trifluralin

Summary

Summary: A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.

Top Publications

  1. Hiller E, Krascsenits Z, Cernanský S. Sorption of acetochlor, atrazine, 2,4-D, chlorotoluron, MCPA, and trifluralin in six soils from Slovakia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;80:412-6 pubmed publisher
    Sorption of the herbicides (acetochlor, atrazine, 2,4-D: , chlorotoluron, MCPA and trifluralin) in their commercially available formulations was characterized on six agricultural soils from Slovakia...
  2. Kannan K, Battula S, Loganathan B, Hong C, Lam W, Villeneuve D, et al. Trace organic contaminants, including toxaphene and trifluralin, in cotton field soils from Georgia and South Carolina, USA. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;45:30-6 pubmed
    Residues of organic contaminants--including toxaphene, DDT, trifluralin, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nonylphenol--were measured in 32 cotton field soils collected from ..
  3. Zaidenberg A, Marra C, Luong T, Gomez P, Milani L, Villagra S, et al. Trifluralin toxicity in a Chagas disease mouse model. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;101:90-5 pubmed
    Even though trifluralin (alpha,alpha,alpha-2,6-dinitro-N-N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) is effective for the treatment of experimental Chagas disease, more preclinical toxicity studies need to be performed...
  4. Verrengia Guerrero N, Taylor M, Davies N, Lawrence M, Edwards P, Simkiss K, et al. Evidence of differences in the biotransformation of organic contaminants in three species of freshwater invertebrates. Environ Pollut. 2002;117:523-30 pubmed
    ..Chemicals used were 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,5-trichlorophenol; pentachlorophenol; pyrene; Fenpropidin, and Trifluralin. Homogenates of the whole body tissue of each organism were prepared and total radioactivity was measured...
  5. Blakley B, Yole M, Brousseau P, Boermans H, Fournier M. Effect of 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid, trifluralin and triallate herbicides on immune function. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1998;40:5-10 pubmed
    The commercial formulations of 3 commonly used herbicides (the amine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, trifluralin and triallate) were evaluated for effects on immune function in male Fisher 344 rats...
  6. Marra C, Zaidenberg A, de Alaniz M, Buschiazzo H. The restoring effect of trifluralin and benznidazole on the abnormal fatty-acid pattern induced by Trypanosoma cruzi in the liver microsomes of infected mice. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:249-64 pubmed
    ..The infected animals were treated orally for 30 days, with trifluralin (TFL) or benznidazole (BNZ), each at 100mg/kg.day, or only with the peanut oil used as the drug vehicle...
  7. Zaidenberg A, Luong T, Lirussi D, Bleiz J, Del Buono M, Quijano G, et al. Treatment of experimental chronic chagas disease with trifluralin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;98:351-6 pubmed
    We tested trifluralin against Trypanosoma cruzi in a model of chronic Chagas disease in mice. CF1 mice (n=148) were intraperitoneally infected with 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, H510C8C3 clone...
  8. Brand R, Mueller C. Transdermal penetration of atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin: effect of formulation. Toxicol Sci. 2002;68:18-23 pubmed
    ..The effect of formulation on dermal absorption of the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin and their commercial formulations Aatrex, Lasso, and Treflan was determined...
  9. Saghir S, Charles G, Bartels M, Kan L, Dryzga M, Brzak K, et al. Mechanism of trifluralin-induced thyroid tumors in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2008;180:38-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Trifluralin, an herbicide, has been reported to cause a significant increase in thyroid follicular cell tumors in male Fischer 344 rats...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Giles N, Armson A, Reid S. Characterization of trifluralin binding with recombinant tubulin from Trypanosoma brucei. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:893-903 pubmed publisher
    The binding kinetics of five novel trifluralin analogs with recombinant alpha- and beta-tubulin proteins from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense was determined...
  2. Kang D, Park S, Beane Freeman L, Lynch C, KNOTT C, Sandler D, et al. Cancer incidence among pesticide applicators exposed to trifluralin in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Res. 2008;107:271-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Trifluralin, 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline, is a 2,6-dinitro herbicide widely used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in agricultural settings...
  3. Kato A. Heterofertilization exhibited by trifluralin-induced bicellular pollen on diploid and tetraploid maize crosses. Genome. 2001;44:1114-21 pubmed
    The heterofertilization rates and fertility of trifluralin-induced bicellular pollen were investigated in maize (Zea mays L.)...
  4. Rawlings N, Cook S, Waldbillig D. Effects of the pesticides carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, lindane, triallate, trifluralin, 2,4-D, and pentachlorophenol on the metabolic endocrine and reproductive endocrine system in ewes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998;54:21-36 pubmed
    ..5 mg/kg), trifluralin (17.5 mg/kg), lindane (2.5 mg/kg), or pentachlorophenol (2 mg/kg) 2 times per week for 43 d. Dimethoate (0...
  5. Li H, Sheng G, Sheng W, Xu O. Uptake of trifluralin and lindane from water by ryegrass. Chemosphere. 2002;48:335-41 pubmed
    ..In this study, we measured the uptake of trifluralin and lindane from water by ryegrass as a function of uptake time for periods of 96 and 120 h, respectively...
  6. Jayanarayan K, Dey C. Altered tubulin dynamics, localization and post-translational modifications in sodium arsenite resistant Leishmania donovani in response to paclitaxel, trifluralin and a combination of both and induction of apoptosis-like cell death. Parasitology. 2005;131:215-30 pubmed
    In this study the anti-leishmanial activity and anti-microtubule effects of paclitaxel, trifluralin and a combination of paclitaxel and trifluralin have been tested in a wild type and sodium arsenite-resistant strain of Leishmania ..
  7. Lee J, Arumuganathan K, Chung Y, Kim K, Chung W, Bae K, et al. Flow cytometric analysis and chromosome sorting of barley (hordeum vulgare L). Mol Cells. 2000;10:619-25 pubmed
    ..performed to optimize the concentration and duration of hydroxyurea (DNA synthesis inhibitor) and trifluralin (metaphase blocking reagent) treatments for synchronizing the cell cycle and accumulating metaphase chromosomes ..
  8. Spera G, Rosati S, Rossi E, Scicchitano S. Subsurface drip irrigation with micro-encapsulated trifluralin. Trifluralin residues in soils and cultivations. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:161-70 pubmed
    ..protected against roots' intrusion with a product containing micro-encapsulated polyethylene Trifuralin (trifluralin). Underground pipes with driplines (without trifluralin) have constituted the confrontation thesis...
  9. Mamy L, Barriuso E. Glyphosate adsorption in soils compared to herbicides replaced with the introduction of glyphosate resistant crops. Chemosphere. 2005;61:844-55 pubmed
    ..This work compares glyphosate adsorption in soil with that of other herbicides frequently used in rape (trifluralin and metazachlor), sugarbeet (metamitron) and corn (sulcotrione)...
  10. Denek Z, Erbil G, Ozbal S, Micili S, Ozogul C. The effects of resveratrol against trifluralin toxicity in the urinary tract of rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016;32:106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the potential toxic effects of trifluralin (TRF) on the urinary system of male rats and to investigate the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) in TRF-..
  11. Chelme Ayala P, El Din M, Smith D. Degradation of bromoxynil and trifluralin in natural water by direct photolysis and UV plus H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation process. Water Res. 2010;44:2221-8 pubmed publisher
    The degradation of two pesticides, bromoxynil and trifluralin, was investigated in ultrapure and natural water solutions under ultraviolet (UV) light and a combination of UV and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))...
  12. Karasali H, Balayannis G, Hourdakis A, Ambrus A. Development and single-laboratory validation of a new gas chromatographic multi-pesticide method of analysis of commercial emulsifiable concentrate formulations containing alachlor, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenthion and trifluralin as active ingredients. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1129:300-3 pubmed
    ..for the quality control of commercial pesticide products containing alachlor, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenthion and trifluralin as active ingredients (a.i.)...
  13. Chelme Ayala P, El Din M, Smith D, Adams C. Oxidation kinetics of two pesticides in natural waters by ozonation and ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide. Water Res. 2011;45:2517-26 pubmed publisher
    The oxidation of bromoxynil and trifluralin was investigated using ozone (O(3)) and O(3) combined with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in natural waters using batch reactors...
  14. Bozari S, Aksakal O. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to detect genotoxic effect of trifluralin on maize (Zea mays). Drug Chem Toxicol. 2013;36:163-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Trifluralin is a widely used dinitroaniline herbicide throughout the world. However, limited efforts have been made to study its genotoxic effects on different plants...
  15. Wiesler B, Wang Q, Nick P. The stability of cortical microtubules depends on their orientation. Plant J. 2002;32:1023-32 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in terms of direction-dependent differences in the lifetime of microtubules...
  16. Cooke C, Shaw G, Collins C. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides isoproturon and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils. Environ Pollut. 2004;132:541-52 pubmed
    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action...
  17. Trajkovska S, Mbaye M, Gaye Seye M, Aaron J, Chevreuil M, Blanchoud H. Toxicological study of pesticides in air and precipitations of Paris by means of a bioluminescence method. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;394:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of the atmospheric samples' global toxicity and the respective contribution of the toxic potency of the various pesticides contained in these samples are discussed...
  18. Cardoso R, Pires L, Zucchi T, Zucchi F, Zucchi T. Mitotic crossing-over induced by two commercial herbicides in diploid strains of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Genet Mol Res. 2010;9:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined mitotic crossing-over induced by two commercial herbicides (diuron and trifluralin) in diploid strains of Aspergillus nidulans based on the homozygotization index. Low doses (2...
  19. Mata Sandoval J, Karns J, Torrents A. Effect of nutritional and environmental conditions on the production and composition of rhamnolipids by P. aeruginosa UG2. Microbiol Res. 2001;155:249-56 pubmed
    ..Biosurfactant mixtures produced with corn oil as sole carbon source solubilized the herbicide trifluralin [2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamine] to a greater extent...
  20. Hang M, Zhongyun C, Yuhua Z, Meichi C. Effects of trifluralin on soil microbial populations and the nitrogen fixation activities. J Environ Sci Health B. 2001;36:569-79 pubmed
    Effects of trifluralin on soil microbial populations and the nitrogen fixation activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum and Bradyrhizobium japonicum and the decomposition of trifluralin by soil microorganisms were ..
  21. Oh S, Son J, Chiu P. Biochar-mediated reductive transformation of nitro herbicides and explosives. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:501-8 pubmed publisher
    ..wastewater biosolids, were found to promote the reductive removal of the dinitro herbicides pendimethalin and trifluralin and the explosives 2,4-dinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by dithiothreitol...
  22. Fennell B, Naughton J, Dempsey E, Bell A. Cellular and molecular actions of dinitroaniline and phosphorothioamidate herbicides on Plasmodium falciparum: tubulin as a specific antimalarial target. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;145:226-38 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the dinitroanilines trifluralin and oryzalin inhibited progression of erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum through schizogony, blocked mitotic ..
  23. Martins A, Henriques D, Wilde M, Vasconcelos T. Advanced oxidation processes in the treatment of trifluraline effluent. J Environ Sci Health B. 2006;41:245-52 pubmed
    ..The obtained results showed that the photo-Fenton process was the most effective treatment for the trifluraline effluent...
  24. Weir S, Yu S, Salice C. Acute toxicity of herbicide formulations and chronic toxicity of technical-grade trifluralin to larval green frogs (Lithobates clamitans). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:2029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests with the herbicide trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline) on tadpoles...
  25. Cecconi S, Rossi G, Carta G, Di Luigi G, Cellini V, Canipari R, et al. Effects of trifluralin on the mouse ovary. Environ Toxicol. 2013;28:201-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Trifluralin, a herbicide used to protect many arable and horticultural crops, was evaluated for its potential toxicity on the mammalian ovary...
  26. Navarro S, Perez G, Navarro G, Mena L, Vela N. Decay of dinitroaniline herbicides and organophosphorus insecticides during brewing of lager beer. J Food Prot. 2006;69:1699-706 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, malted barley was spiked at 2 mg/kg with pendimethalin and trifluralin (dinitroaniline herbicides) and fenitrothion and malathion (organophosphorus insecticides)...
  27. Tagle M, Laura Salum M, Buján E, Argüello G. Time evolution and competing pathways in photodegradation of trifluralin and three of its major degradation products. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2005;4:869-75 pubmed
    The herbicide trifluralin (I)(N,N-di-n-propyl-2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethylaniline) decomposes, by the action of UV-Vis light (lambda > 300 nm), to several products, the most important (because they give subsequent photochemical ..
  28. Laabs V, Amelung W, Fent G, Zech W, Kubiak R. Fate of (14)C-labeled soybean and corn pesticides in tropical soils of Brazil under laboratory conditions. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:4619-27 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the nonpolar trifluralin and endosulfan formed only small amounts of bound residues (mostly <20% of AR) but showed the highest ..
  29. Greenberg M, Burton G, Landrum P, Leppänen M, Kukkonen J. Desorption kinetics of fluoranthene and trifluralin from Lake Huron and Lake Erie, USA, sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:31-9 pubmed
    Desorption kinetics were determined for fluoranthene (FLU) and trifluralin (TF) spiked onto Lake Erie and Lake Huron, USA, sediments at three concentrations (10, 40, 100 mg/kg dry wt)...
  30. Kale P, Petty B, Walker S, Ford J, Dehkordi N, Tarasia S, et al. Mutagenicity testing of nine herbicides and pesticides currently used in agriculture. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1995;25:148-53 pubmed
    ..It is probable that different germ cell stages and treatment regimens are suitable for different types of chemicals. larval treatment may still be valuable and can complement adult treatment in environmental mutagen testing...
  31. Fernandes T, Mazzeo D, Marin Morales M. Origin of nuclear and chromosomal alterations derived from the action of an aneugenic agent--Trifluralin herbicide. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:1680-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Trifluralin is a herbicide capable of interfering in mitotic cell division due to either microtubule depolymerization or alteration in the concentration of calcium ions within the cell...
  32. Mordaunt C, Gevao B, Jones K, Semple K. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues. Environ Pollut. 2005;133:25-34 pubmed
    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation...
  33. Zaidenberg A, Marra C, Villagra S, Rule R. Pharmacokinetics of trifluralin in blood and heart tissue of mice. Chemotherapy. 2009;55:327-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Trifluralin displays anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and a potential therapeutic effect for the treatment of Chagas disease. We assessed peroral and intramuscular trifluralin pharmacokinetics in mouse blood and heart tissue.
  34. Carvalheiro M, Jorge J, Eleutério C, Pinhal A, Sousa A, Morais J, et al. Trifluralin liposomal formulations active against Leishmania donovani infections. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2009;71:292-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to increase the therapeutic index of the antiparasitic drug, trifluralin (TFL), to allow its parenteral administration without the need of toxic solvents...
  35. Ovidi E, Gambellini G, Taddei A, Cai G, Del Casino C, Ceci M, et al. Herbicides and the microtubular apparatus of Nicotiana tabacum pollen tube: immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling studies. Toxicol In Vitro. 2001;15:143-51 pubmed
    ..In addition to other tests and assays, these results suggest that the microtubule cytoskeleton of pollen tubes can be used as a bioindicator for studying the toxicity effects induced by herbicides...
  36. Strynar M, Dec J, Benesi A, Jones A, Fry R, Bollag J. Using 19F NMR spectroscopy to determine trifluralin binding to soil. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:6645-55 pubmed
    b>Trifluralin is a widely used herbicide for the control of broad leaf weeds in a variety of crops. Its binding to soil may result in significant losses in herbicidal activity and a delayed pollution problem...
  37. Kim J, Feagley S. Leaching of trifluralin, metolachlor, and metribuzin in a clay loam soil of Louisiana. J Environ Sci Health B. 2002;37:393-403 pubmed
    b>Trifluralin[2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluormethyl)benzenamine], metolachlor[2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide], and metribuzin[4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)..
  38. Dow G, Armson A, Boddy M, Itenge T, McCarthy D, Parkin J, et al. Plasmodium: assessment of the antimalarial potential of trifluralin and related compounds using a rat model of malaria, Rattus norvegicus. Exp Parasitol. 2002;100:155-60 pubmed
    ..b>Trifluralin, pendimethalin, oryzalin, and benfluralin were all active against P...
  39. Benbow J, Bernberg E, Korda A, Mead J. Synthesis and evaluation of dinitroanilines for treatment of cryptosporidiosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:339-43 pubmed
    ..The lead compounds oryzalin (compound 1) and trifluralin (compound 2) have low water solubility (<3 ppm) which was alleged to be a major contributor to their poor ..
  40. Shackelford D, McCormick R, West S, Turner L. Determination of ethalfluralin in canola seed, meal, and refined oil by capillary gas chromatography with mass selective detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:4422-7 pubmed
    ..In a magnitude-of-residue study, canola seed from field plots that had been treated with ethalfluralin at one to three times the maximum label rate for weed control were found to contain no detectable residue of the herbicide...
  41. Fenoll Serrano J, Ruiz E, Hellin P, Lacasa A, Flores P. Enhanced dissipation of oxyfluorfen, ethalfluralin, trifluralin, propyzamide, and pendimethalin in soil by solarization and biosolarization. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to assess the effects of solarization and biosolarization on the degradation of oxyfluorfen, ethalfluralin, trifluralin, propyzamide, and pendimethalin...
  42. Meng J, Yang B, Zhang Y, Shu X, Shu J. Ozonation of trifluralin particles: an experimental investigation with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer. J Hazard Mater. 2009;172:390-4 pubmed publisher
    The ozonation of trifluralin coated on azelaic acid particles is investigated with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer...
  43. Hashim S, Jan A, Sunohara Y, Hachinohe M, Ohdan H, Matsumoto H. Mutation of alpha-tubulin genes in trifluralin-resistant water foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis). Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:422-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Trifluralin-resistant biotypes of water foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis) have been identified in wheat fields from northern Kyushu, Japan. Water foxtail is a winter-annual grassy weed, causing substantial crop losses...
  44. Rostad C, Daniel S. Distribution of selected halogenated organic compounds among suspended particulate, colloid, and aqueous phases in the Mississippi river and major tributaries. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;53:151-8 pubmed
    ..transported by each phase depended on the compound solubility, with more water-soluble compounds (dacthal, trifluralin) transported predominantly in the aqueous phase and less-water soluble compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, ..
  45. Turgut C. Uptake and modeling of pesticides by roots and shoots of parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2005;12:342-6 pubmed
    ..There are a lot of models which have been developed for emergent plants, but there are not any existing models for submerged aquatic plants for assessing pesticide uptake...
  46. Tiryaki O, Yücel U, Sezen G. Biodegradation of trifluralin in Harran soil. J Environ Sci Health B. 2004;39:747-56 pubmed
    Degradation of trifluralin (alpha, alpha, alpha-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) was investigated in soils taken from three different locations at Harran region of Turkey under laboratory conditions...
  47. Traub Cseko Y, Ramalho Ortigão J, Dantas A, De Castro S, Barbosa H, Downing K. Dinitroaniline herbicides against protozoan parasites: the case of Trypanosoma cruzi. Trends Parasitol. 2001;17:136-41 pubmed
    ..The plant microtubule inhibitor trifluralin has previously been tested with success against Leishmania, Trypanosoma brucei and several other protozoan ..
  48. Dores E, Carbo L, Ribeiro M, De Lamonica Freire E. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:585-90 pubmed
    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do ..
  49. Marcus A, Moore R, Cyr R. The role of microtubules in guard cell function. Plant Physiol. 2001;125:387-95 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, guard cells treated with the anti-microtubule drugs, propyzamide, oryzalin, and trifluralin also failed to open under the same environmental conditions...
  50. Thriveni T, Kumar J, Lee J, Sreedhar N. Study of the voltammetric behaviour of the ethalfluralin and methalpropalin and its determination in environmental matrices at hanging mercury drop electrode. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;151:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..24%, 0.998 and 1.34%, 0.995, respectively for ten replicates. The method is applied to the determination of the ethalfluralin and methalpropalin in formulations and environmental matrices...
  51. Mamy L, Gabrielle B, Barriuso E. Measurement and modelling of glyphosate fate compared with that of herbicides replaced as a result of the introduction of glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..rape, with that of two herbicides frequently used for weed control on the same crop, albeit non-resistant: trifluralin and metazachlor, and (ii) to compare field results with predictions of the pesticide root zone model (PRZM), ..
  52. Farenhorst A. Influence of crop residues on trifluralin mineralization in a silty clay loam soil. J Environ Sci Health B. 2007;42:265-9 pubmed
    b>Trifluralin is typically applied onto crop residues (trash, stubble) at the soil surface, or onto the bare soil surface after the incorporation of crop residues into the soil...
  53. Shope J, Mott K. Membrane trafficking and osmotically induced volume changes in guard cells. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:4123-31 pubmed
    ..A possible role for aquaporins in co-ordinating volume changes with membrane trafficking is discussed...