sulfamethoxazole

Summary

Summary: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)

Top Publications

  1. Melvin S, Cameron M, Lanctôt C. Individual and mixture toxicity of pharmaceuticals naproxen, carbamazepine, and sulfamethoxazole to Australian striped marsh frog tadpoles (Limnodynastes peronii). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles exposed to a mixture of naproxen, carbamazepine, and sulfamethoxazole, compared to exposures to the individual compounds...
  2. Al Jasser A. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: an increasing problem. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2006;5:23 pubmed
    ..Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP - SXT) is recommended as the agent of choice for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections...
  3. Perez S, Eichhorn P, Aga D. Evaluating the biodegradability of sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim at different stages of sewage treatment. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1361-7 pubmed
    The aerobic biodegradability of four antimicrobials (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim) was investigated in sewage collected at four treatment stages (primary treatment, activated sludge treatment, aerobic ..
  4. Farías T, de Menorval L, Zajac J, Rivera A. Benzalkonium chloride and sulfamethoxazole adsorption onto natural clinoptilolite: effect of time, ionic strength, pH and temperature. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2011;363:465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..physical factors on the adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride (BC) and the model drug sulfamethoxazole by a purified natural clinoptilolite (NZ) has been studied in order to employ zeolite-surfactant-drug ..
  5. Hoa P, Managaki S, Nakada N, Takada H, Shimizu A, Anh D, et al. Antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments of northern Vietnam. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:2894-901 pubmed publisher
    ..was a major contaminant in pig farm pond (475-6662 ng/l) and less common in city canal and aquaculture sites, sulfamethoxazole was a major one in city canal (612-4330 ng/l). Erythromycin (154-2246 ng/l) and clarithromycin (2...
  6. Iliades P, Meshnick S, Macreadie I. Analysis of Pneumocystis jirovecii DHPS alleles implicated in sulfamethoxazole resistance using an Escherichia coli model system. Microb Drug Resist. 2005;11:1-8 pubmed
    ..Two sulfa drugs (sulfachloropyridazine and sulfathiazole) were identified that had higher inhibitory potential than sulfamethoxazole, which is currently the preferred treatment for PCP.
  7. Castrejon J, Berry N, El Ghaiesh S, Gerber B, Pichler W, Park B, et al. Stimulation of human T cells with sulfonamides and sulfonamide metabolites. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:411-418.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Antigen-specific T cells are involved in the pathogenesis; however, the nature of the antigen interacting with specific T-cell receptors is not fully defined...
  8. Xu B, Mao D, Luo Y, Xu L. Sulfamethoxazole biodegradation and biotransformation in the water-sediment system of a natural river. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:7069-76 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the biodegradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as affected by temperature, humic acid (HA) and SMX concentrations was investigated by HPLC-MS/MS analysis based on water-sediment batch experiments...
  9. Larcher S, Yargeau V. Biodegradation of sulfamethoxazole by individual and mixed bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;91:211-8 pubmed publisher
    Antibiotic compounds, like sulfamethoxazole (SMX), have become a concern in the aquatic environment due to the potential development of antibacterial resistances...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Huang T, Kunin C, Yan B, Chen Y, Lee S, Syu W. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and their combination over a 12 year period in Taiwan. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:633-7 pubmed publisher
    ..susceptibility of clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole over a 12 year period in Taiwan...
  2. Nghiem L, Schäfer A, Elimelech M. Pharmaceutical retention mechanisms by nanofiltration membranes. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:7698-705 pubmed
    This study investigates the retention mechanisms of three pharmaceuticals-sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and ibuprofen-by nanofiltration (NF) membranes...
  3. Müller E, Schüssler W, Horn H, Lemmer H. Aerobic biodegradation of the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole by activated sludge applied as co-substrate and sole carbon and nitrogen source. Chemosphere. 2013;92:969-78 pubmed publisher
    Potential aerobic biodegradation mechanisms of the widely used polar, low-adsorptive sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were investigated in activated sludge at bench scale...
  4. Rodriguez M, Fishman J. Prevention of infection due to Pneumocystis spp. in human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:770-82, table of contents pubmed
    ..Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the agent of choice for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis unless a clear contraindication is identified...
  5. Barman S, Chatterjee S, Chowdhury G, Ramamurthy T, Niyogi S, Kumar R, et al. Plasmid-mediated streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole resistance in Shigella flexneri 3a. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36:348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This strain was resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim...
  6. Garoma T, Umamaheshwar S, Mumper A. Removal of sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfathiazole from aqueous solution by ozonation. Chemosphere. 2010;79:814-20 pubmed publisher
    The removal of sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfathiazole from aqueous solution by ozonation was studied. The study was conducted experimentally in a semi-batch reactor under different experimental conditions, i.e...
  7. Elsheikh A, Castrejon L, Lavergne S, Whitaker P, Monshi M, Callan H, et al. Enhanced antigenicity leads to altered immunogenicity in sulfamethoxazole-hypersensitive patients with cystic fibrosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:1543-51.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure of patients with cystic fibrosis to sulfonamides is associated with a high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions...
  8. Lavergne S, Kurian J, Bajad S, Maki J, Yoder A, Guzinski M, et al. Roles of endogenous ascorbate and glutathione in the cellular reduction and cytotoxicity of sulfamethoxazole-nitroso. Toxicology. 2006;222:25-36 pubmed
    b>Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an effective drug for the management of opportunistic infections, but its use is limited by hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in HIV-infected patients...
  9. Han X, Liang C, Li T, Wang K, Huang H, Yang X. Simultaneous removal of cadmium and sulfamethoxazole from aqueous solution by rice straw biochar. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2013;14:640-9 pubmed publisher
    The simultaneous sorption behavior and characteristics of cadmium (Cd) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on rice straw biochar were investigated. Isotherms of Cd and SMX were well modeled by the Langmuir equation (R(2)>0.95)...
  10. Liu F, Wu J, Ying G, Luo Z, Feng H. Changes in functional diversity of soil microbial community with addition of antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:1615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper investigated the changes in microbial functional diversity by spiking sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in a loam paddy soil and then incubating for 21 days...
  11. Brain R, Ramirez A, Fulton B, Chambliss C, Brooks B. Herbicidal effects of sulfamethoxazole in Lemna gibba: using p-aminobenzoic acid as a biomarker of effect. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:8965-70 pubmed
    b>Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is among the most frequently detected antibiotics in the environment, heavily used in both human therapy and agriculture...
  12. Yu L, Fink G, Wintgens T, Melin T, Ternes T. Sorption behavior of potential organic wastewater indicators with soils. Water Res. 2009;43:951-60 pubmed publisher
    ..potential wastewater indicators such as two antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, primidone), one sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole), and one corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole) were determined with three natural soils (Lufa 2...
  13. Iliades P, Meshnick S, Macreadie I. Dihydropteroate synthase mutations in Pneumocystis jiroveci can affect sulfamethoxazole resistance in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:2617-23 pubmed
    ..synthase (DHPS) mutations in Pneumocystis jiroveci have been associated epidemiologically with resistance to sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Since P. jiroveci cannot be cultured, inherent drug resistance cannot be measured...
  14. Winter H, Trapnell C, Slattery J, Jacobson M, Greenspan D, Hooton T, et al. The effect of clarithromycin, fluconazole, and rifabutin on sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine formation in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection (AACTG 283). Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;76:313-22 pubmed
    b>Sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine formation, in combination with long-term oxidative stress, is thought to be the cause of high rates of adverse drug reactions to sulfamethoxazole in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects...
  15. Collado N, Buttiglieri G, Marti E, Ferrando Climent L, Rodriguez Mozaz S, Barcelo D, et al. Effects on activated sludge bacterial community exposed to sulfamethoxazole. Chemosphere. 2013;93:99-106 pubmed publisher
    ..shift on a lab scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater and exposed to 50?gL(-1) of sulfamethoxazole (SFX) for 2months was investigated in this study...
  16. Gonzalez O, Sans C, Esplugas S, Malato S. Application of solar advanced oxidation processes to the degradation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2009;8:1032-9 pubmed publisher
    This work deals with the treatment of highly concentrated sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solutions by some advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) that have not been studied until now...
  17. Cheng A, McBryde E, Wuthiekanun V, Chierakul W, Amornchai P, Day N, et al. Dosing regimens of cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) for melioidosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PK) simulation study was performed to determine the optimal dosing of cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX]) used in current eradication regimens in Thailand and Australia...
  18. Zawodniak A, Lochmatter P, Beeler A, Pichler W. Cross-reactivity in drug hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine and sulfamethoxazole. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we aimed to analyze in vitro the cross-reactivity between the antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole and the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine.
  19. Macingwana L, Baker B, Ngwane A, Harper C, Cotton M, Hesseling A, et al. Sulfamethoxazole enhances the antimycobacterial activity of rifampicin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:2908-11 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole on the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole individually and combined with the first-line tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin and ..
  20. Lavergne S, Wang H, Callan H, Park B, Naisbitt D. "Danger" conditions increase sulfamethoxazole-protein adduct formation in human antigen-presenting cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of such "danger signals" on sulfamethoxazole (SMX) metabolism in human APC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Epstein-Barr virus-modified B lymphocytes, ..
  21. Wagenlehner F, Wagenlehner C, Schinzel S, Naber K. Prospective, randomized, multicentric, open, comparative study on the efficacy of a prophylactic single dose of 500 mg levofloxacin versus 1920 mg trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole versus a control group in patients undergoing TUR of the prostate. Eur Urol. 2005;47:549-56 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of a prophylactic single dose of levofloxacin vs. trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) vs...
  22. Bouju H, Ricken B, Beffa T, Corvini P, Kolvenbach B. Isolation of bacterial strains capable of sulfamethoxazole mineralization from an acclimated membrane bioreactor. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:277-9 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we isolated five strains capable of degrading ¹?C-labeled sulfamethoxazole to ¹?CO? from a membrane bioreactor acclimatized to sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac...
  23. Ji L, Wan Y, Zheng S, Zhu D. Adsorption of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole on crop residue-derived ashes: implication for the relative importance of black carbon to soil sorption. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:5580-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Batch sorption experiments were performed for two reference antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline) on wheat- and maize-residue-derived black carbon...
  24. Bhaiya P, Roychowdhury S, Vyas P, Doll M, Hein D, Svensson C. Bioactivation, protein haptenation, and toxicity of sulfamethoxazole and dapsone in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;215:158-67 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the bioactivation and toxicity of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS) in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF)...
  25. Katsoyiannis I, Canonica S, von Gunten U. Efficiency and energy requirements for the transformation of organic micropollutants by ozone, O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2. Water Res. 2011;45:3811-22 pubmed publisher
    ..the AOPs O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2) for transformation of organic micropollutants, namely atrazine (ATR), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were compared. Three lake waters and a wastewater were assessed...
  26. Vyas P, Roychowdhury S, Koukouritaki S, Hines R, Krueger S, Williams D, et al. Enzyme-mediated protein haptenation of dapsone and sulfamethoxazole in human keratinocytes: II. Expression and role of flavin-containing monooxygenases and peroxidases. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;319:497-505 pubmed
    Arylamine compounds, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS), are metabolized in epidermal keratinocytes to arylhydroxylamine metabolites that auto-oxidize to arylnitroso derivatives, which in turn bind to cellular proteins and ..
  27. Herzog B, Lemmer H, Horn H, Müller E. Characterization of pure cultures isolated from sulfamethoxazole-acclimated activated sludge with respect to taxonomic identification and sulfamethoxazole biodegradation potential. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:276 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfamethoxazole (SMX, sulfonamide antibiotic) biodegradation by activated sludge communities (ASC) is still only partly understood...
  28. Blahna M, Zalewski C, Reuer J, Kahlmeter G, Foxman B, Marrs C. The role of horizontal gene transfer in the spread of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Europe and Canada. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:666-72 pubmed
    To describe the distribution of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and the role of horizontal gene transfer and clonal expansion in recent increases of antibiotic resistance rates among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Europe ..
  29. Wang D, Para M, Koletar S, Sadee W. Human N-acetyltransferase 1 *10 and *11 alleles increase protein expression through distinct mechanisms and associate with sulfamethoxazole-induced hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:652-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In a clinical study of 469 patients with HIV/AIDS treated with the NAT1/NAT2 substrate sulfamethoxazole (SMX), associations were tested between SMX-induced hypersensitivity and NAT1 *10 and *11 genotypes, together ..
  30. Dantas R, Contreras S, Sans C, Esplugas S. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by means of ozonation. J Hazard Mater. 2008;150:790-4 pubmed
    b>Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic largely used for diverse types of illness...
  31. Canonica S, Meunier L, von Gunten U. Phototransformation of selected pharmaceuticals during UV treatment of drinking water. Water Res. 2008;42:121-8 pubmed
    ..e., 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, and iopromide, was investigated in dilute solutions of pure water buffered at various pH values using a low-..
  32. Virk B, Correia G, Dixon D, Feyst I, Jia J, Oberleitner N, et al. Excessive folate synthesis limits lifespan in the C. elegans: E. coli aging model. BMC Biol. 2012;10:67 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this result, inhibition of folate synthesis by sulfamethoxazole, a sulfonamide, led to a dose-dependent increase in C. elegans lifespan...
  33. Wang D, Curtis A, Papp A, Koletar S, Para M. Polymorphism in glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) is associated with sulfamethoxazole-induced hypersensitivity in HIV/AIDS patients. BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:32 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a commonly used antibiotic for prevention of infectious diseases associated with HIV/AIDS and immune-compromised states...
  34. Fan L, Liu L, Chen H, Chen X, Hu Z. Continuous on-line concentration based on dynamic pH junction for trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole by microfluidic capillary electrophoresis combined with flow injection analysis system. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1062:133-7 pubmed
    ..on-line concentration approach based on dynamic pH junction for the analysis of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) by microfluidic capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with flow injection analysis is developed in ..
  35. Salem A, Mossa H, Barsoum B. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of miconazole, metronidazole and sulfamethoxazole in pharmaceutical and urine samples. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:654-61 pubmed
    Specific, accurate and precise NMR methods were developed for determining miconazole, metronidazole and sulfamethoxazole antibiotic drugs in authentic, pharmaceutical and urine samples...
  36. Pluvinage B, Dairou J, Possot O, Martins M, Fouet A, Dupret J, et al. Cloning and molecular characterization of three arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes from Bacillus anthracis: identification of unusual enzymatic properties and their contribution to sulfamethoxazole resistance. Biochemistry. 2007;46:7069-78 pubmed
    ..displayed strong NAT activity toward several prototypic NAT substrates, including the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX)...
  37. Pluvinage B, Li de la Sierra Gallay I, Kubiak X, Xu X, Dairou J, Dupret J, et al. The Bacillus anthracis arylamine N-acetyltransferase ((BACAN)NAT1) that inactivates sulfamethoxazole, reveals unusual structural features compared with the other NAT isoenzymes. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The Bacillus anthracis (BACAN)NAT1 enzyme affords increased resistance to the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole through its acetylation. We report the structure of (BACAN)NAT1...
  38. Vyas P, Roychowdhury S, Khan F, Prisinzano T, Lamba J, Schuetz E, et al. Enzyme-mediated protein haptenation of dapsone and sulfamethoxazole in human keratinocytes: I. Expression and role of cytochromes P450. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;319:488-96 pubmed
    ..Several arylamine drugs, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS), undergo bioactivation, resulting in adduction to cellular proteins...
  39. Vilcheze C, Jacobs W. The combination of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and isoniazid or rifampin is bactericidal and prevents the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:5142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To overcome these issues, we reexamined two FDA-approved antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP), for use in TB treatment...
  40. Vyas P, Roychowdhury S, Svensson C. Role of human cyclooxygenase-2 in the bioactivation of dapsone and sulfamethoxazole. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:16-8 pubmed
    b>Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone, DDS) are believed to mediate their adverse effects subsequent to bioactivation to their respective arylhydroxylamine and arylnitroso metabolites, resulting in covalent ..
  41. Hijosa Valsero M, Fink G, Schlüsener M, Sidrach Cardona R, Martín Villacorta J, Ternes T, et al. Removal of antibiotics from urban wastewater by constructed wetland optimization. Chemosphere. 2011;83:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the soluble water fraction, the only easily eliminated antibiotics in the WWTP were doxycycline (61±38%) and sulfamethoxazole (60±26%)...
  42. Cenizal M, Skiest D, Luber S, Bedimo R, Davis P, Fox P, et al. Prospective randomized trial of empiric therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or doxycycline for outpatient skin and soft tissue infections in an area of high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2628-30 pubmed
    To evaluate empirical therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or doxycycline for outpatient skin and soft tissue infections in an area of high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a randomized, prospective, open-..
  43. Garnero C, Aiassa V, Longhi M. Sulfamethoxazole:hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin complex: preparation and characterization. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;63:74-9 pubmed publisher
    A complex of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) was developed and characterized in order to investigate their interactions in aqueous solution and the solid state...
  44. Trovó A, Nogueira R, Agüera A, Sirtori C, Fernandez Alba A. Photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole in various aqueous media: persistence, toxicity and photoproducts assessment. Chemosphere. 2009;77:1292-8 pubmed publisher
    The photochemical transformation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated in different water matrices: distilled water (DW), distilled water+nitrate (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) and seawater (SW) to evaluate its persistence, toxicity and ..
  45. Smego R, Moeller M, Gallis H. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy for Nocardia infections. Arch Intern Med. 1983;143:711-8 pubmed
    ..To assess the efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), we reviewed the records of 19 patients with Nocardia infections seen at Duke University Medical ..
  46. Naisbitt D, Farrell J, Gordon S, Maggs J, Burkhart C, Pichler W, et al. Covalent binding of the nitroso metabolite of sulfamethoxazole leads to toxicity and major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen presentation. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;62:628-37 pubmed
    Treatment with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) can lead to hypersensitivity reactions. T cells from hypersensitive patients recognize either the parent drug and/or the reactive nitroso (SMX-NO) metabolite...
  47. Pirmohamed M, Alfirevic A, Vilar J, Stalford A, Wilkins E, Sim E, et al. Association analysis of drug metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with co-trimoxazole hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenetics. 2000;10:705-13 pubmed
    ..Our results show that genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes are unlikely to be major predisposing factors in determining individual susceptibility to co-trimoxazole hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients. ..
  48. Shanks G, Edstein M, Chedester A, Smith C, Corcoran K, Ngampochjana M, et al. Proguanil plus sulfamethoxazole is not causally prophylactic in the Macaca mulatta--Plasmodium cynomolgi model. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994;50:641-5 pubmed
    New drugs for causal prophylaxis of malaria are needed. A proguanil/sulfamethoxazole combination was investigated using a rhesus monkey model (Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi) to determine whether causal prophylaxis ..
  49. Brown P, Freeman A, Foxman B. Prevalence and predictors of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in Michigan. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1061-6 pubmed
    Resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has increased. Risk factors for resistance and the impact on clinical failure have been poorly described...
  50. Helweg Larsen J, Benfield T, Eugen Olsen J, Lundgren J, Lundgren B. Effects of mutations in Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene on outcome of AIDS-associated P. carinii pneumonia. Lancet. 1999;354:1347-51 pubmed
    ..We assessed whether mutations in the DHPS gene of P. carinii were associated with exposure to sulpha drugs and influenced outcome from PCP...
  51. Roccaforte J, Bittner M, Stumpf C, Preheim L. Attempts to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization with the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, and bacitracin. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16:141-6 pubmed
    ..9 antibiotics preceded the first MRSA culture. The usual regimen (mean, 6.0 days) was oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 160/800 mg twice daily, oral rifampin, 600 mg once daily, and bacitracin ointment three times a day...
  52. Duman M, Altun S, Cengiz M, Saticioglu I, Buyukekiz A, Sahinturk P. Genotyping and antimicrobial resistance genes of Yersinia ruckeri isolates from rainbow trout farms. Dis Aquat Organ. 2017;125:31-44 pubmed publisher
    ..More than 80% of the Y. ruckeri isolates were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT), florfenicol (FFC), and tetracycline, whereas none were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole...
  53. Al Hamadani Y, Park C, Assi L, Chu K, Hoque S, Jang M, et al. Sonocatalytic removal of ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole in the presence of different fly ash sources. Ultrason Sonochem. 2017;39:354-362 pubmed publisher
    ..power plants) as a low-cost catalyst to enhance the ultrasonic (US) degradation of ibuprofen (IBP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX)...