Summary: Antibacterial, potentially toxic, used to treat certain skin diseases.

Top Publications

  1. Joshi R, Kumar S, Unnikrishnan M, Mukherjee T. Free radical scavenging reactions of sulfasalazine, 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulfapyridine: mechanistic aspects and antioxidant activity. Free Radic Res. 2005;39:1163-72 pubmed
    Reactions of sulfasalazine (SAZ) and its metabolites, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine (SP), with various oxidizing and reducing free radicals (hydroxyl, haloperoxyl, one-electron oxidizing, lipid peroxyl, glutathiyl, ..
  2. Couto D, Ribeiro D, Freitas M, Gomes A, Lima J, Fernandes E. Scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by the prodrug sulfasalazine and its metabolites 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulfapyridine. Redox Rep. 2010;15:259-67 pubmed publisher
    Sulfasalazine is a prodrug composed by a molecule of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine (SP), linked by an azo bond, which has been shown to be effective in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative ..
  3. Srivastava A, Rampal S, Chaudhary R. Disposition kinetics and dosage regimen of sulfapyridine in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Acta Vet Hung. 1992;40:113-9 pubmed
    The disposition kinetics and dosage regimen of sulfapyridine were studied in buffalo calves following a single intravenous dose of 100 mg/kg. Distribution half-life (t1/2 alpha) elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) and Vd (area) was 0...
  4. Zhang H, Wei X, Song X, Shah S, Chen J, Liu J, et al. Photophysical and photochemical insights into the photodegradation of sulfapyridine in water: A joint experimental and theoretical study. Chemosphere. 2018;191:1021-1027 pubmed publisher
    ..we systematically studied the photophysical and photochemical processes of a widely used antibiotic, namely sulfapyridine. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we examined the rate constants and the competition ..
  5. Taggart A, McDermott B, Delargy M, Elborn S, Forbes J, Roberts S, et al. The pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine in young and elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1987;64:29-36 pubmed
    ..This is likely to have practical implications with regard to some of the drug's adverse effects. ..
  6. Astbury C, Taggart A, Juby L, Zebouni L, Bird H. Comparison of the single dose pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 1990;49:587-90 pubmed
    ..Together these factors may contribute to higher peak circulating sulphapyridine concentrations and may be responsible for the higher incidence of side effects of sulphasalazine treatment in patients with RA than in patients with IBD. ..
  7. Saw V, Dart J, Rauz S, Ramsay A, Bunce C, Xing W, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy for ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid strategies and outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:253-261.e1 pubmed
    ..S, 59%; QS, 22%; F, 19%), azathioprine (S, 47%; QS, 24%; F, 29%), dapsone (S, 47%; QS, 30%; F, 23%), and sulfapyridine (S, 38%; QS, 27%; F, 35%)...
  8. Guastavino E, Litwin N, Heffes Nahmod L, Licastro R. [Ulcerative colitis in children. Levels of salicylazosulfapyridine and sulfapyridine during treatment]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 1988;18:107-13 pubmed
    ..There was no statistical correlation between doses and SP or SASP levels in this group, and the respective levels of SASP and SP at 6 and 12 hours after doses showed no significative differences.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  9. Bernstein J. Polymorph IV of 4-amino-N-2-pyridinylbenzenesulfonamide (sulfapyridine). Acta Crystallogr C. 1988;44 ( Pt 5):900-2 pubmed
    ..70926 A, mu = 2.29 cm-1, F(000) = 520, T = 291 K, final R = 0.085 for 1287 independent observed reflections. Sulfapyridine is a sulfonamide drug with antibacterial, antithyroid and antidiabetic properties...

More Information


  1. Reimer G, Suarez A. Development of a screening method for five sulfonamides in salmon muscle tissue using thin-layer chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1991;555:315-20 pubmed
    ..sulfonamides [sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamerazine (SMRZ), sulfamethazine (SMTZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX) and sulfapyridine (SP)] in salmon muscle tissue...
  2. Astbury C, Hill J, Bird H. Co-trimoxazole in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with sulphapyridine. Ann Rheum Dis. 1988;47:323-7 pubmed
    ..The results argue against an antibacterial mechanism of action for sulphasalazine and sulphapyridine in rheumatoid arthritis, unless this occurs at a site inaccessible to sulphamethoxazole. ..
  3. Thiele Bruhn S. Microbial inhibition by pharmaceutical antibiotics in different soils--dose-response relations determined with the iron(III) reduction test. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:869-76 pubmed
    ..58) < oxytetracycline (170) < sulfadiazine (190) < sulfadimidine (270) = tetracycline (270) < sulfapyridine (430), though no effect was found for sulfanilamide and fenbendazole at doses up to 5,800 and 3,300 micromol/..
  4. Bialk H, Hedman C, Castillo A, Pedersen J. Laccase-mediated michael addition of 15N-sulfapyridine to a model humic constituent. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:3593-600 pubmed
    ..Environ. Sci. TechnoL 2005, 39, 4436-4473). Here, we show that fungal laccase-mediated reaction of sulfapyridine with the orthodihydroxyphenol protocatechuic acid yields a Michael adduct...
  5. García Galán M, Anfruns A, Gonzalez Olmos R, Rodriguez Mozaz S, Comas J. Advanced oxidation of the antibiotic sulfapyridine by UV/H₂O₂: Characterization of its transformation products and ecotoxicological implications. Chemosphere. 2016;147:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..present work is to investigate, under lab-scale conditions, the removal and transformation of the antibiotic sulfapyridine (SPY) upon advanced oxidation with UV/H2O2...
  6. Tauber J. Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1639-40; author reply 1640-1 pubmed publisher
  7. Rust C, Bauchmuller K, Bernt C, Vennegeerts T, Fickert P, Fuchsbichler A, et al. Sulfasalazine reduces bile acid induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells and perfused rat livers. Gut. 2006;55:719-27 pubmed
    ..We aimed to determine the effects of sulfasalazine and its metabolites sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on bile acid induced apoptosis in hepatocytes...
  8. Yilmaz G, Kaya Y, Vergili I, Beril Gönder Z, Ozhan G, Ozbek Celik B, et al. Characterization and toxicity of hospital wastewaters in Turkey. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:55 pubmed publisher
    ..100 were determined for five antibiotics and one analgesic, namely, ofloxacin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim, and diclofenac...
  9. Ottonello L, Dapino P, Scirocco M, Balbi A, Bevilacqua M, Dallegri F. Sulphonamides as anti-inflammatory agents: old drugs for new therapeutic strategies in neutrophilic inflammation?. Clin Sci (Lond). 1995;88:331-6 pubmed
    ..They can also be viewed as a previously unrecognized starting point for the development of new compounds in order to plan rational therapeutic strategies for controlling tissue injury during neutrophilic inflammation. ..
  10. Białk Bielińska A, Kumirska J, Palavinskas R, Stepnowski P. Optimization of multiple reaction monitoring mode for the trace analysis of veterinary sulfonamides by LC-MS/MS. Talanta. 2009;80:947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was validated for its analytical performance parameters and applied to the determination of those compounds in soil samples. ..
  11. Liu F, Zhao J, Wang S, Xing B. Adsorption of sulfonamides on reduced graphene oxides as affected by pH and dissolved organic matter. Environ Pollut. 2016;210:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, adsorption of two selected SAs (sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole) by two reduced graphene oxides (rGO1 and rGO2) was examined as affected by pH and dissolved ..
  12. Pholpramool C, Ruchirawat S, Verawatnapakul V, Paovalo C, Lewin L. Structural requirements of some sulphonamides that possess an antifertility activity in male rats. J Reprod Fertil. 1991;92:169-78 pubmed
    ..However, the N4-amino group is indispensable. In addition, acetylation of this amino group does not change the potency. The prototype of the antifertility sulphonamides therefore seems to be sulphanilamide. ..
  13. Kimura I, Kawasaki M, Matsuda A, Kataoka M, Kokurba Y. Effects of BX661A, a new therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis, on chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species production in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in comparison with salazosulfapyridine and its metabolite sulfapyridine. Arzneimittelforschung. 1998;48:1163-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these effects may be partially involved in the therapeutic effects of BX661A on ulcerative colitis. ..
  14. Sharma R, Kalla N. Effect of sulphapyridine on male fertility in the rat. Acta Eur Fertil. 1991;22:335-40 pubmed
    ..Serum levels of testosterone in the treated rats were comparable to their respective controls. Morphological abnormalities as revealed by scanning electron microscopic studies clearly demonstrated the detrimental effects of the drug. ..
  15. Gramatte T, Terhaag B. The variability of orocecal transit time evaluated by the salicylazosulphapyridine/sulphapyridine method. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1991;29:147-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it appears reasonable to use this method in assessing e.g. the effects of drugs on the transit time in crossover studies. ..
  16. Ji L, Chen W, Zheng S, Xu Z, Zhu D. Adsorption of sulfonamide antibiotics to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Langmuir. 2009;25:11608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as a potential effective adsorbent for removal of two sulfonamide antibiotics, sulfapyridine and sulfamethoxazole, from aqueous solutions...
  17. Jia A, Hu J, Wu X, Peng H, Wu S, Dong Z. Occurrence and source apportionment of sulfonamides and their metabolites in Liaodong Bay and the adjacent Liao River basin, North China. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:1252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..6?ng/L). Sulfamethoxazole (25.9%), N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (46.6%), trimethoprim (22.9%), and sulfapyridine (1...
  18. Kimura I, Kawasaki M, Nagahama S, Matsuda A, Kataoka M, Kokuba Y. Determination of the active moiety of BX661A, a new therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis, by studying its therapeutic effects on ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 1998;48:1091-6 pubmed
    ..acid (5-ASA), 4-aminobenzoyl-beta-alanine (4-ABA) and 4-amino-N-2-pyridinyl-benzenesulfonamide (CAS 144-83-2, sulfapyridine, SP) on ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats were investigated, and the ..
  19. Cardinal P, Anderson J, Carlson J, Low J, Challis J, Wong C, et al. Late season pharmaceutical fate in wetland mesocosms with and without phosphorous addition. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:22678-22690 pubmed
    ..acid, fluoxetine and naproxen (nominal initial concentrations of 5 ?g/L each), sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine (nominal initial concentrations of 150 ?g/L each), with and without phosphorous (P) addition at 1.6 mg/L...
  20. Sjödin L, Visser S, Al Saffar A. Using pharmacokinetic modeling to determine the effect of drug and food on gastrointestinal transit in dogs. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2011;64:42-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Paracetamol and sulfapyridine (sulfasalazine metabolite) pharmacokinetics were used as markers for GE and SITT, respectively...
  21. Rahav G, Zylber Katz E, Rachmilewitz D, Levy M. Relationship between the acetylator phenotype, plasma sulfapyridine levels and adverse effects during treatment with salicylazosulfapyridine in patients with chronic bowel diseases. Isr J Med Sci. 1990;26:31-4 pubmed
    ..5%). In 33 patients the effects appeared to be dose dependent. The plasma sulfapyridine levels in patients exhibiting gastrointestinal side effects were significantly higher than in patients with no ..
  22. Tornhamre S, Edenius C, Smedegård G, Sjoquist B, Lindgren J. Effects of sulfasalazine and a sulfasalazine analogue on the formation of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase products. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989;169:225-34 pubmed
    ..The metabolites of sulfasalazine, sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid, and the isomer, 4-aminosalicylic acid, were all less potent than sulfasalazine as ..
  23. Pan F, Englert U. A new polymorph of N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)mesitylenesulfonamide. Acta Crystallogr C. 2013;69:1217-20 pubmed publisher
    A new polymorph is reported of the pharmaceutically active sulfapyridine derivative, N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)mesitylenesulfonamide, in the zwitterionic form 2-methyl-6-{[(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyridin-1-ium, ..
  24. Xu J, Tam M, Samaei S, Lerouge S, Barralet J, Stevenson M, et al. Mucoadhesive chitosan hydrogels as rectal drug delivery vessels to treat ulcerative colitis. Acta Biomater. 2017;48:247-257 pubmed publisher
    ..metabolized by the intestinal flora into the therapeutic 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and a toxic by-product sulfapyridine (SP). SSZ can be administered orally or rectally...
  25. Popat A, Ross B, Liu J, Jambhrunkar S, Kleitz F, Qiao S. Enzyme-responsive controlled release of covalently bound prodrug from functional mesoporous silica nanospheres. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51:12486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are functionalized with sulfasalazine (SZ; see scheme), a prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine, to generate enzyme-responsive nanocarriers...
  26. Erturk E, Casemento J, Guertin K, Kende A. Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy. J Urol. 1994;151:1605-6 pubmed
    ..The condition was successfully treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Analysis of the fragments with thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance revealed acetylsulfapyridine, a metabolite of sulfasalazine. ..
  27. Hasko G, Szabo C, Nemeth Z, Deitch E. Sulphasalazine inhibits macrophage activation: inhibitory effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, interleukin-12 production and major histocompatibility complex II expression. Immunology. 2001;103:473-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, sulphasalazine suppressed the IFN-gamma-induced expression of major histocompatibility complex class II. These results demonstrate that the M phi is an important target of the immunosuppressive effect of sulphasalazine. ..
  28. Qin Y, Zhang M, Lin H. [Qualification and quantification of 10 sulfonamides in animal feedstuff by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2005;23:397-400 pubmed
    ..method has been established for the simultaneous determination of multi-SAs including sulfadiazine (SD), sulfapyridine (SPD), sulfamerazine (SM1), sulfameter (SM), sulfamethazine (SM2), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), ..
  29. Takaya T, Ikeda C, Imagawa N, Niwa K, Takada K. Development of a colon delivery capsule and the pharmacological activity of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in beagle dogs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1995;47:474-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the usefulness of ethylcellulose capsules for the delivery of rhG-CSF to the colon and the possibility of a new oral rhG-CSF dosage form has been elucidated. ..
  30. Lamrani A, Vidon N, Sogni P, Nepveux P, Catus F, Blumberg J, et al. Effects of lanreotide, a somatostatin analogue, on postprandial gastric functions and biliopancreatic secretions in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;43:65-70 pubmed
    ..Since lanreotide has powerful effects on gastrointestinal functions, it could be useful in the prevention or in the treatment of pancreatic and bowel fistulas as well as short bowel syndrome. ..
  31. Zuo L, Ai J, Fu H, Chen W, Zheng S, Xu Z, et al. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies. Environ Pollut. 2016;211:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both ..
  32. Nielsen O, Bouchelouche P, Berild D, Ahnfelt Rønne I. Effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and analogous substances on superoxide generation and intracellular free calcium in human neutrophilic granulocytes. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1993;28:527-32 pubmed
  33. Li Y, Chen J, Qiao X, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Zhou C. Insights into photolytic mechanism of sulfapyridine induced by triplet-excited dissolved organic matter. Chemosphere. 2016;147:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the photolysis of SAs with sulfapyridine as a reprentative...
  34. Tian Y, Gao B, Chen H, Wang Y, Li H. Interactions between carbon nanotubes and sulfonamide antibiotics in aqueous solutions under various physicochemical conditions. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2013;48:1136-44 pubmed publisher
    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfapyridine (SPY), two representative sulfonamide antibiotics, have attracted much attention recently because of their potential ecological risks...
  35. McGreevy P, Webster A, Nicol C. Study of the behaviour, digestive efficiency and gut transit times of crib-biting horses. Vet Rec. 2001;148:592-6 pubmed
    ..Longer TGTT were recorded in the crib-biters than in the normal horses but the orocaecal transit times did not differ. The crib-biters rested less than the normal horses. ..
  36. Reynolds P, Middleton S, Shorthouse M, Hunter J. The effects of aminosalicylic acid derivatives on nitric oxide in a cell-free system. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1995;9:491-5 pubmed
    ..Nitric oxide binding may be part of the mechanism by which ASA derivatives exert their therapeutic effect, and this work suggests that it may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. ..
  37. Eliakim R, Karmeli F, Razin E, Rachmilewitz D. Role of platelet-activating factor in ulcerative colitis. Enhanced production during active disease and inhibition by sulfasalazine and prednisolone. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:1167-72 pubmed A23187 was dose-dependently inhibited by salazopyrine, 5-amino-salicylic acid, and prednisolone, but not by sulfapyridine. It is thus suggested that platelet-activating factor may be involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory ..
  38. Alp C, Ozsoy S, Alp N, Erdem D, Gültekin M, Kufrevioglu O, et al. Sulfapyridine-like benzenesulfonamide derivatives as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I, II and VI. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2012;27:818-24 pubmed publisher
  39. Yang L, Shi Y, Li J, Fang L, Luan T. Transformation of aqueous sulfonamides under horseradish peroxidase and characterization of sulfur dioxide extrusion products from sulfadiazine. Chemosphere. 2018;200:164-172 pubmed publisher
    ..each with a five- or six-membered heterocyclic group, including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfapyridine (SPD), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamerazine (SMR) and sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) were selected as target ..
  40. Nigović B, Juric S, Mitrović I. Bismuth nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes modified sensor for sulfasalazine analysis. Talanta. 2017;164:201-208 pubmed publisher
    ..and good recoveries were obtained without interference from endogenous substances, 5-aminosalycilic acid and sulfapyridine formed after biotransformation of drug and folic acid co-administered as the supplement during sulfasalazine ..
  41. Mao F, Liu X, Wu K, Zhou C, Si Y. Biodegradation of sulfonamides by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Shewanella sp. strain MR-4. Biodegradation. 2018;29:129-140 pubmed publisher
    ..strain MR-4 to the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were determined, and sulfonamides degradation by these strains was assessed...
  42. Porter S, Bain S, Scully C. Linear IgA disease manifesting as recalcitrant desquamative gingivitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;74:179-82 pubmed
    ..Management initially proved to be difficult, however, the introduction of sulfapyridine caused rapid resolution of the gingival problem...
  43. Haham H, Oren A, Chefetz B. Insight into the role of dissolved organic matter in sorption of sulfapyridine by semiarid soils. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:11870-7 pubmed publisher
    Sorption-desorption behavior of sulfapyridine was studied with three distinct soil types low in organic carbon with or without the introduction of exogenous dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
  44. Lee H, Zhang H, Orlovich D, Fawcett J. The influence of probiotic treatment on sulfasalazine metabolism in rat. Xenobiotica. 2012;42:791-7 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfasalazine (SSZ), a drug whose efficacy depends on metabolism by azoreductase (AR) in the gut microbiota to sulfapyridine (SP) and 5-acetylsalicylic acid (5-ASA)...
  45. Teshima D, Hino B, Makino K, Yano T, Itoh Y, Joh Y, et al. Sulphasalazine-induced leucopenia in a patient with renal dysfunction. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2003;28:239-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is most likely that these two factors contributed to the sulphasalazine-induced leucopenia. ..
  46. Andreasen J, Andersen L, Hartzen S. In vitro susceptibility of diarrhoea producing gram negative enteric bacteria to sulfasalazine, 5-aminosalicylic acid, sulfapyridine and four quinolones. Brief report. APMIS. 1988;96:568-70 pubmed
    ..susceptibility of diarrhoea producing Gram negative enteric bacteria to sulfasalazine, 5-aminosalicylic acid, sulfapyridine and four quinolones was investigated using an agar dilution method...
  47. Doering J, Begue B, Lentze M, Rieux Laucat F, Goulet O, Schmitz J, et al. Induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis by sulphasalazine in patients with Crohn's disease. Gut. 2004;53:1632-8 pubmed
    ..The beneficial effect of sulphasalazine in treating inflammatory bowel disease is at least in part attributable to its proapoptotic effects on LPL which allows potent downregulation of lymphocyte activation. ..
  48. Yanagisawa R, Kamijo T, Nagase Y. [A case of drug induced urolithiasis composed of acetyl sulphapyridine associated with ulcerative colitis]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 1999;90:462-5 pubmed
    ..Drug induced urolithiasis originated from salazosulphapyridine is extremely rare. Satisfactory oral fluid intake and urinary alkalization are important for prevention of sulpha drugs calculi of urinary tract. ..
  49. Elder M, Leonard J, Dart J. Sulphapyridine--a new agent for the treatment of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80:549-52 pubmed
    ..Sulphapyridine was clinically effective in 50% of patients with moderate marked inflammation and had few side effects. It is a good alternative to dapsone. ..
  50. Mizuta H, Kawazoe Y, Ikeda Y, Ogawa K. [Gastrointestinal absorption of nitrofurantoin: evaluation of a newly developed method for determination of the gastrointestinal transit time in dogs]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1991;111:794-9 pubmed
    ..The double-marker method appears consequently to be useful tool for the determination of the gastrointestinal transit time in dogs. ..
  51. Minghetti P, Blackburn W. Effects of sulfasalazine and its metabolites on steady state messenger RNA concentrations for inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. J Rheumatol. 2000;27:653-60 pubmed
    To determine the effects of sulfasalazine (SASP) and its metabolites sulfapyridine (SP) and 5-amino salicylic acid (5ASA) on steady state mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (..
  52. Wahl C, Liptay S, Adler G, Schmid R. Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1163-74 pubmed
    ..In contrast, 5-aminosalicylic acid or sulfapyridine did not block NF-kappaB activation at all doses tested...
  53. Chungi V, Dittert L, Shargel L. Pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine metabolites in rats following concomitant oral administration of riboflavin. Pharm Res. 1989;6:1067-72 pubmed
    ..Plasma and urine were assayed for 5-aminosalicylic acid, acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid, sulfapyridine, and acetyl-sulfapyridine using an HPLC method...