Summary: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.

Top Publications

  1. Furusawa N. Determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs by liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2002;85:848-52 pubmed
    ..for determining residual sulfonamide antibacterials such as sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ) in eggs using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector...
  2. Roudaut B, Garnier M. Sulphonamide residues in eggs following drug administration via the drinking water. Food Addit Contam. 2002;19:373-8 pubmed
    ..The residue levels declined below the limit of quantification within 12-20 days for albumen and 14-15 days for yolk after treatment was discontinued. ..
  3. Forni C, Cascone A, Fiori M, Migliore L. Sulphadimethoxine and Azolla filiculoides Lam.: a model for drug remediation. Water Res. 2002;36:3398-403 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of the model was very high. These results demonstrated that Azolla can be taken into consideration as a tool for sulphonamides environmental monitoring and decontamination. ..
  4. Geiger A, Rice A, Shapiro S. Minocycline blocks acute bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction in jaundiced Gunn rats. Neonatology. 2007;92:219-26 pubmed
    ..Acute brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) abnormalities occur after giving sulfadimethoxine to 16-day-old jaundiced Gunn rats to displace bilirubin into tissue including brain.
  5. Junkins K, Boothe D, Jensen J, Herzog T, Chatfield J. Disposition of sulfadimethoxine in male llamas (Llama glama) after single intravenous and oral administrations. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2003;34:9-15 pubmed
    This study determined the disposition of sulfadimethoxine in six, healthy, adult, gelded male llamas (Llama glama) by using a nonrandomized crossover design with i.v. dosing (58.8 +/- 3...
  6. Taluja A, Bae Y. Role of a novel multifunctional excipient poly(ethylene glycol)-block-oligo(vinyl sulfadimethoxine) in controlled release of lysozyme from PLGA microspheres. Int J Pharm. 2008;358:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of ion-pairing of anionic polyelectrolytes: our novel poly(ethylene glycol)-block-oligo(vinyl sulfadimethoxine) (PEG-OVSDM) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-aspartic acid) (PEG-PAA) with cationic lysozyme on ..
  7. Yafune A, Taniai E, Morita R, Hayashi H, Suzuki K, Mitsumori K, et al. Aberrant activation of M phase proteins by cell proliferation-evoking carcinogens after 28-day administration in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2013;219:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Carcinogens targeting thyroid (sulfadimethoxine; SDM), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), forestomach (butylated hydroxyanisole; BHA), glandular ..
  8. Knight D, Peters W. The antimalarial activity of N-benzyloxydihydrotriazines. I. The activity of clociguanil (BRL 50216) against rodent malaria, and studies on its mode of action. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1980;74:393-404 pubmed
  9. Ide A, Ahmad S, Neng N, Nogueira J. Enhancement for trace analysis of sulfonamide antibiotics in water matrices using bar adsorptive microextraction (BA?E). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;129:593-599 pubmed publisher, the enhancement for trace analysis of sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadimethoxine) and trimethoprim in water matrices is proposed using bar adsorptive microextraction combined with micro-..

More Information


  1. Torre M, Facchin G, Kremer E, Castellano E, Piro O, Baran E. Characterization of a Cu(II) complex of sulfadimethoxine. J Inorg Biochem. 2003;94:200-4 pubmed
    The molecular structure of [Cu(sulfadimet)(2)].SO(CH(3))(2) (sulfadimet=sulfadimethoxine=4-p-aminobenzenesulfonamido-2,6-dimethoxypyrimidine) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffractometry...
  2. Rajendiran N, Siva S. Inclusion complex of sulfadimethoxine with cyclodextrins: preparation and characterization. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:828-36 pubmed publisher
    The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability of sulfadimethoxine (SDMO) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) have been investigated both in solution and solid state by means of absorption, ..
  3. Pham D. Chronic intermittent diarrhea in a 14-month-old Abyssinian cat. Can Vet J. 2009;50:85-7 pubmed
    ..Infection with Tritrichomonas foetus was diagnosed by fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and successfully treated with ronidazole and dietary modification...
  4. Alkasir R, Liu X, Zahra M, Ferreri M, Su J, Han B. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variant and its parent strain isolated from chronic mastitis at a dairy farm in Beijing, China. Microb Drug Resist. 2013;19:138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, the minimal inhibitory concentrations values for chloramphenicol and sulfadimethoxine were much higher in SCV102 than that of S. aureus 101...
  5. Yang C, Tsai L, Chang B. Fungi extracellular enzyme-containing microcapsules enhance degradation of sulfonamide antibiotics in mangrove sediments. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25:10069-10079 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation of three SAs, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamethazine (SMZ), was enhanced by adding MC to the sediments...
  6. Furusawa N. Elimination half-lives of sulphadimethoxine and its N4-acetyl metabolite in tissues of laying hens. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1999;46:59-64 pubmed
    ..4 h) in the blood, kidney, muscle, ovary and adipose tissue was observed. On the other hand, the t1/2 of N4-AcSDM in the kidney (8.1 h) was significantly longer than that in the above 3 tissues. ..
  7. Atef M, Youssef S, Ramadan A, Issa M. Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability, tissue levels and acetylation of some sulphonamides in goats. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1989;302:27-39 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were N4-acetylated in the body tissues to a higher extent than that in plasma. Acetylation was highest in rumen and skeletal muscle. ..
  8. Khowdiary M, Mostafa N. Synthesis of sulfadimethoxine based surfactants and their evaluation as antitumor agents. J Cancer Res Ther. 2016;12:137-41 pubmed publisher
    Synthesized CO (II) and Pt (II) of sulfadimethoxine. These compounds were tested for potential antitumor activity against two of human tumor cell lines, colon carcinoma cell line [Hct116], and breast carcinoma cell line MCF7...
  9. Xia M, Li A, Zhu Z, Zhou Q, Yang W. Factors influencing antibiotics adsorption onto engineered adsorbents. J Environ Sci (China). 2013;25:1291-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of MWCNT on the basis of surface area was more advantageous than that of the other adsorbents because MWCNT has a much more compact molecular arrangement. ..
  10. Bakal R, Bai S, Stoskopf M. Pharmacokinetics of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim in a 5:1 ratio following intraperitoneal and oral administration, in the hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxitalis). J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2004;27:1-6 pubmed
    Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, administered in a 5:1 ratio, via the oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes were determined in the hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxitalis)...
  11. Kemmochi S, Fujimoto H, Woo G, Hirose M, Nishikawa A, Mitsumori K, et al. Preventive effects of calcitriol on the development of capsular invasive carcinomas in a rat two-stage thyroid carcinogenesis model. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:655-64 pubmed
    ..activation in thyroid capsular invasive carcinomas (CICs), which are highly induced by promotion with sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in a rat 2-stage thyroid carcinogenesis model...
  12. Drieman J, Thijssen H, Struyker Boudier H. Renal selective N-acetyl-L-gamma-glutamyl prodrugs: studies on the selectivity of some model prodrugs. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;108:204-8 pubmed
    ..g. the liver. It is concluded that this prodrug approach offers the possibility of delivering drugs selectively to the kidney, but also that it is not universally applicable. ..
  13. van Gogh H, Van Deurzen J, van Duin C, Van Miert A. Influence of gestation on the pharmacokinetics of four sulphonamides in goats. Res Vet Sci. 1990;48:152-7 pubmed
    ..The pregnant uterus could not be recognised as an extra compartment, either in distribution volume nor in the pharmacokinetic model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  14. Cabel M, Norton R, Yazwinski T, Waldroup P. Efficacy of different anticoccidials against experimental coccidiosis in large white turkeys. Poult Sci. 1991;70:289-92 pubmed
    ..monensin (MON-60, 60 mg/kg; MON-100, 100 mg/kg), halofuginone (HAL; 3 mg/kg), zoalene (ZOA; 125 mg/kg), or sulfadimethoxine plus ormetoprim (SUL + ORM, 62.5 mg/kg and 37.5 mg/kg, respectively)...
  15. Białk Bielińska A, Maszkowska J, Mrozik W, Bielawska A, Kołodziejska M, Palavinskas R, et al. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfaguanidine: their sorption potential on natural soils. Chemosphere. 2012;86:1059-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in this work we have determined the sorption potential of sulfadimethoxine and sulfaguanidine on various natural soils...
  16. Ramli M, Sulaiman N, Mohd M, Rabuni M. Performance of chlorination process during nanofiltration of sulfonamide antibiotic. Water Sci Technol. 2015;72:1611-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Four types of sulfonamide (sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) were chosen as substrates, with sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant...
  17. Riad S, Rezk M, Khattab F, Marzouk H. Comparative study of different chromatographic techniques for the analysis of multi-residues of some approved antimicrobials in fish tissues. J Chromatogr Sci. 2015;53:1771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in spiked fish tissues, pure powders and in their veterinary pharmaceutical formulation. ..
  18. Tan B, Zhao H, Wu W, Liu X, Zhang Y, Quan X. Fe3O4-AuNPs anchored 2D metal-organic framework nanosheets with DNA regulated switchable peroxidase-like activity. Nanoscale. 2017;9:18699-18710 pubmed publisher
    ..activity, a versatile colorimetric sensing platform was developed which realized the detection of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) with a linear range of 3.57 to 357.14 ?g L-1 and the limit of detection (LOD) of 1...
  19. Rice A, Chiou V, Zuckoff S, Shapiro S. Profile of minocycline neuroprotection in bilirubin-induced auditory system dysfunction. Brain Res. 2011;1368:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Jaundiced Gunn rat pups (jjs) exhibit similar BAEP abnormalities as hyperbilirubinemic neonates. Sulfadimethoxine (sulfa) administration to jjs, which displaces bilirubin from serum albumin into tissues including brain, ..
  20. Matusik J, Sternal R, Barnes C, Sphon J. Confirmation of identity by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfachloropyridazine, and sulfadimethoxine from bovine or swine liver extracts after quantitation by gas chromatography/electron-capture detect. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1990;73:529-33 pubmed
    ..The identities of sulfathiazole (ST), sulfamethazine (SM), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) were confirmed in bovine or swine liver residues by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
  21. Ji Y, Shi Y, Wang L, Lu J, Ferronato C, Chovelon J. Sulfate radical-based oxidation of antibiotics sulfamethazine, sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfachloropyridazine: Formation of SO2 extrusion products and effects of natural organic matter. Sci Total Environ. 2017;593-594:704-712 pubmed publisher
    ..g., sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfapyridine (SPD), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), all produced SO2 extrusion products (SEPs), a phenomenon ..
  22. Chatfield J, Jensen J, Boothe D, Herzog T, Junkins K. Disposition of sulfadimethoxine in camels (Camelus dromedarius) following single intravenous and oral doses. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001;32:430-5 pubmed
    Single-dose pharmacokinetics of sulfadimethoxine were determined in six adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) following administration of a mean dosage of 17.5 +/- 2.7 mg/kg both i.v. and p.o...
  23. Kemmochi S, Yamamichi S, Shimamoto K, Onda N, Hasumi K, Suzuki K, et al. Lac color inhibits development of rat thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of plasma hyaluronan-binding protein. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012;237:728-38 pubmed publisher
    ..0% LC or 3.0% CE during promotion with 0.15% sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in the drinking water for 13 weeks...
  24. Yang S, Lin C, Lin A, Hong P. Sorption and biodegradation of sulfonamide antibiotics by activated sludge: experimental assessment using batch data obtained under aerobic conditions. Water Res. 2011;45:3389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Three sulfonamide antibiotics including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), which had been detected in the influent and the activated sludge of ..
  25. Furusawa N. Simplified determining procedure for routine residue monitoring of sulphamethazine and sulphadimethoxine in milk. J Chromatogr A. 2000;898:185-91 pubmed
    ..The total time and solvent required for the analysis of one sample were <35 min and <2 ml of only ethanol, respectively. No toxic solvents were used. The developed procedure was harmless to the human and environment. ..
  26. Takagi H, Mitsumori K, Onodera H, Nasu M, Tamura T, Yasuhara K, et al. Improvement of a two-stage carcinogenesis model to detect modifying effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on thyroid carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Lett. 2002;178:1-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, additional groups were administered 200 ppm sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in the drinking water simultaneously with the BD, EB, MXC or BPA treatments...
  27. Thurman E, Ferrer I, Benotti M, Heine C. Intramolecular isobaric fragmentation: a curiosity of accurate mass analysis of sulfadimethoxine in pond water. Anal Chem. 2004;76:1228-35 pubmed
    ..Q-TOF) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were used for the accurate mass analysis of sulfadimethoxine in pond water of a fish hatchery...
  28. Varol M, Sünbül M. Organochlorine pesticide, antibiotic and heavy metal residues in mussel, crayfish and fish species from a reservoir on the Euphrates River, Turkey. Environ Pollut. 2017;230:311-319 pubmed publisher
    ..Only sulfadimethoxine was detected among antibiotics in biota samples. Its maximum concentration (0...
  29. Lamprecht C, Werner U, Werner D, Schaefer S, Renner B, Fromm M, et al. Effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on heart rate in healthy young men. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:1531-2 pubmed
  30. Khanal B, Sadiq M, Singh M, Anal A. Screening of antibiotic residues in fresh milk of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. J Environ Sci Health B. 2017;:1-30 pubmed publisher
    ..liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses detected 81% samples positive for amoxicillin (68-802 µg/kg), 41% for sulfadimethoxine (31-69 µg/kg), 27% for penicillin G (13-353 µg/kg), and 12% for ampicillin (0.5-92 µg/kg)...
  31. Dheilly A, Bouder A, Le Devendec L, Hellard G, Kempf I. Clinical and microbial efficacy of antimicrobial treatments of experimental avian colibacillosis. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:422-9 pubmed publisher
  32. Bodhipaksha L, Sharpless C, Chin Y, Mackay A. Role of effluent organic matter in the photochemical degradation of compounds of wastewater origin. Water Res. 2017;110:170-179 pubmed publisher
    ..Photodegradation rates of four common compounds of wastewater origin (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, cimetidine and caffeine) were measured in river water, treated municipal wastewater effluent and mixtures of ..
  33. Chaniary K, Baron M, Rice A, Wetzel P, Ramakrishnan V, Shapiro S. Quantification of gait in dystonic Gunn rats. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;180:273-7 pubmed publisher
    Spontaneously jaundiced Gunn rats exposed to sulfadimethoxine develop bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) with hearing loss and dystonia, closely resembling the human syndrome...
  34. Imai T, Hasumura M, Onose J, Ueda M, Takizawa T, Cho Y, et al. Development of invasive follicular cell carcinomas in a rat thyroid carcinogenesis model: biological impact of capsular inflammation and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Cancer Sci. 2005;96:31-7 pubmed
    We have previously reported that thyroid capsular inflammation induced by sulfadimethoxine (SDM), a goitrogen, might play a role in development of invasive follicular cell adenocarcinomas in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)..
  35. Daood M, Hoyson M, Watchko J. Lipid peroxidation is not the primary mechanism of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction in jaundiced Gunn rat pups. Pediatr Res. 2012;72:455-9 pubmed publisher
    ..MNC) inhibit oxidative stress and block BIND in hyperbilirubinemic j/j Gunn rat pups that were given sulfadimethoxine to induce bilirubin encephalopathy...
  36. Sun H, Chen P, Li L, Cheng P. A novel chemiluminescence quenching method for determination of sulfonamides in pharmaceutical and biological fluid based on luminol-Ag(III) complex reaction in alkaline solution. Drug Test Anal. 2011;3:300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 17 and 8.3 ng/mL for sulfadiazine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine, respectively. The recoveries of the three drugs were in the range of 91.3-110% with RSDs of 1.9-2...
  37. Pan W, Rao Q, Su D. [Determination of the residues of five sulfa drugs in eel by HPLC]. Se Pu. 2004;22:186 pubmed
  38. Białk Bielińska A, Matzke M, Caban M, Stolte S, Kumirska J, Stepnowski P. Effects of five sulphonamides on duckweed (Lemna minor) after prolonged exposure time and their dependency on photoradiation. Sci Total Environ. 2018;618:952-960 pubmed publisher
    ..minor of five SAs in the prolonged test cannot be directly associated with the degradation of these compounds under the test conditions but with their different mode of toxic action towards these organisms. ..
  39. Maslin W, Latimer K. Atoxoplasmosis in canary fledglings: severe lymphocytic enteritis with preferential parasitism of B lymphocytes. Avian Dis. 2009;53:473-6 pubmed
    ..CD-3 staining was minimal, suggesting little or no T-cell infection. The following year, after egg-laying was completed, adults were treated with sulfadimethoxine, and no further fledgling losses occurred.
  40. Park J, Ruidisch M, Huwe B. Transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in crop fields during monsoon season. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:22980-22992 pubmed
    ..of this research is to describe the transport behaviour of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in sloped agricultural fields located in the Haean catchment, South Korea...
  41. Thomas G, Millar R, Anstis P. Stability of sulfonamide antibiotics in spiked pig liver tissue during frozen storage. J AOAC Int. 1997;80:988-95 pubmed
    ..limit) of each of sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimidine (sulfamethazine), sulfaquinoxaline, and sulfadimethoxine. After subsampling and packaging, selected individual packaged units were tested to confirm homogeneity of ..
  42. Tan B, Zhao H, Du L, Gan X, Quan X. A versatile fluorescent biosensor based on target-responsive graphene oxide hydrogel for antibiotic detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016;83:267-73 pubmed publisher
  43. Shoghi E, Fuguet E, Bosch E, Rafols C. Solubility-pH profiles of some acidic, basic and amphoteric drugs. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013;48:291-300 pubmed publisher
  44. Gazzin S, Zelenka J, Zdrahalova L, Konícková R, Zabetta C, Giraudi P, et al. Bilirubin accumulation and Cyp mRNA expression in selected brain regions of jaundiced Gunn rat pups. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:653-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The close relationship in distinct brain regions between the extent of bilirubin accumulation and induction of mRNA of Cyps suggests Cyps may have a role in protecting selected brain areas from bilirubin neurotoxicity. ..
  45. Michelini L, Meggio F, La Rocca N, Ferro S, Ghisi R. Accumulation and effects of sulfadimethoxine in Salix fragilis L. plants: a preliminary study to phytoremediation purposes. Int J Phytoremediation. 2012;14:388-402 pubmed
    ..To this purpose we performed preliminary studies to evaluate Salix fragilis L. response to sulfadimethoxine (SDM) by investigating both its ability to absorb and tolerate doses of SDM found in fresh faeces of treated ..
  46. Son H, Nishikawa A, Ikeda T, Nakamura H, Miyauchi M, Imazawa T, et al. Lack of modifying effects of environmental estrogenic compounds on the development of thyroid proliferative lesions in male rats pretreated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN). Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000;91:899-905 pubmed
    ..NP) as a xenoestrogen, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) as a thyroid carcinogen and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) as a known thyroid tumor promoter...
  47. Liang S, Luo Q, Huang Q. Degradation of sulfadimethoxine catalyzed by laccase with soybean meal extract as natural mediator: Mechanism and reaction pathway. Chemosphere. 2017;181:320-327 pubmed publisher
    ..compound system, in mediating the laccase catalyzed degradation of a model contaminant of emerging concern, sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and demonstrated it as a promising alternative mediator for soil and water remediation. Removal of 73...
  48. Atef M, Youssef S, Ramadan A, Issa M. Ruminal excretion of sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole in goats and their influence on some enzyme activities and renal clearances. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1990;97:203-6 pubmed
    Five clinically health goats were injected with sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole in a single dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. by intravenous route...
  49. Dheilly A, Le Devendec L, Mourand G, Bouder A, Jouy E, Kempf I. Resistance gene transfer during treatments for experimental avian colibacillosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..facilities to compare the impacts of four avian colibacillosis treatments-oxytetracycline (OTC), trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxine (SXT), amoxicillin (AMX), or enrofloxacin (ENR)-on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli in broiler ..
  50. Vasilopulos R, Mackin A, Lavergne S, Trepanier L. Nephrotic syndrome associated with administration of sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprim in a dobermann. J Small Anim Pract. 2005;46:232-6 pubmed
  51. Imai T, Hasumura M, Cho Y, Ota Y, Takami S, Hirose M, et al. Inhibitory effects of aminoguanidine on thyroid follicular carcinoma development in inflamed capsular regions of rats treated with sulfadimethoxine after N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiation. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1794-800 pubmed publisher
    We have reported that thyroid capsular thickening with inflammation induced by an antithyroidal agent, sulfadimethoxine (SDM), might play a role in the development of invasive follicular carcinomas in rats initiated with N-bis(2-..
  52. Kemmochi S, Shimamoto K, Shiraki A, Onda N, Hasumi K, Suzuki K, et al. Promoting effects of carminic acid-enriched cochineal extracts on capsular invasive thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of angiogenesis in rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2012;37:475-82 pubmed
    ..15% sulfadimethoxine in the drinking water for 8 weeks...
  53. Sartorius M, Riccio A, Cermola M, Casoria P, Patriarca E, Tatè R. Sulphadimethoxine inhibits Phaseolus vulgaris root growth and development of N-fixing nodules. Chemosphere. 2009;76:306-12 pubmed publisher