Summary: An antiprotozoal agent used to combat coccidial infections of swine, cattle, fowl, and other veterinary animals. Also used in controlling outbreaks of fowl typhoid and fowl cholera and in treatment of infectious enteritis.

Top Publications

  1. Preusch P, Hazelett S, Lemasters K. Sulfaquinoxaline inhibition of vitamin K epoxide and quinone reductase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;269:18-24 pubmed
    b>Sulfaquinoxaline (N1-(2-quinoxalinyl)sulfanilamide) has been shown to be a potent (Ki = 1 microM) freely reversible inhibitor of the dithiothreitol-dependent reduction of both vitamin K epoxide and vitamin K quinone by rat liver ..
  2. Atef M, Youssef S, Ramadan A, Afifi N, Muity A. Interaction between lead toxicity and some sulphonamides in rabbits: effect on certain blood constituents and serum enzymes. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1994;101:187-90 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, AST/ALT ratio in both healthy and lead intoxicated rabbits was found to decrease 1 h after the last dose as compared with before treatment. ..
  3. Hekman P, Schefferlie G. Kinetic modelling and residue depletion of drugs in eggs. Br Poult Sci. 2011;52:376-80 pubmed publisher
  4. Jia A, Hu J, Wu X, Peng H, Wu S, Dong Z. Occurrence and source apportionment of sulfonamides and their metabolites in Liaodong Bay and the adjacent Liao River basin, North China. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:1252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..4%) were the main chemicals from human sources, while sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfanilamide, and sulfamethoxypyridazine were dominant in the animal ..
  5. Berzas Nevado J, Castaneda Penalvo G, Guzmán Bernardo F. Simultaneous determination of sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethazine and pyrimethamine by liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2000;870:169-77 pubmed
    A liquid chromatography method is described to determine sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), sulfamethazine (SMT), and pyrimethamine (PMT), by using a Kromasil C18 column and a 40 mM NaH2PO4 buffer solution, containing 10 mM NaClO4 (pH 3...
  6. Porter S. Confirmation of sulfonamide residues in kidney tissue by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analyst. 1994;119:2753-6 pubmed
    ..Although sulfonamides can be determined using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer with pseudo-MS-MS, advantages in interfacing to a tandem mass spectrometer are demonstrated. ..
  7. Le T, Yan P, Liu J, Wei S. Simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline using a dual-label time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30:1264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) was introduced for the simultaneous quantification of sulfamethazine (SM2) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX)...
  8. Qiu J, Zhao T, Liu Q, He J, He D, Wu G, et al. Residual veterinary antibiotics in pig excreta after oral administration of sulfonamides. Environ Geochem Health. 2016;38:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the fate of four SAs, sulfamerazine (SM1), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfadimoxine (SDM') and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ), from oral administration to excretion in urine and feces in pigs...
  9. Atta A, el Zeni -, Samia A. Tissue residues of some sulphonamides in normal and Eimeria stiedai infected rabbits. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1999;106:295-8 pubmed
    ..A withdrawal period of 4 days for SDZ and 5 days for SDD and SQ in healthy rabbits and 7 days for SDZ and 8 days for SDD and SQ in E. stiedai infected rabbits is suggested. ..

More Information


  1. Chapman H. Chemotherapy of caecal coccidiosis: efficacy of toltrazuril, sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine and amprolium/ethopabate, given in drinking water, against field isolates of Eimeria tenella. Res Vet Sci. 1989;46:419-20 pubmed
    ..Few oocysts of E tenella were produced in birds medicated with sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine or amprolium/ethopabate and none in those medicated with toltrazuril. ..
  2. Tetzner N, Maniero M, Rodrigues Silva C, Rath S. On-line solid phase extraction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a powerful technique for the determination of sulfonamide residues in soils. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1452:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..method for determining sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline residues in soils employing a solid phase extraction on-line technique coupled with ultra-high performance ..
  3. Daft B, Bickford A, Hammarlund M. Experimental and field sulfaquinoxaline toxicosis in Leghorn chickens. Avian Dis. 1989;33:30-4 pubmed
    Mortality of 47% occurred in a commercial flock of 20-week-old leghorn pullets treated with 0.05% sulfaquinoxaline in the feed. The drug was given for 2-3 days, removed for 2 days, and fed again for 2-3 days...
  4. Maxwell R, Lightfield A. Multiresidue supercritical fluid extraction method for the recovery at low ppb levels of three sulfonamides from fortified chicken liver. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998;715:431-5 pubmed
    ..High recoveries of sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) were obtained from chicken liver samples fortified at levels from 1000 to 50 ppm.
  5. Thomas G, Millar R, Anstis P. Stability of sulfonamide antibiotics in spiked pig liver tissue during frozen storage. J AOAC Int. 1997;80:988-95 pubmed
    ..maximum residue limit) of each of sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimidine (sulfamethazine), sulfaquinoxaline, and sulfadimethoxine...
  6. Yan P, Hu Z, Yu H, Li W, Liu L. Fluorescence quenching effects of antibiotics on the main components of dissolved organic matter. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:5667-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Four antibiotics (roxarsone, sulfaquinoxaline sodium, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin) at the concentration of 0.5∼4...
  7. Williams R, Farebrother D, Latter V. Coccidiosis: a radiological study of sulphaquinoxaline distribution in infected and uninfected chickens. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1995;18:172-9 pubmed
    ..tenella coincided with an overall 3.5-fold sustained increase of SQ concentration in chick tissues. An updated hypothesis including these new observations for the anticoccidial mode of action of SQ in chickens is expounded. ..
  8. Hu G, Sheng W, Li J, Zhang Y, Wang J, Wang S. Fluorescent quenching immune chromatographic strips with quantum dots and upconversion nanoparticles as fluorescent donors for visual detection of sulfaquinoxaline in foods of animal origin. Anal Chim Acta. 2017;982:185-192 pubmed publisher
    In this study, two novel fluorescence quenching immune chromatographic strips (FQICS) were developed to detect sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) in foods of animal origin...
  9. Nassar R, Mokh S, Rifai A, Chamas F, Hoteit M, Al Iskandarani M. Transformation of sulfaquinoxaline by chlorine and UV light in water: kinetics and by-product identification. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25:34863-34872 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamide class, frequently detected at low levels in drinking and surface water as organic micropollutant...
  10. Tabassum S, Ahmad H, Nawaz R. Determination of residues of sulphonamide in eggs and laying hens. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007;20:199-202 pubmed
    ..In another experiment, a group of hens were kept at a poultry farm after medicating them with darvisal liquid to see if the residues of sulphonamide pass into the eggs of poultry. The period of existence of residues was noted. ..
  11. Campbell W. History of the discovery of sulfaquinoxaline as a coccidiostat. J Parasitol. 2008;94:934-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfaquinoxaline played an important part in the demotion of roast chicken from vaunted Sunday-dinner status to an unrespected position on the everyday menu of the Western world...
  12. Wang J, Sun F, Tang S, Zhang S, Cao X. Acute, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and subchronic oral toxicity studies of diaveridine in rodents. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;40:660-70 pubmed publisher
    ..It is used in combination with sulfaquinoxaline as an antiprotozoal agent in animals for the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis and leucocytozoonosis...
  13. De Liguoro M, Di Leva V, Gallina G, Faccio E, Pinto G, Pollio A. Evaluation of the aquatic toxicity of two veterinary sulfonamides using five test organisms. Chemosphere. 2010;81:788-93 pubmed publisher
    The aquatic toxicity of sulfaquinoxaline (SQO) and sulfaguanidine (SGD) was evaluated on the following test organisms: Daphnia magna (reproduction test), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Scenedesmus dimorphus, Synecococcus leopoliensis (..
  14. Parks O. Stability of sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadimethoxine, and their N4-acetyl derivatives in chicken tissues during frozen storage. J AOAC Int. 1994;77:486-8 pubmed
    The N4-acetyl derivatives of sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadimethoxine were stable in fortified chicken liver and thigh muscle tissues during frozen storage for 1 year at -20 and -70 degrees C...
  15. Furusawa N. Determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs by liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2002;85:848-52 pubmed
    ..antibacterials such as sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ) in eggs using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector...
  16. Urbano V, Peres M, Maniero M, Guimarães J. Abatement and toxicity reduction of antimicrobials by UV/H2O2 process. J Environ Manage. 2017;193:439-447 pubmed publisher
    ..radiation (UV/H2O2) was studied to verify if the process was able to degrade sulfaquinoxaline and ofloxacin antimicrobials and to remove the toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of the solution...
  17. Zheng H, Wang P, Li J. [Determination of 12 sulfonamides in cosmetics by ultra performance liquid chromatography]. Se Pu. 2007;25:238-40 pubmed
    ..sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, sulfisoxazole, sulfathiazole, sulfadi-methoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethazine, sulfanitran) in cosmetics was developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with ..
  18. Ji Y, Wang L, Jiang M, Yang Y, Yang P, Lu J, et al. Ferrous-activated peroxymonosulfate oxidation of antimicrobial agent sulfaquinoxaline and structurally related compounds in aqueous solution: kinetics, products, and transformation pathways. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:19535-19545 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is a coccidiostatic drug widely used in poultry and swine production and has been frequently detected in various environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater, soils, and sediments...
  19. Furusawa N, Tsuzukida Y, Kubota M, Yamaguchi H. Transferring profile of dietary sulphaquinoxaline into eggs. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1998;45:225-8 pubmed
    ..After 4 days of SQ feeding, the SQ content in the homogenized eggs reached a plateau at 0.0292.x (= 0.007318.4x) ppm. This equation permits to predict SQ content in the eggs. ..
  20. Soleymanpour A, Rezvani S. Development of a novel carbon paste sensor for determination of micromolar amounts of sulfaquinoxaline in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016;58:504-9 pubmed publisher
    A potentiometric carbon paste sensor was fabricated for determination of sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) based on the use of ion-association complex of sulfaquinoxaline sodium with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride...
  21. Guo C, Wang M, Xiao H, Huai B, Wang F, Pan G, et al. Development of a modified QuEChERS method for the determination of veterinary antibiotics in swine manure by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1027:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..86?gkg(-1) and 0.05-5.91?gkg(-1), respectively. Recoveries ranged from 61.39 to 105.65% with the exception of sulfaquinoxaline (55.7-56.8%) and valnemulin (33.7-37.7%)...
  22. Urbano V, Maniero M, Pérez Moya M, Guimarães J. Influence of pH and ozone dose on sulfaquinoxaline ozonation. J Environ Manage. 2017;195:224-231 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamides class...
  23. Le Fur C, Legeret B, de Sainte Claire P, Wong Wah Chung P, Sarakha M. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of sulfaquinoxaline byproducts formed in water upon solar light irradiation. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2013;27:722-30 pubmed publisher
    Sulfonamides such as sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) are among the most important antibiotic families due to their extensive use in veterinary medicine...
  24. Chapman H. A landmark contribution to poultry science--prophylactic control of coccidiosis in poultry. Poult Sci. 2009;88:813-5 pubmed publisher
    quot;Continuous feeding of low concentrations of sulfaquinoxaline for the control of coccidiosis in poultry" by L. C. Grumbles, J. P. Delaplane, and T. C. Higgins [Poult. Sci...
  25. Neer T, Savant R. Hypoprothrombinemia secondary to administration of sulfaquinoxaline to dogs in a kennel setting. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992;200:1344-5 pubmed
    b>Sulfaquinoxaline, a coccidiostat readily available to the public, was mixed in the drinking water for this purpose by the owner. Secondary to its use, a bleeding disorder attributable to hypoprothrombinemia developed in several dogs...
  26. Branda R, Moore A, McCormack J. Immunosuppressive properties of chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989;38:3521-6 pubmed
    ..In all of these drug effects, CQS was approximately one to two logs more potent than the parent compound, sulfaquinoxaline (SQ). These studies indicate that CQS inhibits essential basic processes in human lymphocytes...
  27. Furusawa N, Tsuzukida Y, Yamaguchi H. Decreasing profile of residual sulphaquinoxaline in eggs. Br Poult Sci. 1998;39:241-4 pubmed
    ..4. Biological half-life of SQ in the whole egg was estimated to be 1.23 d. 5. From the above equation, SQ residue of whole egg laid at 9th d after withdrawal will be below the detection limit of 0.01 mg/kg. ..
  28. Furusawa N, Tsuzukida Y. Tissue concentrations of sulphaquinoxaline administered in the food of laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 1998;39:683-5 pubmed
    ..4. The plateau values of SQ in the tissues were much greater than those of sulphamonomethoxine and sulphadimethoxine. ..
  29. Whitney J. A review of non-specific enteritis in the rabbit. Lab Anim. 1976;10:209-21 pubmed
  30. Epstein R, Ashworth R. Tissue sulfonamide concentration and correlation in turkeys. Am J Vet Res. 1989;50:926-8 pubmed
    Nineteen hen turkeys (10 to 12 kg each) were used in a feeding study to determine sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline concentrations in blood serum, liver, and skeletal muscle, as well as the respective ratios at selected withdrawal ..
  31. Yu Z, He P, Shao L, Zhang H, Lu F. Co-occurrence of mobile genetic elements and antibiotic resistance genes in municipal solid waste landfill leachates: A preliminary insight into the role of landfill age. Water Res. 2016;106:583-592 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline), three encoded ARGs (sul-I, sul-II and sul-III) and four types of MGEs (plasmids, transposons, integrons and ..
  32. Hiba A, Carine A, Haifa A, Ryszard L, Farouk J. Monitoring of twenty-two sulfonamides in edible tissues: Investigation of new metabolites and their potential toxicity. Food Chem. 2016;192:212-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Sulfonamide residues could be detected in forty-six samples, ten of which contained a concentration of sulfaquinoxaline (151.4-1196.7 μg kg(-1) in chicken samples) and sulfadiazine (109...
  33. Zhang Y, Wu Y. [Determination of residual sulfonamides in meat by high performance liquid chromatography with solid-phase extraction]. Se Pu. 2005;23:636-8 pubmed
    ..such as sulfamethazine (SM2), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfamethiazole (SMZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ) in pork and chicken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ..
  34. Shaikh B, Rummel N, Smith D. Determination of 14C residue in eggs of laying hens administered orally with [14C] sulfaquinoxaline. Food Addit Contam. 2004;21:545-54 pubmed
    Ten layer hens were dosed for 5 consecutive days with 6.2 mg kg(-1) [14C] sulfaquinoxaline (SQX). Eggs were collected from the hens during the 5-day dosing period and during a 10-day post-dose withdrawal period...
  35. Li T, Qiao G, Hu G, Meng F, Qiu Y, Zhang X, et al. Comparative plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics and drug residue profiles of different chemotherapeutants in fowls and rabbits. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1995;18:260-73 pubmed
    ..Ceftriaxone (CEF), intravenously at 50 mg/kg, sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ), orally at 200 mg/kg, and olaquindox (OLA), orally at 50 mg/kg, were administered to young broilers...
  36. Wang L, Wu J, Wang Q, He C, Zhou L, Wang J, et al. Rapid and sensitive determination of sulfonamide residues in milk and chicken muscle by microfluidic chip electrophoresis. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:1613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By optimizing these conditions, the separation of four sulfonamides, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline, and sulfanilamide, was achieved within 1 min with limits of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.2-2...
  37. Guo Y, Ngom B, Le T, Jin X, Wang L, Shi D, et al. Utilizing three monoclonal antibodies in the development of an immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaquinoxaline residues in egg and chicken muscle. Anal Chem. 2010;82:7550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine (SM(2)), sulfadiazine (SDZ), and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) in chicken breast muscle and egg samples...
  38. Blatch S, Stabler S, Harrison J. The effects of folate intake on DNA and single-carbon pathway metabolism in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster compared to mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;189:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..expected to be elevated if flies used cobalamin from microbial symbionts were not affected by dietary sulfaquinoxaline. Our data support the role of folate in nucleotide synthesis in D...
  39. Furusawa N. Binding profile of spiramycin to oviducal proteins of laying hens. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2000;47:585-91 pubmed
    ..Of plasma, M-S9 and IS-S9, variation in SP concentration in the ranges from 1 to 20 micrograms/ml did not alter the binding properties of the drug. ..
  40. Qin Y, Zhang M, Lin H. [Qualification and quantification of 10 sulfonamides in animal feedstuff by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2005;23:397-400 pubmed
    ..sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX)...
  41. Ashraf Khorassani M, Taylor L, Schweighardt F. Comparison of supercritical CHF3 and CO2 and methanol-modified CHF3 and CO2 for extraction of sulfonamides from chicken liver. J AOAC Int. 1996;79:1043-9 pubmed
  42. Branda R, McCormack J, Perlmutter C. Cellular pharmacology of chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide and a related compound in murine B16 melanoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:4557-64 pubmed
    Chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide (CQS), a chlorinated derivative of sulfaquinoxaline (SQ), inhibited proliferation of murine B16 melanoma cells, but only when relatively high drug concentrations (1 mM) were used...
  43. el Sayed M, Abd el Aziz M, el Kholy M. Kinetic behaviour of sulphaquinoxaline and amprolium in chickens. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995;102:481-5 pubmed
    ..11 +/- 0.14 h respectively. Sulphaquinoxaline and its N4 acetyl metabolite disappeared from all body tissues at 120 hours, however amprolium persisted in most tissues for 72 hours after the last dose of repeated administrations. ..