Summary: A sulfonamide antimicrobial used for urinary tract infections and in veterinary medicine.

Top Publications

  1. Spinks C, Schut C, Wyatt G, Morgan M. Development of an ELISA for sulfachlorpyridazine and investigation of matrix effects from different sample extraction procedures. Food Addit Contam. 2001;18:11-8 pubmed
    The development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of residues of sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP) is described for the first time...
  2. Sumano H, Fuentes V, Ocampo L. Pharmacokinetic aspects of a sulphachloropyridazine trimethoprim preparation in normal and diseased fowl. Br Poult Sci. 1990;31:627-34 pubmed
    ..5. The rate of drug residue elimination was noticeably slower in the IC-affected group. 6. These results indicate that drug elimination patterns in healthy and diseased animals are not the same. ..
  3. Blackwell P, Kay P, Ashauer R, Boxall A. Effects of agricultural conditions on the leaching behaviour of veterinary antibiotics in soils. Chemosphere. 2009;75:13-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Kay P, Blackwell P, Boxall A. A lysimeter experiment to investigate the leaching of veterinary antibiotics through a clay soil and comparison with field data. Environ Pollut. 2005;134:333-41 pubmed
  5. Ji Y, Shi Y, Wang L, Lu J, Ferronato C, Chovelon J. Sulfate radical-based oxidation of antibiotics sulfamethazine, sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfachloropyridazine: Formation of SO2 extrusion products and effects of natural organic matter. Sci Total Environ. 2017;593-594:704-712 pubmed publisher
    ..Toxicological effects of SEPs on ecosystem and human health remain largely unknown, thus, further monitoring studies are highly desirable. ..
  6. Feng J, Zhang S, Shi W, Zhang Y. Activity of Sulfa Drugs and Their Combinations against Stationary Phase B. burgdorferi In Vitro. Antibiotics (Basel). 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..evaluated the relative activity of three commonly used sulfa drugs, sulfamethoxazole (Smx), dapsone (Dps), sulfachlorpyridazine (Scp), and also trimethoprim (Tmp), and assessed their combinations with the commonly prescribed Lyme ..
  7. Zhang R, Gu J, Wang X, Qian X, Duan M, Sun W, et al. Relationships between sulfachloropyridazine sodium, zinc, and sulfonamide resistance genes during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Bioresour Technol. 2017;225:343-348 pubmed publisher
    ..4-70.3% in the presence of SCPS and Zn, whereas sul1 and sul2 increased 1.3-10.7 times. There were significant positive correlations (P<0.05) between the concentrations of SCPS with several ARGs and bio-Zn. ..
  8. Srinivasan P, Sarmah A, Manley Harris M. Co-contaminants and factors affecting the sorption behaviour of two sulfonamides in pasture soils. Environ Pollut. 2013;180:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..SMO sorption was affected by ionic strengths and organic carbon content, while the presence of hormones showed only a subtle decrease in SCP sorption in a selected model pasture soil. ..
  9. Haidar M, Dirany A, Sirés I, Oturan N, Oturan M. Electrochemical degradation of the antibiotic sulfachloropyridazine by hydroxyl radicals generated at a BDD anode. Chemosphere. 2013;91:1304-9 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Matusik J, Sternal R, Barnes C, Sphon J. Confirmation of identity by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfachloropyridazine, and sulfadimethoxine from bovine or swine liver extracts after quantitation by gas chromatography/electron-capture detect. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1990;73:529-33 pubmed
    ..A Finnigan Model TSQ-46 operating in the chemical ionization mode was used to perform the MS/MS daughter ion experiments. The identities of all 4 sulfonamides were confirmed in a single GC/MS/MS analysis. ..
  2. Dirany A, Sirés I, Oturan N, Ozcan A, Oturan M. Electrochemical treatment of the antibiotic sulfachloropyridazine: kinetics, reaction pathways, and toxicity evolution. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:4074-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Independent electrolyses revealed that their toxicity trends were close to those of SCP. The formation of the carboxylic acids involved a sharp toxicity decrease, thus ensuring overall detoxification. ..
  3. Blackwell P, Kay P, Boxall A. The dissipation and transport of veterinary antibiotics in a sandy loam soil. Chemosphere. 2007;67:292-9 pubmed
    ..These findings were consistent with the sorption and persistence characteristics of the compounds and support a number of broad-scale monitoring studies that have measured these antibiotic classes in the environment. ..
  4. Wammer K, LaPara T, McNeill K, Arnold W, Swackhamer D. Changes in antibacterial activity of triclosan and sulfa drugs due to photochemical transformations. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:1480-6 pubmed
    ..The rapid screening method used for these two classes of compounds will be useful for helping to identify photolabile antibacterial compounds, for which photoproducts could require further investigation. ..
  5. Chen J, Liu Y, Zhang J, Yang Y, Hu L, Yang Y, et al. Removal of antibiotics from piggery wastewater by biological aerated filter system: Treatment efficiency and biodegradation kinetics. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:70-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The biodegradation kinetic parameters successfully predicted the fate of the nine antibiotics in the BAF system. This suggests that biodegradation was the dominant process for antibiotic removal in the BAF system. ..
  6. Cui C, Jin L, Jiang L, Han Q, Lin K, Lu S, et al. Removal of trace level amounts of twelve sulfonamides from drinking water by UV-activated peroxymonosulfate. Sci Total Environ. 2016;572:244-251 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that UV/PMS is a rapid and efficient method for removing trace-level SAs from drinking water. ..
  7. Blackwell P, Boxall A, Kay P, Noble H. Evaluation of a lower tier exposure assessment model for veterinary medicines. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2192-201 pubmed
  8. van Duijkeren E, Kessels B, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M, Breukink H, Vulto A, Van Miert A. In vitro and in vivo binding of trimethoprim and sulphachlorpyridazine to equine food and digesta and their stability in caecal contents. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1996;19:281-7 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that the binding is reversible, and that a second absorption phase occurs in the large intestine, but part of the administered dose remains bound as both drugs were found in the faeces. ..
  9. Spinks C, Wyatt G, Lee H, Morgan M. Molecular modeling of hapten structure and relevance to broad specificity immunoassay of sulfonamide antibiotics. Bioconjug Chem. 1999;10:583-8 pubmed
    ..Discussion is presented as to the reasons for the failure of the hypothesis. Further hypotheses are developed and speculation is made as to the future of molecular modeling in immunochemical research. ..
  10. Sumano H, Hernandez L, Gutierrez L, Bernad Bernad M. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers. Br Poult Sci. 2005;46:114-8 pubmed
    ..The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results. ..
  11. Jin H, Xu C, Du J, Wu H, Huang H, Chang Z, et al. Distribution of sulfonamides in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates: effects of hydraulic retention time and swine manure to rice straw ratio. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2017;40:319-330 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher HRT and co-digestion could improve the degradation of SAs, which can also be put down to the occurrence of cometabolism of SAs and COD. ..
  12. Schmitt H, Van Beelen P, Tolls J, van Leeuwen C. Pollution-induced community tolerance of soil microbial communities caused by the antibiotic sulfachloropyridazine. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:1148-53 pubmed
    ..To conclude, PICT has been shown to be a versatile and illustrative method for the detection of the effects of antibacterial agents on soil microorganisms. ..
  13. Wang Y, Wang L, Li F, Liang J, Li Y, Dai J, et al. Effects of oxytetracycline and sulfachloropyridazine residues on the reductive activity of Shewanella decolorationis S12. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5878-83 pubmed publisher
    ..decolorationis S12 may be due to a decrease in live S. decolorationis S12 population and/or damages of their cell structure in this reduction system. ..
  14. Hunter W, Shaner D. Studies on removing sulfachloropyridazine from groundwater with microbial bioreactors. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:1560-4 pubmed publisher
    ..35 to 0.048 mg l(-1), a removal efficiency of ~98%. High levels of nitrate nitrogen, 50 mg l(-1) N, did not interfere with the removal processes of either reactor suggesting that SCP was not being degraded as a microbial nitrogen source. ..
  15. Carlson J, Stefan M, Parnis J, Metcalfe C. Direct UV photolysis of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disruptors in aqueous solution. Water Res. 2015;84:350-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the results observed for the monochromatic radiation (LP lamp), all 15 model compounds photolyzed under exposure to the broadband radiation emitted by the MP lamp. ..
  16. Post K, Cole N, Raleigh R. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida recovered from cattle with bovine respiratory disease complex. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1991;3:124-6 pubmed
    ..for patterns of resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, tetracycline, and tylosin...
  17. Azhar M, Abid H, Sun H, Periasamy V, Tade M, Wang S. Excellent performance of copper based metal organic framework in adsorptive removal of toxic sulfonamide antibiotics from wastewater. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2016;478:344-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The high adsorption capacity is attributed mainly to ?-? stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. ..
  18. Wang Z, Zhang S, Nesterenko I, Eremin S, Shen J. Monoclonal antibody-based fluorescence polarization immunoassay for sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfachloropyridazine. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6871-8 pubmed
    ..25 ng/mL for SCP in buffer, respectively, whereas negligible cross-reactivities were exhibited by related sulfonamides. Analysis of SMP and SCP-fortified milk samples by the FPIA showed average recoveries from 60 to 145%. ..
  19. Boxall A, Blackwell P, Cavallo R, Kay P, Tolls J. The sorption and transport of a sulphonamide antibiotic in soil systems. Toxicol Lett. 2002;131:19-28 pubmed
    ..The approaches may not, however, be appropriate for use on highly hydrophobic substances or for predicting groundwater concentrations. ..
  20. Jansen L, Bolck Y, Rademaker J, Zuidema T, Berendsen B. The analysis of tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, lincosamides, pleuromutilins, and sulfonamides in chicken feathers using UHPLC-MS/MS in order to monitor antibiotic use in the poultry sector. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409:4927-4941 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates the effectiveness of feather analysis to detect antibiotic use to allow effective enforcement of antibiotic use and prevent the illegal, off-label, and nonregistered use of antibiotics. ..
  21. Boleas S, Alonso C, Pro J, Babín M, Fernandez C, Carbonell G, et al. Effects of sulfachlorpyridazine in MS.3-arable land: a multispecies soil system for assessing the environmental fate and effects of veterinary medicines. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:811-9 pubmed
    ..The system was used for assessing the effects of the antimicrobial sulfachlorpyridazine that was tested in triplicate at concentrations of 0.01, 1, and 100 mg/kg...
  22. Ter Laak T, Wouter A, Tolls J. The effect of pH and ionic strength on the sorption of sulfachloropyridazine, tylosin, and oxytetracycline to soil. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:904-11 pubmed
    ..This modeling approach is proposed for implementation in the assessment of sorption of ionizable compounds. ..
  23. van Duijkeren E, Vulto A, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M, Kessels B, Van Miert A, Breukink H. Pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim/sulphachlorpyridazine in horses after oral, nasogastric and intravenous administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1995;18:47-53 pubmed
    ..The first peak occurred 1-2 h and the second peak 8-10 h after administration of the combination preparation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  24. Kay P, Blackwell P, Boxall A. Fate of veterinary antibiotics in a macroporous tile drained clay soil. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:1136-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, when the soil was disced prior to slurry application, losses were reduced significantly. It is evident that processes governing pesticide fate also apply to veterinary antibiotics. ..
  25. Dai X, Jia X, Zhao P, Wang T, Wang J, Huang P, et al. A combined experimental/computational study on metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a SPE sorbent for the determination of sulphonamides in environmental water samples coupling with UPLC-MS/MS. Talanta. 2016;154:581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed that the combination of experimental and computational study not only accurately recognized the adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) on SAs, but also provided a new strategy on the trace contaminant analysis. ..
  26. Fernley R, Iliades P, Macreadie I. A rapid assay for dihydropteroate synthase activity suitable for identification of inhibitors. Anal Biochem. 2007;360:227-34 pubmed
  27. Siedlewicz G, Białk Bielińska A, Borecka M, Winogradow A, Stepnowski P, Pazdro K. Presence, concentrations and risk assessment of selected antibiotic residues in sediments and near-bottom waters collected from the Polish coastal zone in the southern Baltic Sea - Summary of 3years of studies. Mar Pollut Bull. 2018;129:787-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Both chemical and risk assessment analyses show that the coastal area of the southern Baltic Sea is highly exposed to antibiotic residues. ..
  28. Liu L, Hu S, Shen G, Farooq U, Zhang W, Lin S, et al. Adsorption dynamics and mechanism of aqueous sulfachloropyridazine and analogues using the root powder of recyclable long-root Eichhornia crassipes. Chemosphere. 2018;196:409-417 pubmed publisher
    ..The results proved that root powder of L.R.E.C. has great potential to remediate sulfonamides at practical level. ..
  29. Tolmacheva V, Apyari V, Furletov A, Dmitrienko S, Zolotov Y. Facile synthesis of magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene and its application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of sulfonamides from water and milk samples before their HPLC determination. Talanta. 2016;152:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..21-0.33 ng mL(-1) for water and 2.0-2.5 ng mL(-1) for milk. ..
  30. van Duijkeren E, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M, Vulto A, Kessels B, Van Miert A, Breukink H. Pharmacokinetics and therapeutic potential for repeated oral doses of trimethoprim/sulphachlorpyridazine in horses. Vet Rec. 1995;137:483-6 pubmed
    ..Synergism between the two drugs occurred at different drug concentration ratios with different bacterial species. ..
  31. Wang Z, He M, Jiang C, Zhang F, Du S, Feng W, et al. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in animal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2015;38:4127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..4 to 118.0%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 9.30%. The detection limits for the analytes were 4.3-13.4 μg/kg. ..
  32. Thomas G, Millar R, Anstis P. Stability of sulfonamide antibiotics in spiked pig liver tissue during frozen storage. J AOAC Int. 1997;80:988-95 pubmed
    ..2 mg/kg (twice the Australian maximum residue limit) of each of sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimidine (sulfamethazine), sulfaquinoxaline, and sulfadimethoxine...
  33. Liu Z, Yu W, Zhang H, Gu F, Jin X. Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of sulfonamides in blood by high performance liquid chromatography. Talanta. 2016;161:748-754 pubmed publisher
    ..The limits of detection of sulfamethizole (STZ), sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Sulfisoxazole (SSZ) were 4.78, 3.99, 5.21 and 3...
  34. Ter Laak T, Gebbink W, Tolls J. Estimation of soil sorption coefficients of veterinary pharmaceuticals from soil properties. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:933-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, pragmatic approaches like PLS modeling might be suitable to estimate soil sorption for risk assessment purposes. ..
  35. Shah S, Zhang H, Song X, Hao C. Quantum chemical study of the photolysis mechanisms of sulfachloropyridazine and the influence of selected divalent metal ions. Chemosphere. 2015;138:765-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Qiu J, Zhao T, Liu Q, He J, He D, Wu G, et al. Residual veterinary antibiotics in pig excreta after oral administration of sulfonamides. Environ Geochem Health. 2016;38:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The four SAs remained longer in urine than in feces. Excretions in urine and feces were lower if SAs were administered orally rather than by injection. ..