Summary: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.

Top Publications

  1. Tagbor H, Bruce J, Ord R, Randall A, Browne E, Greenwood B, et al. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyremethamine in children and pregnant women. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1288-97 pubmed
    ..To compare the parasitological failure rates of under-fives and pregnant women with parasitaemia treated with chloroquine (CQ) or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)...
  2. Conteh L, Sicuri E, Manzi F, Hutton G, Obonyo B, Tediosi F, et al. The cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10313 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials...
  3. Naidoo I, Roper C. Following the path of most resistance: dhps K540E dispersal in African Plasmodium falciparum. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Like CQR, dhps K540E appeared first in East Africa and spread west. We discuss whether there are common principles governing resistance dispersal in Africa and how these might guide surveillance in future. ..
  4. Ndounga M, Tahar R, Basco L, Casimiro P, Malonga D, Ntoumi F. Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and the prevalence of molecular markers of resistance in under 5-year olds in Brazzaville, Congo. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1164-71 pubmed
    To test the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine (SP) monotherapy and establish the prevalence of mutations in dhfr and dhps in Brazzaville, Congo...
  5. Griffin J, Cairns M, Ghani A, Roper C, Schellenberg D, Carneiro I, et al. Protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and parasite resistance. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12618 pubmed publisher
    Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in infants using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTi) is recommended by WHO for implementation in settings where resistance to SP is not high...
  6. Oyibo W, Agomo C. Scaling up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine: prospects and challenges. Matern Child Health J. 2011;15:542-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights the prospects and challenges of scaling up IPTp-SP. ..
  7. Hamer D, Mwanakasale V, MacLeod W, Chalwe V, Mukwamataba D, Champo D, et al. Two-dose versus monthly intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in HIV-seropositive pregnant Zambian women. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1585-94 pubmed
    ..We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of IPTp comparing the standard 2-dose sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) regimen with monthly IPTp among a cohort of HIV-positive pregnant Zambian women...
  8. Mushi A, Schellenberg J, Mrisho M, Manzi F, Mbuya C, Mponda H, et al. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania. Malar J. 2008;7:191 pubmed publisher
    ..A mixed methods approach can facilitate an interactive process among relevant actors to develop a BCC strategy. ..
  9. Dicko A, Sagara I, Sissoko M, Guindo O, Diallo A, Kone M, et al. Impact of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine targeting the transmission season on the incidence of clinical malaria in children in Mali. Malar J. 2008;7:123 pubmed publisher
    ..5% in an area with intense seasonal transmission. This simple strategy is likely to be one of the most effectives in reducing malaria burden in such areas. NCT00623155. ..

More Information


  1. Mohamed A, Mahgoub H, Magzoub M, Gasim G, Eldein W, Ahmed A, et al. Artesunate plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine versus praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni in eastern Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:1062-4 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy and safety of oral artesunate+sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS+SP) (4 mg/kg AS for 3 consecutive days+25 mg sulfadoxine on Day 0) in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infections were compared with those of praziquantel (PZQ) ..
  2. Bousema J, Drakeley C, Mens P, Arens T, Houben R, Omar S, et al. Increased Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte production in mixed infections with P. malariae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:442-8 pubmed
    ..15, 95% confidence interval = 0.99-4.65 and 2.39, 1.58-3.63) but not in a study from Nigeria. These data suggest that co-infection with P. malariae is correlated with increased P. falciparum gametocytemia...
  3. Marfurt J, Muller I, Sie A, Oa O, Reeder J, Smith T, et al. The usefulness of twenty-four molecular markers in predicting treatment outcome with combination therapy of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea. Malar J. 2008;7:61 pubmed publisher
  4. Menendez C, Serra Casas E, Scahill M, Sanz S, Nhabomba A, Bardaji A, et al. HIV and placental infection modulate the appearance of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women who receive intermittent preventive treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this effect of IPTp is limited to the period when blood levels of SP are likely to be significant and does not translate into more-severe infections or adverse clinical outcomes. ..
  5. Leslie T, Kaur H, Mohammed N, Kolaczinski K, Ord R, Rowland M. Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria involving substandard antimalarial drugs, Pakistan, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1753-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Documented clinical failures at the basic health unit prompted a drug resistance survey of locally manufactured sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine used for routine treatment. The in vivo failure rate was 28.5%. PCR analysis of the P...
  6. Tekete M, Djimde A, Beavogui A, Maiga H, Sagara I, Fofana B, et al. Efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria: revisiting molecular markers in an area of emerging AQ and SP resistance in Mali. Malar J. 2009;8:34 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated with artemisinin derivatives in an artemisinin-based combination therapy. ..
  7. Bousema T, Okell L, Shekalaghe S, Griffin J, Omar S, Sawa P, et al. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs. Malar J. 2010;9:136 pubmed publisher
    ..ACT shortened the period of gametocyte carriage considerably, and had the most pronounced effect on mature gametocytes when combined with PQ. ..
  8. Tutu E, Lawson B, Browne E. The effectiveness and perception of the use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy programme in Offinso district of Ashanti region, Ghana. Malar J. 2011;10:385 pubmed publisher
  9. Diakite O, Maiga O, Kayentao K, Traoré B, Djimde A, Traoré B, et al. Superiority of 3 over 2 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in mali: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:215-23 pubmed publisher
    In 2003, Mali introduced intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (ITPp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for the control of malaria in pregnancy, consisting of 2 doses of SP given in the 2nd and 3rd trimester...
  10. Harrington W, Mutabingwa T, Kabyemela E, Fried M, Duffy P. Intermittent treatment to prevent pregnancy malaria does not confer benefit in an area of widespread drug resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:224-30 pubmed publisher
    Millions of African women receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) to avoid poor outcomes that result from malaria...
  11. Elmardi K, Malik E, Abdelgadir T, Ali S, Elsyed A, Mudather M, et al. Feasibility and acceptability of home-based management of malaria strategy adapted to Sudan's conditions using artemisinin-based combination therapy and rapid diagnostic test. Malar J. 2009;8:39 pubmed publisher
    ..The problem of treating other febrile cases when diagnosis is not malaria and other non-fever cases needs to be addressed as well. ..
  12. Zakeri S, Afsharpad M, Raeisi A, Djadid N. Prevalence of mutations associated with antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum isolates prior to the introduction of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line treatment in Iran. Malar J. 2007;6:148 pubmed
    ..Finding the fixed level of CQ resistance polymorphisms (pfcrt 76T) suggests that CQ must be withdrawn from the current treatment strategy in Iran, while SP may remain the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria. ..
  13. Barnes K, Little F, Mabuza A, Mngomezulu N, Govere J, Durrheim D, et al. Increased gametocytemia after treatment: an early parasitological indicator of emerging sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical and parasitological responses to the fixed-dose combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were assessed biannually since ..
  14. Menéndez C, Bardají A, Sigauque B, Sanz S, Aponte J, Mabunda S, et al. Malaria prevention with IPTp during pregnancy reduces neonatal mortality. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9438 pubmed publisher NCT00209781. ..
  15. Somé A, Sere Y, Dokomajilar C, Zongo I, Rouamba N, Greenhouse B, et al. Selection of known Plasmodium falciparum resistance-mediating polymorphisms by artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine but not dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Burkina Faso. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1949-54 pubmed publisher
    Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP) offer excellent antimalarial efficacy but may select for parasite polymorphisms that decrease drug sensitivity...
  16. Greenhouse B, Slater M, Njama Meya D, Nzarubara B, Maiteki Sebuguzi C, Clark T, et al. Decreasing efficacy of antimalarial combination therapy in Uganda is explained by decreasing host immunity rather than increasing drug resistance. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:758-65 pubmed publisher
    ..A cohort of 129 children aged 1-10 years in Kampala, Uganda, were treated with amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for 396 episodes of uncomplicated malaria over a 29-month period as part of a longitudinal ..
  17. Mbacham W, Evehe M, Netongo P, Ateh I, Mimche P, Ajua A, et al. Efficacy of amodiaquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and their combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Cameroon at the time of policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy. Malar J. 2010;9:34 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of molecular markers for resistance to these drugs was studied to set the baseline for surveillance of their evolution with time...
  18. Rulisa S, Gatarayiha J, Kabarisa T, Ndayisaba G. Comparison of different artemisinin-based combinations for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Kigali, Rwanda, an area of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine: artesunate plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine versus artesunate p. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:612-6 pubmed
    ..ACTs), the efficacy, tolerance, and degree of re-infection of two ACTs were investigated: artesunate plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (As + SP) and AS plus sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine (As + SMP)...
  19. Ogunfowokan O, Dankyau M, Madaki A, Thacher T. Short report: comparison of chlorproguanil-dapsone with a combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and chloroquine in children with malaria in northcentral Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:199-201 pubmed
    ..treatment of malaria is critical in the face of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)...
  20. Enosse S, Magnussen P, Abacassamo F, Gómez Olivé X, Rønn A, Thompson R, et al. Rapid increase of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr/dhps resistant haplotypes, after the adoption of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment in 2002, in southern Mozambique. Malar J. 2008;7:115 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum populations and may even endanger the sensitivity to the second-line drug, Coartem. ..
  21. Naidoo I, Roper C. Drug resistance maps to guide intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in African infants. Parasitology. 2011;138:1469-79 pubmed publisher
    ..There are clear deficiencies in molecular surveillance data coverage. We discuss requirements for ongoing surveillance of SP resistance markers in support of the use of SP-IPTi. ..
  22. Ouma P, van Eijk A, Hamel M, Sikuku E, Odhiambo F, Munguti K, et al. The effect of health care worker training on the use of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in rural western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:953-61 pubmed
    ..Health care workers (HCW) in Asembo were retrained on IPTp in 2003...
  23. Grietens K, Gies S, Coulibaly S, Ky C, Somda J, Toomer E, et al. Bottlenecks for high coverage of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy: the case of adolescent pregnancies in rural Burkina Faso. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12013 pubmed publisher
    ..Unless such specific measures are taken, adolescents' social vulnerability will present a serious bottleneck for the effectiveness of IPTi-SP. ..
  24. Faye B, Ndiaye M, Ndiaye J, Annie A, Tine R, Lô A, et al. Prevalence of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during the intermittent preventive treatment in infants coupled with the expanded program immunization in Senegal. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:133-8 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have shown the efficacy of the intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) coupled with the expanded program of immunization (EPI) in infants...
  25. Green M, van Eijk A, van Ter Kuile F, Ayisi J, Parise M, Kager P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Western Kenya. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1403-8 pubmed
    b>Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is among the most commonly used antimalarial drugs during pregnancy, yet the pharmacokinetics of SP are unknown in pregnant women...
  26. Gosling R, Ghani A, Deen J, von Seidlein L, Greenwood B, Chandramohan D. Can changes in malaria transmission intensity explain prolonged protection and contribute to high protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants?. Malar J. 2008;7:54 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding of continued benefit of interventions in settings of decreasing transmission may explain why rebound of clinical malaria was absent in the large scale trials of insecticide-treated bed nets. ..
  27. Manzi F, Schellenberg J, Hamis Y, Mushi A, Shirima K, Mwita A, et al. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria and anaemia control in Tanzanian infants; the development and implementation of a public health strategy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..4 min (range 1.6-28.9) per nurse per vaccination clinic. The collaborative approach between researchers and health staff effectively translated research findings into a strategy fit for public health implementation. ..
  28. Olliaro P, Delenne H, Cisse M, Badiane M, Olliaro A, Vaillant M, et al. Implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) at a district health centre in rural Senegal. Malar J. 2008;7:234 pubmed publisher
    ..Indicators of implementation and effects of IPTp-SP were collected in a rural clinic in Southern Senegal...
  29. Temperley M, Mueller D, Njagi J, Akhwale W, Clarke S, Jukes M, et al. Costs and cost-effectiveness of delivering intermittent preventive treatment through schools in western Kenya. Malar J. 2008;7:196 pubmed publisher
    ..53 and 7.52, respectively. This study provides the first evidence that IPT administered by teachers is a cost-effective school-based malaria intervention and merits investigation in other settings. ..
  30. Hailemeskel E, Kassa M, Taddesse G, Mohammed H, Woyessa A, Tasew G, et al. Prevalence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in dhfr and dhps genes of Plasmodium falciparum three years after SP withdrawal in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 2013;128:636-41 pubmed publisher
    Ethiopia changed the first-line anti-malarial drug for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria from sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to Coartem(®) in 2004 following nation-wide assessment of the efficacy of both drugs in 2003...
  31. Msyamboza K, Savage E, Kazembe P, Gies S, Kalanda G, D Alessandro U, et al. Community-based distribution of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy improved coverage but reduced antenatal attendance in southern Malawi. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:183-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the impact of a 2-year programme for community-based delivery of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy coverage, antenatal clinic attendance and pregnancy outcome...
  32. Gesase S, Gosling R, Hashim R, Ord R, Naidoo I, Madebe R, et al. High resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in northern Tanzania and the emergence of dhps resistance mutation at Codon 581. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4569 pubmed publisher
    ..The study found a new combination of parasite mutations that maybe associated with increased and earlier failure. NCT00361114. ..
  33. Tiono A, Ouedraogo A, Bougouma E, Diarra A, Konate A, Nebie I, et al. Placental malaria and low birth weight in pregnant women living in a rural area of Burkina Faso following the use of three preventive treatment regimens. Malar J. 2009;8:224 pubmed publisher
    ..6%) groups (p = 0.02) Intermittent preventive treatment with SP has shown clear superiority in reducing adverse outcomes at delivery, as compared with intermittent preventive treatment with CQ and classical chemoprophylaxis with CQ. ..
  34. Parikh S, Rosenthal P. Intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in pregnancy: is sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine the right drug?. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;87:160-2 pubmed publisher
    ..An important malaria-control measure in Africa is intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) during pregnancy...
  35. Bouyou Akotet M, Mawili Mboumba D, Kombila M. Antenatal care visit attendance, intermittent preventive treatment and bed net use during pregnancy in Gabon. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:52 pubmed publisher
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) must be provided during antenatal care (ANC) visits for malaria ..
  36. Gikandi P, Noor A, Gitonga C, Ajanga A, Snow R. Access and barriers to measures targeted to prevent malaria in pregnancy in rural Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:208-17 pubmed publisher
  37. Cairns M, Gosling R, Gesase S, Mosha J, Greenwood B, Chandramohan D. Mode of action and choice of antimalarial drugs for intermittent preventive treatment in infants. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:1199-201 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unclear what antimalarials should be used to replace sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) when and where SP is no longer an effective drug for IPTi...
  38. Karunajeewa H, Salman S, Mueller I, Baiwog F, Gomorrai S, Law I, et al. Pharmacokinetic properties of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnant women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4368-76 pubmed publisher
    To determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of sulfadoxine (SDOX) and pyrimethamine (PYR) when administered as intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria, 30 Papua New Guinean women in the second or third ..
  39. Aponte J, Schellenberg D, Egan A, Breckenridge A, Carneiro I, Critchley J, et al. Efficacy and safety of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria in African infants: a pooled analysis of six randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet. 2009;374:1533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook a pooled analysis of the safety and efficacy of IPT in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Africa...
  40. Doumbo S, Ongoiba O, Doumtabe D, Dara A, Ouologuem T, Kayentao K, et al. [Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, anemia and molecular markers of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyriméthamine resistance in delivered women in Fana, Mali]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2013;106:188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..was to describe the malaria morbidity and the frequencies of molecular markers of resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnant women at delivery in Mali...
  41. Ghanchi N, Ursing J, Beg M, Veiga M, Jafri S, Martensson A. Prevalence of resistance associated polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from southern Pakistan. Malar J. 2011;10:18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate high prevalence of in vivo resistance to chloroquine, whereas high grade resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine does not appear to be widespread among P. falciparum in southern Pakistan. ..
  42. Brabin L, Stokes E, Dumbaya I, Owens S. Rural Gambian women's reliance on health workers to deliver sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as recommended intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy. Malar J. 2009;8:25 pubmed publisher
    ..They should be encouraged to date their own pregnancies in culturally relevant terms and to anticipate when and which medications they should receive. ..
  43. Grobusch M, Gabor J, Aponte J, Schwarz N, Poetschke M, Doernemann J, et al. No rebound of morbidity following intermittent preventive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment of malaria in infants in Gabon. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1658-61 pubmed publisher
    In the context of a trial studying intermittent preventive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment of malaria in infants in Lambaréné, Gabon, children aged 18-30 months were followed up after having received their last dose at an age of 15 ..
  44. Gosling R, Gesase S, Mosha J, Carneiro I, Hashim R, Lemnge M, et al. Protective efficacy and safety of three antimalarial regimens for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;374:1521-32 pubmed publisher
    Administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine at times of vaccination-intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi)-is a promising strategy to prevent malaria. However, rising resistance to this combination is a concern...
  45. Kiwuwa M, Mufubenga P. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda. Malar J. 2008;7:44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery...
  46. Nsimba B, Guiyedi V, Mabika Mamfoumbi M, Mourou Mbina J, Ngoungou E, Bouyou Akotet M, et al. Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine versus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated childhood malaria in Gabon: a randomized trial to guide national policy. Malar J. 2008;7:31 pubmed publisher
    ..Gabonese policy-makers need to plan country-wide and close surveillance of AQ/AS efficacy to determine whether, and for how long, these new recommendations for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria remain valid. ..
  47. Raman J, Little F, Roper C, Kleinschmidt I, Cassam Y, Maharaj R, et al. Five years of large-scale dhfr and dhps mutation surveillance following the phased implementation of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Maputo Province, Southern Mozambique. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:788-94 pubmed publisher
    ..mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) is strongly associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment failure...
  48. Oesterholt M, Alifrangis M, Sutherland C, Omar S, Sawa P, Howitt C, et al. Submicroscopic gametocytes and the transmission of antifolate-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Western Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4364 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of wild-type infections is likely to have reduced our power to detect differences. Our data further support the use of ACT to reduce the transmission of drug-resistant malaria parasites. ..
  49. Bouyou Akotet M, Mawili Mboumba D, Tchantchou T, Kombila M. High prevalence of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine-resistant alleles of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in pregnant women at the time of introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in Gabon. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:438-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of dhfr and dhps point mutations was assessed in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from pregnant women in Libreville...
  50. Marfurt J, de Monbrison F, Brega S, Barbollat L, Muller I, Sie A, et al. Molecular markers of in vivo Plasmodium vivax resistance to amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine: mutations in pvdhfr and pvmdr1. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:409-17 pubmed publisher
    Molecular markers for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium vivax have been reported...
  51. Prajapati S, Joshi H, Dev V, Dua V. Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax anti-folate resistance in India. Malar J. 2011;10:102 pubmed publisher
    ..vivax in India, except Andaman and north-eastern state. The distinction of geographical regions with sensitive and resistant parasite phenotypes would be highly useful for designing and administering national anti-malarial drug policy. ..
  52. Manzi F, Hutton G, Schellenberg J, Tanner M, Alonso P, Mshinda H, et al. From strategy development to routine implementation: the cost of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants for malaria control. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:165 pubmed publisher
    ..The IPTi intervention appears to be affordable even within the budget constraints of Ministries of Health of most sub-Saharan African countries. ..
  53. Hamel M, Poe A, Bloland P, McCollum A, Zhou Z, Shi Y, et al. Dihydrofolate reductase I164L mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates: clinical outcome of 14 Kenyan adults infected with parasites harbouring the I164L mutation. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:338-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified I164L in 14 patients. Seven were malaria microscopy-positive: two failed sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)...