounds supplemented to in vitro maturation medium influence in vitro fertilization, culture, and viability parameters of porcine oocytes and embryos. Theriogenology. 2004;62:311-22 pubmed
    ..Porcine oocytes were matured in NCSU 23 medium supplemented with either l-cysteine (3.3 mM), l-cysteamine (150 P < 0.05microM), l-cysteine and l-cystemaine, l-glycine (1, 2.5, or 5 mM), l-glutamate (1, 2...
  14. Besouw M, Kremer J, Janssen M, Levtchenko E. Fertility status in male cystinosis patients treated with cysteamine. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1880-3 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the fertility status in adult, male cystinosis patients treated with cysteamine. Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disease leading to intralysosomal cystine accumulation...
  15. Besouw M, Blom H, Tangerman A, de Graaf Hess A, Levtchenko E. The origin of halitosis in cystinotic patients due to cysteamine treatment. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;91:228-33 pubmed
    Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of cystine. Cysteamine removes cystine from the lysosome and slows down the progression of the disease...
  16. Sun L, Xu S, Zhou M, Wang C, Wu Y, Chan P. Effects of cysteamine on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice. Brain Res. 2010;1335:74-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteamine is a degradation product of the amino acid cysteine and a reduced form of cystamine...
  17. Tsilou E, Rubin B, Reed G, Caruso R, Iwata F, Balog J, et al. Nephropathic cystinosis: posterior segment manifestations and effects of cysteamine therapy. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1002-9 pubmed
    ..Treatment involves intracellular cystine depletion with oral cysteamine. A wide spectrum of ocular pathologic features has been associated with nephropathic cystinosis...
  18. Bozdag S, Gumus K, Gümüş O, Unlu N. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of cysteamine hydrochloride viscous solutions for the treatment of corneal cystinosis. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;70:260-9 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, viscous solutions of cysteamine hydrochloride (CH) were prepared by using 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 3.0% of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and were evaluated for their in-vitro characteristics and stability...
  19. Shin M, Lee Y, Kim D, An J, Jang S, Cho S, et al. Transduced PEP-1-AMPK inhibits the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in Raw264.7 cells. BMB Rep. 2010;43:40-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the PEP-1-AMPK fusion protein can be used for the protein therapy of COX-2 and NO-related disorders such as inflammation and neuronal diseases. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 40-45]...
  20. Khomenko T, Deng X, Sandor Z, Tarnawski A, Szabo S. Cysteamine alters redox state, HIF-1alpha transcriptional interactions and reduces duodenal mucosal oxygenation: novel insight into the mechanisms of duodenal ulceration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:121-7 pubmed
    ..critical role of enhanced transcriptional activity of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) in early stages of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rats...
  21. Karagiorgou O, Patsis G, Pelecanou M, Raptopoulou C, Terzis A, Siatra Papastaikoudi T, et al. (S)-(2-(2'-Pyridyl)ethyl)cysteamine and (S)-(2-(2'-pyridyl)ethyl)-d,l-homocysteine as ligands for the "fac-[M(CO)(3)](+)" (M = Re, (99m)Tc) core. Inorg Chem. 2005;44:4118-20 pubmed
    The reaction of fac-[NEt(4)](2)[Re(CO)(3)Br(3)] with (S)-(2-(2'-pyridyl)ethyl)cysteamine, L(1), in methanol leads to the formation of the cationic fac-[Re(CO)(3)(NSN)][Br] complex, 1, with coordination of the nitrogen of the pyridine, the ..
  22. Shabankareh H, Zandi M. Developmental potential of sheep oocytes cultured in different maturation media: effects of epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, and cysteamine. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:335-40 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and cysteamine (Cys) in defined maturation medium (DMM: basic culture medium + polyvinyl alcohol), semidefined maturation medium (SDMM: basic ..
  23. Hu Y, Ni Y, Ren L, Dai J, Zhao R. Leptin is involved in the effects of cysteamine on egg laying of hens, characteristics of eggs, and posthatch growth of broiler offspring. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1810-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteamine has been reported to modulate energy homeostasis and exert significant growth-promoting effects in broiler chickens...
  24. Belldina E, Huang M, Schneider J, Brundage R, Tracy T. Steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cysteamine bitartrate in paediatric nephropathic cystinosis patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56:520-5 pubmed
    b>Cysteamine is used to reduce tissue cystine content in patients suffering from nephropathic cystinosis...
  25. Liu G, Wang Y, Wang Z, Cai J, Lv X, Zhou A. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic studies on urine and serum biochemical profiles after chronic cysteamine supplementation in rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5572-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic cysteamine (CS) supplementation on rat metabolism...
  26. Coloso R, Hirschberger L, Dominy J, Lee J, Stipanuk M. Cysteamine dioxygenase: evidence for the physiological conversion of cysteamine to hypotaurine in rat and mouse tissues. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;583:25-36 pubmed
  27. Lee M, Park S, Park K, Kim K, Lee H, Hahn S. Target-specific gene silencing of layer-by-layer assembled gold-cysteamine/siRNA/PEI/HA nanocomplex. ACS Nano. 2011;5:6138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, a cysteamine modified gold nanoparticles (AuCM)/siRNA/polyethyleneimine (PEI)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex was successfully ..
  28. Urdaneta A, Jiménez A, Paramio M, Izquierdo D. Cysteamine, glutathione and ionomycin treatments improve in vitro fertilization of prepubertal goat oocytes. Zygote. 2004;12:277-84 pubmed was to improve in vitro embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes by studying the effect of adding cysteamine to in vitro maturation medium, glutathione (GSH) to in vitro fertilization medium and ionomycin to the sperm ..
  29. Kleta R, Bernardini I, Ueda M, Varade W, Phornphutkul C, Krasnewich D, et al. Long-term follow-up of well-treated nephropathic cystinosis patients. J Pediatr. 2004;145:555-60 pubmed
    We report the excellent clinical outcomes of siblings with nephropathic cystinosis treated diligently with cysteamine starting at 20 months and 2 months of age...
  30. Rahmat D, Sakloetsakun D, Shahnaz G, Sarti F, Laffleur F, Schnürch A. HEC-cysteamine conjugates: influence of degree of thiolation on efflux pump inhibitory and permeation enhancing properties. Int J Pharm. 2012;422:40-6 pubmed publisher
    Within the present study hydroxyethyl cellulose-cysteamine conjugates are investigated regarding biocompatibility, in situ gelling, permeation enhancing and efflux pump inhibitory properties...
  31. Dohil R, Fidler M, Barshop B, Newbury R, Sellers Z, Deutsch R, et al. Esomeprazole therapy for gastric acid hypersecretion in children with cystinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:1786-93 pubmed
    Oral cysteamine therapy prevents natural disease progression in children with cystinosis, but it may cause severe gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms through gastric acid-hypersecretion...
  32. Kobayashi M, Lee E, Fukui Y. Cysteamine or beta-mercaptoethanol added to a defined maturation medium improves blastocyst formation of porcine oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Theriogenology. 2006;65:1191-9 pubmed
    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of adding 100 microM cysteamine (Cys) or 100 microM beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) to a defined maturation medium on in vitro maturation (IVM), and fertilization and ..
  33. Lee S, Jeong E, Jeong J, Shin D, Lee H, Kim H, et al. Cysteamine prevents the development of lens opacity in a rat model of selenite-induced cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:1452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors investigated whether TG2 is involved in selenite-induced cataract formation in rats and whether cysteamine, a chemical inhibitor of TG2, can prevent cataract formation in this model.
  34. Choi K, Kim E, Hong H, Ock C, Lee J, Kim J, et al. Attenuation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer with Cochinchina momordica seed extract through inhibiting cytoplasmic phospholipase A2/5-lipoxygenase and activating ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27 Suppl 3:13-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteamine is a reducing aminothiol used for inducing duodenal ulcer through mechanisms of oxidative stress related to thiol-derived H(2)O(2) reaction...
  35. Langman C, Greenbaum L, Sarwal M, Grimm P, Niaudet P, Deschenes G, et al. A randomized controlled crossover trial with delayed-release cysteamine bitartrate in nephropathic cystinosis: effectiveness on white blood cell cystine levels and comparison of safety. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:1112-20 pubmed publisher
    Immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Canonsburg, PA) may prevent or delay kidney transplantation and other serious outcomes in patients with cystinosis, but has never been subjected to a prospective ..
  36. Unak G, Ozkaya F, Medine E, Kozgus O, Sakarya S, Bekis R, et al. Gold nanoparticle probes: design and in vitro applications in cancer cell culture. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012;90:217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..For the conjugation of (18)F-FDG and AuNPs, cysteamine was first bound to mannose triflate (Man-CA) before synthesizing of (18)F-FDG which has cysteamine sides ((18)..
  37. Dureau P, Broyer M, Dufier J. Evolution of ocular manifestations in nephropathic cystinosis: a long-term study of a population treated with cysteamine. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2003;40:142-6 pubmed
    ..Renal transplantation and oral cysteamine have improved the general prognosis of the disease, and ocular manifestations are now the most common ..
  38. Dohil R, Schmeltzer S, Cabrera B, Wang T, Durelle J, Duke K, et al. Enteric-coated cysteamine for the treatment of paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;33:1036-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress contribute to its pathogenesis. Cysteamine bitartrate readily traverses cellular membranes and is a potent antioxidant.
  39. Sonies B, Almajid P, Kleta R, Bernardini I, Gahl W. Swallowing dysfunction in 101 patients with nephropathic cystinosis: benefit of long-term cysteamine therapy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2005;84:137-46 pubmed
    ..function) increased (that is, worsened) with the number of years that a patient was not receiving treatment with cysteamine, the cystine-depleting agent of choice in cystinosis...
  40. Fukuhara S, Suzuki H, Masaoka T, Arakawa M, Hosoda H, Minegishi Y, et al. Enhanced ghrelin secretion in rats with cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G138-45 pubmed
    ..b>Cysteamine inhibits the release of somatostatin and induces the formation of duodenal ulcers in rats...
  41. Zhou P, Wu Y, Wei D, Li Q, Wang G, Zhang J, et al. Mouse cumulus-denuded oocytes restore developmental capacity completely when matured with optimal supplementation of cysteamine, cystine, and cumulus cells. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:759-68 pubmed publisher
    Our objectives were to study how cysteamine, cystine, and cumulus cells (CCs), as well as oocytes interact to increase oocyte intracellular glutathione (GSH) and thereby to establish an efficient in vitro maturation system for cumulus-..
  42. Fraternale A, Paoletti M, Casabianca A, Orlandi C, Schiavano G, Chiarantini L, et al. Inhibition of murine AIDS by pro-glutathione (GSH) molecules. Antiviral Res. 2008;77:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the administration of pro-GSH molecules may favorably substitute for the use of GSH as such...
  43. Levtchenko E, van Dael C, de Graaf Hess A, Wilmer M, van den Heuvel L, Monnens L, et al. Strict cysteamine dose regimen is required to prevent nocturnal cystine accumulation in cystinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21:110-3 pubmed
    ..b>Cysteamine depletes intralysosomal cystine content, postpones the deterioration of renal function and the occurrence of ..
  44. Bucak M, Atessahin A, Varisli O, Yuce A, Tekin N, Akcay A. The influence of trehalose, taurine, cysteamine and hyaluronan on ram semen Microscopic and oxidative stress parameters after freeze-thawing process. Theriogenology. 2007;67:1060-7 pubmed
    ..diluted with a Tris-based extender containing additives including trehalose (50, 100mM), taurine (25, 50mM), cysteamine (5, 10mM), and hyaluronan (0...
  45. Wan X, Zheng F, Zhang L, Miao Y, Man N, Wen L. Autophagy-mediated chemosensitization by cysteamine in cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:1087-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteamine (CS) has many biomedical and clinical applications because of its excellent water solubility, low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. A previous study by Brawer et al...
  46. Min oo G, Fortin A, Poulin J, Gros P. Cysteamine, the molecule used to treat cystinosis, potentiates the antimalarial efficacy of artemisinin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3262-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that cysteamine (Cys), the aminothiol used to treat nephropathic cystinosis in humans, strongly potentiates the efficacy of ..
  47. Besouw M, Levtchenko E. Growth retardation in children with cystinosis. Minerva Pediatr. 2010;62:307-14 pubmed
    ..The cystine depleting drug cysteamine slows down the progression of renal disease, protects extra-renal organs, accelerates growth and therefore ..
  48. Dohil R, Gangoiti J, Cabrera B, Fidler M, Schneider J, Barshop B. Long-term treatment of cystinosis in children with twice-daily cysteamine. J Pediatr. 2010;156:823-7 pubmed publisher
    Cystinosis causes renal and other organ failure. Treatment with 6-hourly cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon, Mylan, Morgantown, West Virginia) reduces intracellular cystine and the rate of organ deterioration...
  49. Shieh C, Hong C, Huang Y, Tsai S. Potential antidepressant properties of cysteamine on hippocampal BDNF levels and behavioral despair in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1590-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has found that cysteamine and its related agent, cystamine, are neuroprotective in Huntington's disease mice, and act by enhancing the ..
  50. Shervedani R, Farahbakhsh A, Bagherzadeh M. Functionalization of gold cysteamine self-assembled monolayer with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a novel nanosensor. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;587:254-62 pubmed
    Electrochemical characterization of gold cysteamine self-assembled monolayer, in situ functionalized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Au-CA-EDTA SAM), is described by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (..
  51. Shi Z, Du G, Wei X, Zhang L, Chen J, Zhao R. Cysteamine increases expression and activity of H+-K+-ATPase of gastric mucosal cells in weaning piglets. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:6707-12 pubmed
    To determine the in vivo and in vivo effects of cysteamine (CS) on expression and activity of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase of gastric mucosal cells in weaning piglets.
  52. Dohil R, Fidler M, Barshop B, Gangoiti J, Deutsch R, Martin M, et al. Understanding intestinal cysteamine bitartrate absorption. J Pediatr. 2006;148:764-9 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that a controlled-release preparation of cysteamine, with fewer daily administrations, would improve the quality of life for patients with cystinosis.
  53. Borrell Pages M, Canals J, Cordelières F, Parker J, Pineda J, Grange G, et al. Cystamine and cysteamine increase brain levels of BDNF in Huntington disease via HSJ1b and transglutaminase. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1410-24 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that cysteamine, the FDA-approved reduced form of cystamine, is neuroprotective in HD mice by increasing BDNF levels in brain...