Summary: A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Top Publications

  1. Bailey C, Johnson G. The protective effects of cystamine in the R6/2 Huntington's disease mouse involve mechanisms other than the inhibition of tissue transglutaminase. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:871-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, administration of the transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine delays the onset of pathology in the R6/2 HD mouse model...
  2. Lesort M, Lee M, Tucholski J, Johnson G. Cystamine inhibits caspase activity. Implications for the treatment of polyglutamine disorders. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:3825-30 pubmed
    ..Similarly administration of cystamine, which can inhibit transglutaminase, prolonged survival of HD mice, suggesting that inhibition of ..
  3. Borrell Pages M, Canals J, Cordelières F, Parker J, Pineda J, Grange G, et al. Cystamine and cysteamine increase brain levels of BDNF in Huntington disease via HSJ1b and transglutaminase. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1410-24 pubmed
    There is no treatment for the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington disease (HD). Cystamine is a candidate drug; however, the mechanisms by which it operates remain unclear...
  4. Bousquet M, Gibrat C, Ouellet M, Rouillard C, Calon F, Cicchetti F. Cystamine metabolism and brain transport properties: clinical implications for neurodegenerative diseases. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1651-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystamine has shown significant neuroprotective properties in preclinical studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD)...
  5. Ke T, Jeong E, Wang X, Feng Y, Parker D, Lu Z. RGD targeted poly(L-glutamic acid)-cystamine-(Gd-DO3A) conjugate for detecting angiogenesis biomarker alpha(v) beta3 integrin with MRT, mapping. Int J Nanomedicine. 2007;2:191-9 pubmed
    ..Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys [c(RGDfK)] targeted poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA)-(Gd-DO3A) conjugate with a biodegradable cystamine spacer was prepared and evaluated for in vivo detection of an angiogenesis biomarker, alpha(v)beta3 integrin, in ..
  6. Wang X, Sarkar A, Cicchetti F, Yu M, Zhu A, Jokivarsi K, et al. Cerebral PET imaging and histological evidence of transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine induced neuroprotection in transgenic R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2005;231:57-66 pubmed
    To investigate efficacy of cystamine induced neuroprotection, we conducted PET imaging studies of cerebral glucose metabolism with [(18)F]FDG (2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose) and striatal dopamine D2 receptor function with [(11)C]..
  7. Gentile V, Cooper A. Transglutaminases - possible drug targets in human diseases. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord. 2004;3:99-104 pubmed
    ..Moreover, recent studies show that cystamine, an in vitro TGase inhibitor, prolongs the lives of HD-transgenic mice...
  8. Mao Z, Choo Y, Lesort M. Cystamine and cysteamine prevent 3-NP-induced mitochondrial depolarization of Huntington's disease knock-in striatal cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1701-10 pubmed
    Abstract Cystamine significantly improved motor deficits and extended survival in mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD); however, the precise mechanism(s) by which cystamine and the related compound cysteamine are beneficial remain ..
  9. Minarini A, Milelli A, Tumiatti V, Rosini M, Simoni E, Bolognesi M, et al. Cystamine-tacrine dimer: a new multi-target-directed ligand as potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease treatment. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:997-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..designed MTDLs against AD, we replaced the heptamethylene linker of bis(7)tacrine with the structure of cystamine, leading to cystamine-tacrine dimer...

More Information


  1. Feng X, Cheng Y, Wu Q, Zhang J, Xu T. Stimuli response of cystamine-core dendrimer revealed by diffusion and NOE NMR studies. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:3777-83 pubmed publisher
    Stimuli response behaviors of cystamine-core dendrimer in the presence of several reducing agents including vitamin C, sodium bisulfite, and DL-Dithiothreitol are described...
  2. Jang J, Park J, Lee T, Kwon T. Transglutaminase 2 expression levels regulate sensitivity to cystamine plus TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2010;287:224-30 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that cystamine, an inhibitor of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), enhanced tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in Caki cells, but not in normal human ..
  3. Ribeiro M, Silva A, Rodrigues J, Naia L, Rego A. Oxidizing effects of exogenous stressors in Huntington's disease knock-in striatal cells--protective effect of cystamine and creatine. Toxicol Sci. 2013;136:487-99 pubmed publisher
    ..profile following hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and staurosporine (STS) exposure and tested the protective effect of cystamine and creatine in striatal cells expressing mutant huntingtin with 111 glutamines (STHdh (Q111/Q111); mutant cells)..
  4. Tzang B, Hsu T, Chen T, Huang C, Li S, Kao S. Cystamine ameliorates ventricular hypertrophy associated with modulation of IL-6-mediated signaling in lupus-prone mice. Life Sci. 2013;92:719-26 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of cystamine on lupus-associated cardiac hypertrophy.
  5. O Brian C, Chu F. Post-translational disulfide modifications in cell signaling--role of inter-protein, intra-protein, S-glutathionyl, and S-cysteaminyl disulfide modifications in signal transmission. Free Radic Res. 2005;39:471-80 pubmed
    ..of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) by dimerization and (4) protein S-cysteaminylation by cystamine. Cystamine is a byproduct of pantetheinase-catalyzed pantothenic acid recycling from pantetheine for ..
  6. Pillai A, Veeranan Karmegam R, Dhandapani K, Mahadik S. Cystamine prevents haloperidol-induced decrease of BDNF/TrkB signaling in mouse frontal cortex. J Neurochem. 2008;107:941-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the potential of cystamine (CYS), an anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic compound, to prevent HAL-induced reduction in BDNF, GSH, and Bcl-xl ..
  7. Mishra S, Murphy L. Tissue transglutaminase has intrinsic kinase activity: identification of transglutaminase 2 as an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23863-8 pubmed
    ..The inhibitors of TG2, cystamine and monodansyl cadaverine, abolished the ability of the T47D cell membrane preparation to phosphorylate IGFBP-3...
  8. Gibrat C, Cicchetti F. Potential of cystamine and cysteamine in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the several neuroprotective agents emerging from experimental animal work, cystamine, as well as its reduced form cysteamine, have been identified as potential candidate drugs...
  9. Liu Y, Wang C, Hsiung K. Comparison of different protein immobilization methods on quartz crystal microbalance surface in flow injection immunoassay. Anal Biochem. 2001;299:130-5 pubmed
    ..different methods include: (i) physical adsorption; (ii) two thioamine thiolation methods, using cysteamine and cystamine for gold chemisorption and further coupling; (iii) two oxidized dextran spacer methods, coupling of cysteamine ..
  10. Overath T, Kuckelkorn U, Henklein P, Strehl B, Bonar D, Kloss A, et al. Mapping of O-GlcNAc sites of 20 S proteasome subunits and Hsp90 by a novel biotin-cystamine tag. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe an adapted ?-elimination-based derivatization method of O-GlcNAc peptides using a novel biotin-cystamine tag...
  11. Okauchi M, Xi G, Keep R, Hua Y. Tissue-type transglutaminase and the effects of cystamine on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain edema and neurological deficits. Brain Res. 2009;1249:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated tTG expression after ICH and the effects of a tTG inhibitor, cystamine, on ICH-induced brain edema and neurological deficits. This study has two parts...
  12. Hsu T, Chen Y, Lai W, Chiang S, Huang C, Tzang B. Beneficial effects of treatment with cystamine on brain in NZB/W F1 mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;591:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effect and mechanism of cystamine on brain in SLE, NZB/W F1 mice were used as the animal model...
  13. Villella V, Esposito S, Maiuri M, Raia V, Kroemer G, Maiuri L. Towards a rational combination therapy of cystic fibrosis: How cystamine restores the stability of mutant CFTR. Autophagy. 2013;9:1431-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Restoring defective autophagy in CF airways by proteostasis regulators (such as cystamine and its reduced form, cysteamine) can rescue and stabilize ?F508-CFTR at the PM, thus enabling the action of ..
  14. McCarty M. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cystamine may mediate the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:314-7 pubmed
    ..well-tolerated hypolipidemic agent whose efficacy in this regard appears to be mediated by its catabolic product cystamine, a nucleophile which avidly attacks disulfide groups...
  15. Lebo R, Kredich N. Inactivation of human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase by cystamine. Demonstration and quantification of enzyme-ligand complexes. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:2615-23 pubmed
    Human erythrocyte gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase is inactivated by the disulfide cystamine (2,2'-dithiobis-(ethylamine)) at pH 8.2 with a rate constant of 1020 min-1 mM-1...
  16. Di Leandro L, Maras B, Schininà M, Dupré S, Koutris I, Martin F, et al. Cystamine restores GSTA3 levels in Vanin-1 null mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1088-96 pubmed publisher
    ..and grow and develop normally; they better control inflammation and most of the knockout effects were rescued by cystamine treatment...
  17. Hsu T, Chiang S, Huang C, Tsay G, Yang C, Huang C, et al. Beneficial effects of treatment with transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine on macrophage response in NZB/W F1 mice. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:195-203 pubmed
    ..Recently, transglutaminase 2 (TG2) was implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE. Cystamine, which inactivates TG2 activity by forming a mixed disulfide, may interfere with and inhibit other thiol-..
  18. Van Raamsdonk J, Pearson J, Bailey C, Rogers D, Johnson G, Hayden M, et al. Cystamine treatment is neuroprotective in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington disease. J Neurochem. 2005;95:210-20 pubmed
    ..This work assesses the therapeutic potential of cystamine, an inhibitor of TG activity with additional potentially beneficial effects...
  19. Karpuj M, Becher M, Springer J, Chabas D, Youssef S, Pedotti R, et al. Prolonged survival and decreased abnormal movements in transgenic model of Huntington disease, with administration of the transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine. Nat Med. 2002;8:143-9 pubmed
    ..Administration of the TGase competitive inhibitor, cystamine, to transgenic mice expressing exon 1 of huntingtin containing an expanded polyglutamine repeat, altered the ..
  20. Ientile R, Campisi A, Raciti G, Caccamo D, Currò M, Cannavo G, et al. Cystamine inhibits transglutaminase and caspase-3 cleavage in glutamate-exposed astroglial cells. J Neurosci Res. 2003;74:52-9 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of TG-catalyzed reactions by cystamine (1 mM) blocked the activation pathway of caspase-3, with an evident reduction of enzyme cleavage...
  21. Tzang B, Chiang S, Lai W, Tsai C, Wu J, Hsu T. Treatment with cystamine reduces apoptosis in liver from NZB/W F1 mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Since cystamine has been demonstrated to be beneficial to NZB/W F1 mice in our previous report, this study intends to ..
  22. Tzang B, Hsu T, Kuo C, Chen T, Chiang S, Li S, et al. Cystamine attenuates lupus-associated apoptosis of ventricular tissue by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:2104-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystamine, a disulphide metabolite, has been demonstrated to ameliorate various lupus-associated tissue damages by animal models...
  23. Wang C, Wang H, Wu Z, Shen G, Yu R. A piezoelectric immunoassay based on self-assembled monolayers of cystamine and polystyrene sulfonate for determination of Schistosoma japonicum antibodies. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2002;373:803-9 pubmed
    ..immunosensor based on an improved immobilization strategy combining self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of cystamine (Cys) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) has been developed for the determination of Schistosoma japonicum ..
  24. Jeitner T, Delikatny E, Ahlqvist J, Capper H, Cooper A. Mechanism for the inhibition of transglutaminase 2 by cystamine. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;69:961-70 pubmed
    b>Cystamine is neuroprotective in a number of models of neurodegeneration. The therapeutic benefit of cystamine has been attributed, in part, to its inhibition of transglutaminase activity...
  25. Qiu J, Zhang Z, Chen W, Wu Z. Cystamine ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride via inhibition of tissue transglutaminase. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:4328-32 pubmed
    To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of the tissue transglutaminase (tTG) specific inhibitor cystamine on liver fibrosis.
  26. Ke T, Feng Y, Guo J, Parker D, Lu Z. Biodegradable cystamine spacer facilitates the clearance of Gd(III) chelates in poly(glutamic acid) Gd-DO3A conjugates for contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging. 2006;24:931-40 pubmed
    Poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA)-cystamine-[gadolinium (Gd)-DO3A] was prepared in high yield with a high Gd-DO3A conjugation efficiency. Approximately 55% of the carboxylic groups in PGA were loaded with Gd-DO3A via cystamine as the spacer...
  27. Fox J, Barber D, Singh B, Zucker B, Swindell M, Norflus F, et al. Cystamine increases L-cysteine levels in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse brain and in a PC12 model of polyglutamine aggregation. J Neurochem. 2004;91:413-22 pubmed
    b>Cystamine, a small disulfide-containing chemical, is neuroprotective in a transgenic mouse and a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease (HD) and decreases huntingtin aggregates in an in vitro model of HD...
  28. Sato M, Yamashita T, Ohkura M, Osai Y, Sato A, Takada T, et al. N-propionyl-cysteaminylphenol-magnetite conjugate (NPrCAP/M) is a nanoparticle for the targeted growth suppression of melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NPrCAP/M may be useful in targeted therapy for melanoma by inducing non-apoptotic cell death after appropriate heating by the AMF...
  29. Hsu T, Huang C, Chiang S, Lai W, Tsai C, Tzang B. Transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine alleviates the abnormality in liver from NZB/W F1 mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;579:382-9 pubmed
    ..Since cystamine has been demonstrated to be beneficial for NZB/W F1 mice, this study investigates the effects of cystamine on ..
  30. Allegra P, Amodeo E, Colombatto S, Solinas S. The ability of cystamine to bind DNA. Amino Acids. 2002;22:155-66 pubmed
    The DNA-binding properties of cystamine compared with natural occurring polyamines have been studied in vitro by means of ethidium bromide displacement assays, studies of DNA thermal stability and analyses of DNA-B/DNA-A transition...
  31. Tzeng S, Hung B, Grayson W, Green J. Cystamine-terminated poly(beta-amino ester)s for siRNA delivery to human mesenchymal stem cells and enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. Biomaterials. 2012;33:8142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, cystamine-terminated polymers caused the most knockdown, with the best polymer achieving 91% knockdown 20 days post-..
  32. Kao S, Hsu T, Yu J, Chen J, Li S, Lai W, et al. Proteomic analysis for the anti-apoptotic effects of cystamine on apoptosis-prone macrophage. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:660-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies have shown that cystamine, an inhibitor of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), alleviated the apoptosis of hepatocyte and brain cell in lupus-prone ..
  33. Bortvedt S, McLear J, Messer A, Ahern Rindell A, Wolfgang W. Cystamine and intrabody co-treatment confers additional benefits in a fly model of Huntington's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:130-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Feeding a Drosophila HD model cystamine, or expressing a transgene encoding the anti-htt intracellular antibody (intrabody) C4-scFv in the nervous ..
  34. Wang X, Feng Y, Ke T, Schabel M, Lu Z. Pharmacokinetics and tissue retention of (Gd-DTPA)-cystamine copolymers, a biodegradable macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent. Pharm Res. 2005;22:596-602 pubmed
    ..long-term tissue retention of Gd(III) ions, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of extracellular biodegradable macromolecular Gd(III) complexes, (Gd-DTPA)-cystamine copolymers (GDCC), of different molecular weights.
  35. Eftekhari A, Rahman A, Schaebel L, Chen H, Rasmussen C, Aalkjaer C, et al. Chronic cystamine treatment inhibits small artery remodelling in rats. J Vasc Res. 2007;44:471-82 pubmed
    We investigated whether the tissue transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine is able to inhibit remodelling of small arteries in vivo, a possibility suggested by recent in vitro experiments.
  36. Wu X, Jeong E, Emerson L, Hoffman J, Parker D, Lu Z. Noninvasive evaluation of antiangiogenic effect in a mouse tumor model by DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA cystamine copolymers. Mol Pharm. 2010;7:41-8 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy of polydisulfide-based biodegradable macromolecular Gd(III) complexes, Gd-DTPA cystamine copolymers (GDCC), for assessing tumor microvascular characteristics and monitoring antiangiogenesis therapy was investigated in a ..
  37. Calkins M, Townsend J, Johnson D, Johnson J. Cystamine protects from 3-nitropropionic acid lesioning via induction of nf-e2 related factor 2 mediated transcription. Exp Neurol. 2010;224:307-17 pubmed publisher
    Systemic administration of cystamine is known to protect from both chemical and genetic models of neurotoxicity...
  38. Tremblay M, Saint Pierre M, Bourhis E, Levesque D, Rouillard C, Cicchetti F. Neuroprotective effects of cystamine in aged parkinsonian mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:862-70 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the effects of cystamine, which has shown neuroprotection in animal models of Huntington's disease, in a parkinsonian mouse generated by ..
  39. Berruyer C, Martin F, Castellano R, Macone A, Malergue F, Garrido Urbani S, et al. Vanin-1-/- mice exhibit a glutathione-mediated tissue resistance to oxidative stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7214-24 pubmed is correlated with reduced apoptosis and inflammation and is reversed by treating mutant animals with cystamine. The better tolerance of the Vanin-1(-/-) mice is associated with an enhanced gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase ..
  40. Elli L, Ciulla M, Busca G, Roncoroni L, Maioli C, Ferrero S, et al. Beneficial effects of treatment with transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine on the severity of inflammation in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease. Lab Invest. 2011;91:452-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cystamine (CysN) is a multipotent molecule with healthy effects and, moreover, it is an inhibitor of transglutaminases (..
  41. Wang H, Hsu T, Hsu G, Li S, Tzang B. Cystamine attenuates the expressions of NOS- and TLR-associated molecules in the brain of NZB/W F1 mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;607:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known to improve the brain abnormality in SLE. To investigate the effect of cystamine on brain abnormality in SLE, NZB/W F1 mice were used as the animal model...
  42. Dedeoglu A, Kubilus J, Jeitner T, Matson S, Bogdanov M, Kowall N, et al. Therapeutic effects of cystamine in a murine model of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8942-50 pubmed
    ..Treatment in R6/2 transgenic HD mice, using the transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine, significantly extended survival, improved body weight and motor performance, and delayed the neuropathological ..
  43. Xu R, Kaneshiro T, Jeong E, Parker D, Lu Z. Synthesis and evaluation of nanoglobule-cystamine-(Gd-DO3A), a biodegradable nanosized magnetic resonance contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance urography. Int J Nanomedicine. 2010;5:707-13 pubmed
    ..In this study, a new biodegradable macromolecular contrast agent, nanoglobule-G4-cystamine-(Gd-DO3A), was prepared by conjugating Gd-DO3A chelates on the surface of a generation 4 nanoglobule, poly-L-..
  44. Ding D, Sagher D, Laugier E, Rey P, Weissbach H, Zhang X. Studies on the reducing systems for plant and animal thioredoxin-independent methionine sulfoxide reductases B. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:629-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that plant and animal MsrB enzymes lacking a resolving cysteine likely share a similar reaction mechanism...
  45. Chen Y, Maret W. Catalytic selenols couple the redox cycles of metallothionein and glutathione. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:3346-53 pubmed
  46. Wang X, Zhang J, Cheng R, Meng F, Deng C, Zhong Z. Facile Synthesis of Reductively Degradable Biopolymers Using Cystamine Diisocyanate as a Coupling Agent. Biomacromolecules. 2016;17:882-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, a functional coupling agent, cystamine diisocyanate (CDI), was designed to offer a facile access to reductively degradable biopolymers via ..
  47. Wang G, Dong X, Sun Y. Acyl cystamine: small-molecular foldase mimics accelerating oxidative refolding of disulfide-containing proteins. Biotechnol Prog. 2011;27:377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..isomerases and DsbA that have hydrophobic regions around the active sites, hydrophobic alkyl tails are linked to cystamine to create new small molecular foldase mimics, acyl cystamine...
  48. Ivanitsa V, Rakhimova E. [Viability of lyophilized cells of Myxococcus xanthus UKM 10041 and Polyangium cellulosum UKM 10043 in presence of different antioxidants]. Mikrobiol Z. 2002;64:3-9 pubmed
    It has been established that addition of antioxidants: cystamine, ionol, alpha-tocopherol to protective media (saccharose-gelatin agar) does not affect considerably viability of lyophillized cells of cultures Myxococcus xanthus UCM 10041 ..
  49. Høy M, Bokvist K, Xiao Gang W, Hansen J, Juhl K, Berggren P, et al. Phentolamine inhibits exocytosis of glucagon by Gi2 protein-dependent activation of calcineurin in rat pancreatic alpha -cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:924-30 pubmed
    ..The imidazoline binding site is likely to be localized intracellularly and probably closely associated with the secretory granules...
  50. Khavinson V, Lin kova N, Dudkov A, Polyakova V, Kvetnoi I. Peptidergic regulation of expression of genes encoding antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;152:615-8 pubmed
    ..Peptide T-34 normalizes the synthesis of these proteins by regulating the expression of the corresponding genes...
  51. Munezane T, Hasegawa T, Suritala -, Tanaka A, Okada K, Okita Y. Activation of transglutaminase type 2 for aortic wall protection in a rat abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:967-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis was investigated that TG2 contributes to protect aortic walls during remodeling of the AAAs...
  52. D Argenio G, Amoruso D, Mazzone G, Vitaglione P, Romano A, Ribecco M, et al. Garlic extract prevents CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats: The role of tissue transglutaminase. Dig Liver Dis. 2010;42:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In a model of neurodegeneration, the therapeutic benefit of cystamine has been partly attributed to its inhibition of transglutaminase activity...
  53. Berbeci L, Wang W, Kaifer A. Drastically decreased reactivity of thiols and disulfides complexed by cucurbit[6]uril. Org Lett. 2008;10:3721-4 pubmed publisher
    ..that contains a bulky terminal group attached to the amine group, as well as with the related disulfide cystamine. In these complexes, the thiol or the disulfide group is encapsulated inside the host cavity...