tyramine

Summary

Summary: An indirect sympathomimetic that occurs naturally in cheese and other foods. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and MONOAMINE OXIDASE to prolong the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals and may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.

Top Publications

  1. Osborne R, Zhu H, Iavarone A, Blackburn N, Klinman J. Interdomain long-range electron transfer becomes rate-limiting in the Y216A variant of tyramine ?-monooxygenase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:1179-91 pubmed publisher
    The enzyme tyramine ?-monooxygenase (T?M) belongs to a small eukaryotic family of physiologically important mononuclear dicopper monooxygenases...
  2. Buňková L, Bunka F, Mantlová G, Cablová A, Sedláček I, Svec P, et al. The effect of ripening and storage conditions on the distribution of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine in Edam-cheese. Food Microbiol. 2010;27:880-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the work was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) in 4 layers of Dutch-type cheese (Edam-cheese) depending on 3 ripening/storage regimes during a 98-day period...
  3. Fernandez M, Linares D, Rodriguez A, Alvarez M. Factors affecting tyramine production in Enterococcus durans IPLA 655. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;73:1400-6 pubmed
    The decarboxylation of tyrosine by certain lactic acid bacteria leads to the undesirable presence of tyramine in fermented foods...
  4. Visentin V, Bour S, Boucher J, Prévot D, Valet P, Ordener C, et al. Glucose handling in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats is improved by tyramine but not by the amine oxidase inhibitor semicarbazide. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;522:139-46 pubmed
    ..the influence of prolonged treatments with semicarbazide (SSAO-inhibitor), pargyline (MAO-inhibitor), or tyramine (amine oxidase substrate) on amine oxidase activities and glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ..
  5. Liu G, Amin S, Okuhama N, Liao G, Mingle L. A quantitative evaluation of peroxidase inhibitors for tyramide signal amplification mediated cytochemistry and histochemistry. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;126:283-91 pubmed
    ..Our results recommend the use of HCl and caution the use of phenylhydrazine, glucose oxidase, NaN(3) and H(2)O(2) as potent peroxidase inhibitors...
  6. Arena M, Romano A, Capozzi V, Beneduce L, Ghariani M, Grieco F, et al. Expression of Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 tyrosine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase genes in wine correlates with substrate availability. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011;53:395-402 pubmed publisher
    Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 is able to produce both tyramine and putrescine via tyrosine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase enzymes, respectively, when cultured on synthetic media...
  7. La Gioia F, Rizzotti L, Rossi F, Gardini F, Tabanelli G, Torriani S. Identification of a tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdcA) in Streptococcus thermophilus 1TT45 and analysis of its expression and tyramine production in milk. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Its sequence, nearly identical to that of a tdcA of Lactobacillus curvatus, indicated a horizontal gene transfer event. Transcription in milk and the formation of critical levels of tyramine were observed in the presence of tyrosine.
  8. Fussnecker B, Smith B, Mustard J. Octopamine and tyramine influence the behavioral profile of locomotor activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:1083-92 pubmed
    The biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine are believed to play a number of important roles in the behavior of invertebrates including the regulation of motor function...
  9. Schmidt J, Boettcher C, Kuhnt C, Kutchan T, Zenk M. Poppy alkaloid profiling by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and electrospray FT-ICR mass spectrometry after [ring-13C6]-tyramine feeding. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:189-202 pubmed
    Papaver alkaloids play a major role in medicine and pharmacy. In this study, [ring-(13)C(6)]-tyramine as a biogenetic precursor of these alkaloids was fed to Papaver somniferum seedlings...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zhu Z, Munhall A, Johnson S. Tyramine excites rat subthalamic neurons in vitro by a dopamine-dependent mechanism. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:1169-78 pubmed
    b>Tyramine, an endogenous ligand for mammalian trace amine-associated receptors, may act as a neuromodulator that regulates neuronal activity in basal ganglia...
  2. Chua T, Simpson J, Ventura S. Ethanol extracts of saw palmetto contain the indirectly acting sympathomimetic: tyramine. Prostate. 2011;71:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the bioactive components of saw palmetto ethanol extracts that affect contractility in the rat prostate gland...
  3. Hirashima A, Yamaji H, Yoshizawa T, Kuwano E, Eto M. Effect of tyramine and stress on sex-pheromone production in the pre- and post-mating silkworm moth, Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:1242-9 pubmed
    b>Tyramine (TA) increased significantly after mating, whereas there were no significant differences in octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) levels in the brain-suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) complexes between virgin and mated females...
  4. Zhu W, Mantione K, Shen L, Cadet P, Esch T, Goumon Y, et al. Tyrosine and tyramine increase endogenous ganglionic morphine and dopamine levels in vitro and in vivo: cyp2d6 and tyrosine hydroxylase modulation demonstrates a dopamine coupling. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:BR397-404 pubmed
    ..Studies have demonstrated that animals do contain morphine precursors and metabolites, as well as the ability to use some morphine precursors to make morphine...
  5. Ringstad N, Abe N, Horvitz H. Ligand-gated chloride channels are receptors for biogenic amines in C. elegans. Science. 2009;325:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..that are receptors for biogenic amines: LGC-53 is a high-affinity dopamine receptor, LGC-55 is a high-affinity tyramine receptor, and LGC-40 is a low-affinity serotonin receptor that is also gated by choline and acetylcholine...
  6. Rotte C, Krach C, Balfanz S, Baumann A, Walz B, Blenau W. Molecular characterization and localization of the first tyramine receptor of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Neuroscience. 2009;162:1120-33 pubmed publisher
    The phenolamines octopamine and tyramine control, regulate, and modulate many physiological and behavioral processes in invertebrates...
  7. Crocker A, Sehgal A. Octopamine regulates sleep in drosophila through protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this effect of PKA was not exerted in the mushroom bodies, a site previously associated with PKA action on sleep. These studies identify a novel pathway that regulates sleep in Drosophila...
  8. deMarcaida J, Schwid S, White W, Blindauer K, Fahn S, Kieburtz K, et al. Effects of tyramine administration in Parkinson's disease patients treated with selective MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1716-21 pubmed
    ..Traditional nonselective MAO inhibitors have been associated with dietary tyramine interactions that can induce hypertensive reactions...
  9. Verlinden H, Vleugels R, Marchal E, Badisco L, Pflüger H, Blenau W, et al. The role of octopamine in locusts and other arthropods. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:854-67 pubmed publisher
    The biogenic amine octopamine and its biological precursor tyramine are thought to be the invertebrate functional homologues of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters...
  10. Huang J, Ohta H, Inoue N, Takao H, Kita T, Ozoe F, et al. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of a Bombyx mori tyramine receptor selectively coupled to intracellular calcium mobilization. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:842-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Tyramine (TA) is a biogenic amine in invertebrates. cDNA encoding the TA receptor (TAR) BmTAR2 was cloned from the nerve tissue of the silkworm Bombyx mori...
  11. Ladero V, Fernandez M, Calles Enríquez M, Sanchez Llana E, Cañedo E, Martín M, et al. Is the production of the biogenic amines tyramine and putrescine a species-level trait in enterococci?. Food Microbiol. 2012;30:132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..faecium and Enterococcus durans strains of different origin were analysed to determine their capacity to produce tyramine and putrescine...
  12. Flecke C, Stengl M. Octopamine and tyramine modulate pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensilla of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta in a time-dependent manner. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2009;195:529-45 pubmed publisher
    ..At three Zeitgebertimes octopamine, tyramine and the octopamine antagonist epinastine were applied during non-adapting pheromone-stimulation...
  13. Ladero V, Fernandez M, Cuesta I, Alvarez M. Quantitative detection and identification of tyramine-producing enterococci and lactobacilli in cheese by multiplex qPCR. Food Microbiol. 2010;27:933-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Tyramine is the most abundant biogenic amine in fermented dairy products, in which it is produced through the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine...
  14. Frascarelli S, Ghelardoni S, Chiellini G, Vargiu R, Ronca Testoni S, Scanlan T, et al. Cardiac effects of trace amines: pharmacological characterization of trace amine-associated receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;587:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we investigated the cardiac effects of the trace amines p-tyramine, beta-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tryptamine...
  15. Linares D, Fernandez M, Martín M, Alvarez M. Tyramine biosynthesis in Enterococcus durans is transcriptionally regulated by the extracellular pH and tyrosine concentration. Microb Biotechnol. 2009;2:625-33 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most abundant and frequent biogenic amines found in fermented foods is tyramine, which is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine...
  16. Darr A, Calabro A. Synthesis and characterization of tyramine-based hyaluronan hydrogels. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009;20:33-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we characterize a two-step enzymatic cross-linking chemistry for production of tyramine-based hyaluronan hydrogels using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis, enzymatic digestion, and ..
  17. Kaitaniemi S, Elovaara H, Grön K, Kidron H, Liukkonen J, Salminen T, et al. The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:2743-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The preferred in vitro substrates of AOC2 were found to be 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and p-tyramine instead of methylamine and benzylamine, the favored substrates of AOC3...
  18. Numata A, Miyauchi Y, Ono N, Fishbein M, Mandel W, Lin S, et al. Spontaneous atrial fibrillation initiated by tyramine in canine atria with increased sympathetic nerve sprouting. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012;23:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic left ventricular myocardial infarction (LVMI) promotes atrial and pulmonary veins (PV) sympathetic nerve sprouting...
  19. Vierk R, Pflueger H, Duch C. Differential effects of octopamine and tyramine on the central pattern generator for Manduca flight. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2009;195:265-77 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of recent studies demonstrate that tyramine, the biological precursor of octopamine, also affects invertebrate locomotor behaviors, including insect flight...
  20. Pessione E, Pessione A, Lamberti C, Coïsson D, Riedel K, Mazzoli R, et al. First evidence of a membrane-bound, tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine producing, tyrosine decarboxylase in Enterococcus faecalis: a two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic study. Proteomics. 2009;9:2695-710 pubmed publisher
    The soluble and membrane proteome of a tyramine producing Enterococcus faecalis, isolated from an Italian goat cheese, was investigated. A detailed analysis revealed that this strain also produces small amounts of beta-phenylethylamine...
  21. Hoyer S, Eckart A, Herrel A, Zars T, Fischer S, Hardie S, et al. Octopamine in male aggression of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Octopamine, a closely related biogenic amine, has been proposed to have a similar function in arthropods. However, the effect of octopamine on aggressive behavior is little understood...
  22. Fernández de Palencia P, Fernandez M, Mohedano M, Ladero V, Quevedo C, Alvarez M, et al. Role of tyramine synthesis by food-borne Enterococcus durans in adaptation to the gastrointestinal tract environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:699-702 pubmed publisher
    Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal ..
  23. Wolken W, Lucas P, Lonvaud Funel A, Lolkema J. The mechanism of the tyrosine transporter TyrP supports a proton motive tyrosine decarboxylation pathway in Lactobacillus brevis. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2198-206 pubmed
    ..homologous tyrosine-tyrosine exchange and heterologous exchange between tyrosine and its decarboxylation product tyramine. Tyrosine-tyramine exchange was shown to be electrogenic...
  24. Park S, Kang K, Kim Y, Back K. Endosperm-specific expression of tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and tyrosine decarboxylase from a single self-processing polypeptide produces high levels of tyramine derivatives in rice seeds. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:911-5 pubmed publisher
    The plant-specific tyramine derivatives, feruloyltyramine (FT) and 4-coumaroyltyramine (CT), represent bioactive compounds found at low levels in many plant species...
  25. Mura A, Pintus F, Fais A, Porcu S, Corda M, Spanò D, et al. Tyramine oxidation by copper/TPQ amine oxidase and peroxidase from Euphorbia characias latex. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;475:18-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Tyramine, an important plant intermediate, was found to be a substrate for two proteins, a copper amine oxidase and a peroxidase from Euphorbia characias latex...
  26. Kononenko N, Wolfenberg H, Pflüger H. Tyramine as an independent transmitter and a precursor of octopamine in the locust central nervous system: an immunocytochemical study. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:433-52 pubmed publisher
    Octopamine and its precursor tyramine are biogenic amines that are found ubiquitously in insects, playing independent but opposite neuromodulatory roles in a wide spectrum of behaviors, ranging from locomotion and aggression to learning ..
  27. Torriani S, Gatto V, Sembeni S, Tofalo R, Suzzi G, Belletti N, et al. Rapid detection and quantification of tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) and its expression in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods using PCR-based methods. J Food Prot. 2008;71:93-101 pubmed
    ..No amplicons were obtained for tyramine-negative strains, confirming the high specificity of these new primers...
  28. Azzaro A, VanDenBerg C, Blob L, Kemper E, Sharoky M, Oren D, et al. Tyramine pressor sensitivity during treatment with the selegiline transdermal system 6 mg/24 h in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;46:933-44 pubmed
    The oral tyramine pressor test was administered to healthy males during treatment with a selegiline transdermal system (STS; 6 mg/24 h)...
  29. Avila F, Bloch Qazi M, Rubinstein C, Wolfner M. A requirement for the neuromodulators octopamine and tyramine in Drosophila melanogaster female sperm storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the biogenic amines tyramine (TA) and octopamine (OA) in Drosophila melanogaster females play essential roles in sperm storage. D...
  30. Kim K, Park S, Yang J, Jeon J, Bhang S, Kim B, et al. Injectable hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogels for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Biomater. 2011;7:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, injectable tyramine modified hyaluronic acid (HA-Tyr) hydrogels were developed for the treatment of RA...
  31. Ly D, Kang K, Choi J, Ishihara A, Back K, Lee S. HPLC analysis of serotonin, tryptamine, tyramine, and the hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin and tyramine in food vegetables. J Med Food. 2008;11:385-9 pubmed publisher
    Biogenic monoamines such as serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine function as neurotransmitters and mitogenic factors in animals and are involved in flowering, morphogenesis, and protection from and adaptation to environmental changes in ..
  32. Herbert A, Kidd E, Broadley K. Dietary trace amine-dependent vasoconstriction in porcine coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;155:525-34 pubmed publisher
    The dietary trace amines tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) can increase blood pressure. However, the mechanisms involved in the vascular effect of trace amines have not been fully established...
  33. Wragg R, Hapiak V, Miller S, Harris G, Gray J, Komuniecki P, et al. Tyramine and octopamine independently inhibit serotonin-stimulated aversive behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans through two novel amine receptors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13402-12 pubmed
    Biogenic amines modulate key behaviors in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In Caenorhabditis elegans, tyramine (TA) and octopamine (OA) inhibit aversive responses to 100%, but not dilute (30%) octanol...
  34. Berg T, Piercey B, Jensen J. Role of beta1-3-adrenoceptors in blood pressure control at rest and during tyramine-induced norepinephrine release in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2010;55:1224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..barrier were used to demonstrate beta-adrenoceptor involvement in resting blood pressure and the response to tyramine-induced peripheral norepinephrine release...
  35. CHIN L, Calabro A, Rodriguez E, Tan C, Walker E, Derwin K. Characterization of and host response to tyramine substituted-hyaluronan enriched fascia extracellular matrix. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:1465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose to enrich fascia ECM with high molecular weight tyramine substituted-hyaluronan (TS-HA) to modulate inflammation associated with implantation and enhance fibroblast ..
  36. Blumenthal E. Isoform- and cell-specific function of tyrosine decarboxylase in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3802-9 pubmed publisher
    The biogenic amine tyramine (TA) is a potent diuretic factor when applied to the Malpighian tubule (MT) of Drosophila melanogaster, stimulating both urine production and transepithelial chloride conductance...
  37. Pereira C, Matos D, San Romão M, Crespo M. Dual role for the tyrosine decarboxylation pathway in Enterococcus faecium E17: response to an acid challenge and generation of a proton motive force. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..potential which results from electrogenic transport of tyrosine in exchange for the corresponding biogenic amine tyramine. The properties of the tyrosine transporter were also studied in this work by using whole cells and right-side-..
  38. Yang L, Jiang H, Wang Q, Yang B, Kuang H. A new feruloyl tyramine glycoside from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata. Chin J Nat Med. 2012;10:16-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the chemical constituents of the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Bl...
  39. Lee F, Chung J, Kurisawa M. An injectable hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogel system for protein delivery. J Control Release. 2009;134:186-93 pubmed publisher
    ..strength (crosslinking density) and gelation rate of an injectable hydrogel system composed of hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) conjugates...
  40. Anwar M, Ford W, Broadley K, Herbert A. Vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responses to tryptamine of rat-isolated perfused mesentery: comparison with tyramine and ?-phenylethylamine. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our hypothesis is therefore that the rat mesenteric arterial bed will exhibit vasopressor and vasodepressor responses to tryptamine via both 5-HT and TAARs...
  41. de Melo C, Monteiro A, Leite C, de Araújo F, Lima V, Barbosa Filho J, et al. Anxiolytic-like effects of (O-methyl)-N-2,6-dihydroxybenzoyl-tyramine (riparin III) from Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:451-4 pubmed
    This work presents behavioral effects of (O-methyl)-N-2,6-dihydroxybenzoyl-tyramine (riparin III) isolated from the unripe fruit of Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in animal models of open field, rota rod, elevated plus maze and hole ..
  42. Selcho M, Pauls D, El Jundi B, Stocker R, Thum A. The role of octopamine and tyramine in Drosophila larval locomotion. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3764-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The two biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine have recently been shown to modulate various parameters of locomotion, such as muscle contraction, the time spent ..
  43. Fernandez M, Linares D, del Rio B, Ladero V, Alvarez M. HPLC quantification of biogenic amines in cheeses: correlation with PCR-detection of tyramine-producing microorganisms. J Dairy Res. 2007;74:276-82 pubmed
    ..The highest BA concentrations were recorded in blue cheeses made from raw milk. Tyramine was the most commonly recorded and abundant BA...
  44. Wüst S, Tischner D, John M, Tuckermann J, Menzfeld C, Hanisch U, et al. Therapeutic and adverse effects of a non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor ligand in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8202 pubmed publisher
  45. Hu L, Zhou T, Ahn J, Wang S, Zhou J, Hu Y, et al. Human and mouse trace amine-associated receptor 1 have distinct pharmacology towards endogenous monoamines and imidazoline receptor ligands. Biochem J. 2009;424:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors) are G-protein-coupled receptors that respond to low abundance, endogenous amines such as tyramine and tryptamine, and represent potential targets for neuropsychiatric diseases...
  46. Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Schluesener H. Compound A, a plant origin ligand of glucocorticoid receptors, increases regulatory T cells and M2 macrophages to attenuate experimental autoimmune neuritis with reduced side effects. J Immunol. 2009;183:3081-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data demonstrated that Compound A could effectively suppress EAN with reduced side effects by attenuating inflammation, suggesting that Compound A could be a potent candidate for treatment of autoimmune neuropathies...
  47. Hess C, McGuirl M, Klinman J. Mechanism of the insect enzyme, tyramine beta-monooxygenase, reveals differences from the mammalian enzyme, dopamine beta-monooxygenase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3042-9 pubmed
    b>Tyramine beta-monooxygenase (TbetaM) catalyzes the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, octopamine, in insects...
  48. Tan E, Naylor J, Groban E, Bunzow J, Jacobson M, Grandy D, et al. The molecular basis of species-specific ligand activation of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR(1)). ACS Chem Biol. 2009;4:209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..56 in transmembrane 4 was partially responsible for the lower potency of 1 and tyramine for the mouse receptor...
  49. Cooper S, Venton B. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry for the detection of tyramine and octopamine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;394:329-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Tyramine and octopamine are biogenic amine neurotransmitters in invertebrates that have functions analogous to those of the adrenergic system in vertebrates. Trace amounts of these neurotransmitters have also been identified in mammals...
  50. Coton E, Coton M. Evidence of horizontal transfer as origin of strain to strain variation of the tyramine production trait in Lactobacillus brevis. Food Microbiol. 2009;26:52-7 pubmed publisher
    Lactobacillus brevis strains with the ability to decarboxylate tyrosine to tyramine have been described and the involvement of several genes constituting a tyrdc operon at the chromosomal level has been demonstrated in this species...
  51. Arena M, Fiocco D, Manca de Nadra M, Pardo I, Spano G. Characterization of a Lactobacillus plantarum strain able to produce tyramine and partial cloning of a putative tyrosine decarboxylase gene. Curr Microbiol. 2007;55:205-10 pubmed
    The aim of this article was to analyze the ability of wine Lactobacillus plantarum strains to form tyramine. Preliminary identification of L. plantarum strains was performed by amplification of the recA gene...
  52. Linares D, Fernandez M, del Rio B, Ladero V, Martín M, Alvarez M. The tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase like gene located in the tyramine biosynthesis cluster of Enterococcus durans is transcriptionally regulated by tyrosine concentration and extracellular pH. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:23 pubmed publisher
    The tyramine producer Enterococcus durans IPLA655 contains all the necessary genes for tyramine biosynthesis, grouped in the TDC cluster. This cluster includes tyrS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase like gene.
  53. Broadley K, Akhtar Anwar M, Herbert A, Fehler M, Jones E, Davies W, et al. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:1645-52 pubmed publisher
    Trace amines, including tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called 'friendly' bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and ..