toluidines

Summary

Summary: Any of three isomeric compounds (ortho-, meta-, and para-) containing a benzene ring with a methyl and amino group attached to it. They are suspected CARCINOGENS.

Top Publications

  1. Wendt B, Mulbaier M, Wawro S, Schultes C, Alonso J, Janssen B, et al. Toluidinesulfonamide hypoxia-induced factor 1 inhibitors: alleviating drug-drug interactions through use of PubChem data and comparative molecular field analysis guided synthesis. J Med Chem. 2011;54:3982-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We used structure-activity data from the PubChem database to develop a topomer CoMFA model that guided the design of novel sulfonamides with high selectivity for HIF-1 over CYP2C9 inhibition...
  2. Merrill J, Hanak S, Pu S, Liang J, Dang C, Iglesias Bregna D, et al. Teriflunomide reduces behavioral, electrophysiological, and histopathological deficits in the Dark Agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurol. 2009;256:89-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic dosing with teriflunomide at disease remission prevented a decrease in evoked potential amplitude, prevented an increase in latency, and enhanced recovery time within the CNS...
  3. Oliveira S, Lopes T, Tóth I, Rangel A. Development of a gas diffusion multicommuted flow injection system for the determination of sulfur dioxide in wines, comparing malachite green and pararosaniline chemistries. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:3415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..With regard to the two tested chemistries, 18 wines were analyzed and the results achieved by the pararosaniline reaction compared better with those furnished by the recommended procedure...
  4. O Connor P, Wolinsky J, Confavreux C, Comi G, Kappos L, Olsson T, et al. Randomized trial of oral teriflunomide for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Teriflunomide is a new oral disease-modifying therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis...
  5. Crump D, Werry K, Veldhoen N, Van Aggelen G, Helbing C. Exposure to the herbicide acetochlor alters thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression and metamorphosis in Xenopus Laevis. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:1199-205 pubmed
    ..The morphologic changes observed are preceded by alterations in gene expression profiles detected in the tadpole tail, and the nature of these profiles suggest a novel mechanism of action for acetochlor...
  6. Confavreux C, Li D, Freedman M, Truffinet P, Benzerdjeb H, Wang D, et al. Long-term follow-up of a phase 2 study of oral teriflunomide in relapsing multiple sclerosis: safety and efficacy results up to 8.5 years. Mult Scler. 2012;18:1278-89 pubmed
  7. Gold R, Wolinsky J. Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and the place of teriflunomide. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011;124:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Teriflunomide has an acceptable and manageable safety and tolerability profile. A large clinical programme is underway to further elucidate the role of teriflunomide in the treatment of MS...
  8. Xiang H, Chen X, Zhou D. [Determination of deoxyribonucleic acid with pararosaniline by a resonance light-scattering method]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2002;22:1051-3 pubmed
    ..20-15 micrograms.mL-1. The detection limit is 36 ng.mL-1. This method is simple, rapid and has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of DNA in mixed samples...
  9. Monro T, Moore R, Nguyen M, Ebendorff Heidepriem H, Skouroumounis G, Elsey G, et al. Sensing free sulfur dioxide in wine. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:10759-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bae J, Park J. Topical delivery of leflunomide for rheumatoid arthritis treatment: evaluation of local tissue deposition of teriflunomide and its anti-inflammatory effects in an arthritis rat model. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2016;42:254-62 pubmed publisher
  2. Thomas C, Roques M, Franc M. The effectiveness of a pyriprole (125 mg/ml) and a metaflumizone (150 mg/ml) combined with amitraz (150 mg/ml) spot-on treatment in preventing Phlebotomus perniciosus from feeding on dogs. Parasite. 2008;15:93-6 pubmed
    ..The sandfly mortality effect as a result of exposure to treated dogs was under 20% for the two spot-on. The two formulations could not be proposed in a leishmaniosis prevention program...
  3. Del Pino J, Martinez M, Castellano V, Ramos E, Martínez Larrañaga M, Anadon A. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to amitraz on norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine levels in brain regions of male and female rats. Toxicology. 2011;287:145-52 pubmed publisher
  4. Cook M, Pinchot S, Jaskula Sztul R, Luo J, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H. Identification of a novel Raf-1 pathway activator that inhibits gastrointestinal carcinoid cell growth. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:429-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, LFN and TFN inhibit carcinoid cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and alter the expression of NET markers. This compound thus represents an attractive target for further clinical investigation...
  5. Aguilar Tipacamú G, Rodriguez Vivas R. Effect of moxidectin against natural infestation of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acarina: Ixodidae) in the Mexican tropics. Vet Parasitol. 2003;111:211-6 pubmed
    ..Treatment of all cattle was repeated four times at intervals of 28 days. The efficacy of the experimental moxidectin treatment was similar to that of the routine amitraz treatment, i.e., greater than 99%...
  6. Schaub L, Sardy S, Capkun G. Natural variation in baseline data: when do we call a new sample 'resistant'?. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:959-63 pubmed
    ..Probabilistic criteria on the population level were proposed for resistance...
  7. Lee S, Pagoria D, Raigrodski A, Geurtsen W. Effects of combinations of ROS scavengers on oxidative DNA damage caused by visible-light-activated camphorquinone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2007;83:391-9 pubmed
  8. Liang J, Zhou Q. [Effects of methamidophos and copper on ecological detoxification of acetochlor by earthworm in phaeozem]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006;17:1958-62 pubmed
  9. Eo K, Kwak D, Shin T, Yeo Y, Jung K, Kwon S, et al. Skin lesions associated with Demodex sp. in a llama (Lama glama). [corrected]. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:178-80 pubmed
    ..in L. glama. [corrected] Incidental findings were previously described in a different species of llamas (Lama glama) without any recognized symptoms. Treatment with amitraz (0.025%) eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs...
  10. Jekl V, Hauptman K, Jeklova E, Knotek Z. Demodicosis in nine prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Vet Dermatol. 2006;17:280-3 pubmed
    ..Demodex mites were found in skin scrapings from all cases. Treatment with amitraz at 250 p.p.m. resulted in resolution of lesions and hair regrowth. This is the first report of demodicosis in this species...
  11. Rodriguez Hidalgo R, Pérez Otáñez X, Garcés Carrera S, Vanwambeke S, Madder M, Benitez Ortiz W. The current status of resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz of the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Ecuador. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174652 pubmed publisher
    ..This information is important in order to establish the monitoring of resistance on each farm individually, contributing to the rational use of acaricides included in an integrated control program for R. microplus...
  12. Ma Q, Rahman A, Holland P, James T, McNaughton D. Field dissipation of acetochlor in two New Zealand soils at two application rates. J Environ Qual. 2004;33:930-8 pubmed
    ..Faster acetochlor loss in the Horotiu soil possibly resulted from the higher soil organic carbon content that retained more acetochlor near the soil surface where higher temperature and photolysis accelerated the loss...
  13. Heinisch S, Rocca J. Effect of mobile phase composition, pH and buffer type on the retention of ionizable compounds in reversed-phase liquid chromatography: application to method development. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1048:183-93 pubmed
    ..A procedure is described that accurately relates, from nine experiments, retention to solvent composition and pH. The limits of such a procedure are evaluated and two examples of optimized separations of basic compounds are given...
  14. de Villiers M, van Eeden C, Liebenberg W, Song M, Kolling W, Caira M. Structural characterization, physicochemical properties, suspension stability, and adsorption properties of four solid forms of amitraz. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:7362-9 pubmed
  15. . ?Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis. Drug Ther Bull. 2014;52:81-4 pubmed publisher
    ..2 It is a new oral treatment licensed for adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety, and consider its place in therapy. ..
  16. Rugg D, Hair J. Dose determination of a novel formulation of metaflumizone plus amitraz for control of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) and brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2007;150:203-8 pubmed
    ..The 20mg/kg dose was selected as the minimum commercial dose rate to provide effective flea and tick control for at least 1 month following a single treatment...
  17. Polubesova T, Nir S, Zadaka D, Rabinovitz O, Serban C, Groisman L, et al. Water purification from organic pollutants by optimized micelle-clay systems. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:2343-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that micelle-clay complexes are very efficient for water purification from organic contaminants...
  18. Kiernan J. Hexazonium pararosaniline as a fixative for animal tissues. Biotech Histochem. 2004;79:203-10 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that there is no evidence for a "fixative" action of hexazonium pararosaniline. The protective effect on frozen sections of unfixed tissue is attributable probably to the low pH of the solution...
  19. Bravo M, Henríquez H, Coronado A. In vitro efficacy of amitraz and cypermethrin on Boophilus microplus from dairy farms in Lara State, Venezuela. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:246-8 pubmed publisher
    ..89, 6.03, 7.12, and 18.45. Statistically significant differences between the effectiveness of different concentrations of amitraz or cypermethrin were not observed. Higher concentrations do not increase the efficacy of the products...
  20. Al Arfaj A, Mullen G, Rashad R, Abdel Hameed A, OConnor B, Alkhalife I, et al. A human case of otoacariasis involving a histiostomatid mite (Acari: Histiostomatidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:967-71 pubmed
  21. Ahmed M, Vogel C. The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito. Acta Trop. 2016;155:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs. ..
  22. Wesołowska M, Baran W, Szepietowski J, Hirschberg L, Jankowski S. [Demodicidosis in humans as a current problem in dermatology]. Wiad Parazytol. 2005;51:253-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to report a 25-year-old woman suffering from skin diseases with high D. folliculorum density...
  23. Fontoura P, Garren H. Multiple sclerosis therapies: molecular mechanisms and future. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2010;51:259-85 pubmed publisher
  24. Erra M, Moreno I, Sanahuja J, Andrés M, Reinoso R, Lozoya E, et al. Biaryl analogues of teriflunomide as potent DHODH inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:7268-72 pubmed publisher
  25. English J, Bhat V, Ball G, McLellan C. Establishing a total allowable concentration of o-toluidine in drinking water incorporating early lifestage exposure and susceptibility. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;64:269-84 pubmed publisher
    ..For this assessment, the lifetime unit risk derived was ?2-fold greater than the unadjusted adult lifetime unit risk, and the resulting Total Allowable Concentration in drinking water is 20?g/L...
  26. Castoldi K, Milani M, Rossini E, Pezza L, Pezza H. Flow Injection Analysis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde in Honey by a Modified Winkler Method. Anal Sci. 2016;32:413-7 pubmed publisher
    ..00 to 40.0 mg L(-1), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 mg L(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.32 mg L(-1). The method is an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the analysis of HMF in honey. ..
  27. Miller R, Davey R, George J. Modification of the food and agriculture organization larval packet test to measure amitraz-susceptibility against ixodidae. J Med Entomol. 2002;39:645-51 pubmed
    ..This technique will help to locate amitraz resistant tick populations, provide data for improved control practices, and aid in the discovery of resistance mechanisms through synergist studies and verification of molecular techniques...
  28. Janniche G, Lindberg E, Mouvet C, Albrechtsen H. Mineralization of isoproturon, mecoprop and acetochlor in a deep unsaturated limestone and sandy aquifer. Chemosphere. 2010;81:823-31 pubmed publisher
  29. Liu H, Chu T, Chen L, Gui W, Zhu G. In vivo cardiovascular toxicity induced by acetochlor in zebrafish larvae. Chemosphere. 2017;181:600-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data generated here might provide novel insights into cardiovascular disease risk following acetochlor exposure to human, especially to pesticide suicides population, occupational population and special population. ..
  30. Korinth G, Weiss T, Penkert S, Schaller K, Angerer J, Drexler H. Percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines in rubber industry workers: impact of impaired skin and skin barrier creams. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:366-72 pubmed
    ..However, little is known about the percutaneous absorption of chemicals via impaired skin and about the efficacy of skin protection measures to reduce internal exposure...
  31. Lengyel Z, Földényi R. Acetochlor as a soil pollutant. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2003;10:13-8 pubmed
    ..Experiments to obtain adsorption isotherms of further pesticides and the development of a quantitative model are in progress...
  32. Kortgen A, Janneck U, Vetsch A, Bauer M. [Methemoglobinemia due to prilocaine after plexus anesthesia. Reduction by prophylactic administration of ascorbic acid?]. Anaesthesist. 2003;52:1020-6 pubmed
    ..o-Toluidine is a metabolite of prilocaline and ascorbic acid is recommended for treatment of methemoglobinemia as an alternative to methylene blue...
  33. Westermann C, Boerma S, van Nieuwstadt R. [Amitraz intoxications in the horse: cases and backgrounds]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2004;129:438-41 pubmed
    ..In this article the literature concerning amitraz intoxications and experiments will be discussed and some cases will be described...
  34. Xu J, Qiu X, Dai J, Cao H, Yang M, Zhang J, et al. Isolation and characterization of a pseudomonas oleovorans degrading the chloroacetamide herbicide acetochlor. Biodegradation. 2006;17:219-25 pubmed
    ..The main plausible degradative pathways involved dechlorination, hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, C-dealkylation and dehydrogenation...
  35. Chou C, Lu S, Ueng T. Modulation of serum concentrations and hepatic metabolism of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone by amitraz in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings show that amitraz induces hepatic E2 and testosterone metabolism in male and female rats, decreases serum E2 concentration in OVX and E2-supplemented females, but increases serum testosterone in males...
  36. Kieseier B, Wiendl H, Hartung H, Stuve O. The future of multiple sclerosis therapy. Pharmacol Res. 2009;60:207-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These agents are potentially more effective, but may carry more serious side effects. Finally, drugs with a known good safety profile are being developed further. These advances are critically reviewed and put into perspective...
  37. Liu C, Xi Y, Huang L, Wang J. [Impact of glyphosate and acetochlor on Dugesia japonica ingestion and regeneration]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2008;19:2509-14 pubmed
    ..japonica and its ingestion and regeneration, and D. japonica could be used as a bio-indicator to monitor glyphosate and acetochlor contamination...
  38. Hail N, Chen P, Kepa J, Bushman L, Shearn C. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is required for N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide-induced reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, colon carcinoma cells that lacked DHODH expression were markedly resistant to the pro-oxidant and cytotoxic effects of 4HPR. Together, these results strongly implicate DHODH in 4HPR-induced ROS production and apoptosis...
  39. El Nahhal Y. Adsorptive behavior of acetochlor on organoclay complexes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;70:1104-11 pubmed
  40. Gadagbui B, Maier A, Dourson M, Parker A, Willis A, Christopher J, et al. Derived Reference Doses (RfDs) for the environmental degradates of the herbicides alachlor and acetochlor: results of an independent expert panel deliberation. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;57:220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the available data, an oral RfD of 0.2 mg/kg-day is recommended for both acetochlor ESA and acetochlor OXA and an oral RfD of 0.8 mg/kg-day is recommended for both alachlor ESA and alachlor OXA...
  41. Mohammed I, Mustapha A. Synthesis of new azo compounds based on N-(4-hydroxypheneyl)maleimide and N-(4-methylpheneyl)maleimide. Molecules. 2010;15:7498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of these compounds were confirmed by CHN, FT-IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, mass spectrum and UV/Vis spectroscopy...
  42. Zhou Z, Meyerhoff M. Preparation and characterization of polymeric coatings with combined nitric oxide release and immobilized active heparin. Biomaterials. 2005;26:6506-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, the proposed polymeric coatings are expected to exhibit greatly enhanced thromboresistivity compared to polymers that utilize either immobilized heparin or NO release alone...
  43. Iglesias Bregna D, Hanak S, Ji Z, Petty M, Liu L, Zhang D, et al. Effects of prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide in transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potentials in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;347:203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have significant implications for patients with RMS. ..
  44. Yu Z, Jin F, Sun J, Yuan S, Zheng B, Zhang W, et al. [Residual levels of pesticides in freshwater fish from Beijing aquatic product markets and health risk assessment]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2013;34:251-6 pubmed
    ..7-1932 microg x kg(-1). Based on the averaged fish consumption of Beijing residents, the health risk of the studied pesticides by freshwater fish consumption was calculated as 0.043 43, suggesting a relatively low health risk...
  45. Rugg D, Hair J, Everett R, Cunningham J, Carter L. Confirmation of the efficacy of a novel formulation of metaflumizone plus amitraz for the treatment and control of fleas and ticks on dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2007;150:209-18 pubmed
    ..Efficacy was confirmed in a variety of dog breeds against three different flea strains and four common species of ticks found on dogs in the United States...
  46. Davey R, Miller R, George J. Efficacy of amitraz applied as a dip against an amitraz-resistant strain of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) infested on cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program, and the estimated line derived from regression analysis showed that a concentration of ca. 0.2% AI amitraz would be needed to achieve 99% control of the resistant ticks...
  47. He H, Chen G, Yu J, He J, Huang X, Li S, et al. Individual and joint toxicity of three chloroacetanilide herbicides to freshwater cladoceran Daphnia carinata. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;90:344-50 pubmed publisher
    ..05). It suggests that joint actions must be considered when assessing the acute toxicity of chloroacetanilide herbicides to D. carinata...
  48. Corley S, Jonsson N, Piper E, Cutullé C, Stear M, Seddon J. Mutation in the Rm?AOR gene is associated with amitraz resistance in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16772-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that polymorphisms in the Rm?AOR gene are likely to confer resistance to amitraz. ..
  49. Belsey N, Cordery S, Bunge A, Guy R. Assessment of dermal exposure to pesticide residues during re-entry. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:4609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, assessing dermal exposure to pesticides based on skin contact with either the chemical concentrate or a relevant aqueous dilution may incorrectly estimate the risk for re-entry scenarios...
  50. Parekh J, Vaghela R, Sutariya D, Sanyal M, Yadav M, Shrivastav P. Chromatographic separation and sensitive determination of teriflunomide, an active metabolite of leflunomide in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:2217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was rugged and rapid with a total run time of 2.0min and is applied to a bioequivalence study of 20mg leflunomide (test and reference) tablet formulation in 12 healthy Indian male subjects under fasting condition...
  51. Riddell I, Smulders M, Clegg J, Hristova Y, Breiner B, Thoburn J, et al. Anion-induced reconstitution of a self-assembling system to express a chloride-binding Co10L15 pentagonal prism. Nat Chem. 2012;4:751-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This second-order templation phenomenon allows chemical networks to be envisaged that express more complex responses to chemical signals than is currently feasible...
  52. Carroll J, Hill D, Allen P, Young K, Miramontes E, Kramer M, et al. The impact of 4-Poster deer self-treatment devices at three locations in Maryland. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Populations of A. americanum showed no increase posttreatment. These results demonstrate that control of these tick species is locally possible with 4-Poster intervention...
  53. Wiese M, Rowland A, Polasek T, Sorich M, O Doherty C. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of teriflunomide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2013;9:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Its primary mode of action is inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase which inhibits the proliferation of activated T cells, but it also has a number of other actions that may be important contributors to its efficacy in MS...