prilocaine

Summary

Summary: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.

Top Publications

  1. Vagts D, Bley C, Mutz C. [Use of 2 % hyperbaric prilocaine for spinal anesthesia : sensitivity analysis in outpatient surgery]. Anaesthesist. 2013;62:271-7 pubmed publisher
    Hyperbaric prilocaine 2 % has been available for spinal anesthesia in Germany for 2 years and is characterized by a short duration of action, a lack of postspinal urine retention and a reduction of transient neurological syndromes...
  2. Pérez Pérez L, Fernandez Redondo V, Ginarte Val M, Paredes Suárez C, Toribio J. Allergic contact dermatitis from EMLA cream in a hemodialyzed patient. Dermatitis. 2006;17:85-7 pubmed
    ..Patch testing elicited a positive reaction to several allergens, including EMLA cream "as is" and prilocaine. The lesions resolved after topical treatment with corticosteroids.
  3. Eekhof J, de Kanter J, Assendelf W, Krijger J, Bouvy M, Cheung K. [Coma in a child after treatment with the 'magic salve' lidocaine-prilocaine cream]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150:2729-30; author reply 2730 pubmed
  4. Black A, Newcombe G, Plummer J, McLeod D, Martin D. Spinal anaesthesia for ambulatory arthroscopic surgery of the knee: a comparison of low-dose prilocaine and fentanyl with bupivacaine and fentanyl. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:183-8 pubmed publisher
    Prospective data on the use of prilocaine for ambulatory spinal anaesthesia remain limited. We compared the behaviour and characteristics of subarachnoid block using prilocaine and fentanyl with that of bupivacaine and fentanyl...
  5. Lundborg G, Bjorkman A, Rosen B. Enhanced sensory relearning after nerve repair by using repeated forearm anaesthesia: aspects on time dynamics of treatment. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;100:121-6 pubmed
    ..In healthy individuals selective anaesthesia of the forearm results in improved hand sensation. Here we hypothesised that this principle would be valid also after nerve injury and repair...
  6. Razmus I, Dalton M, Wilson D. Pain management for newborn circumcision. Pediatr Nurs. 2004;30:414-7, 427 pubmed
    ..To describe current newborn circumcision pain interventions and to identify which forms of analgesia were most effective...
  7. Boran P, Tokuc G, Yegin Z. Methemoglobinemia due to application of prilocaine during circumcision and the effect of ascorbic acid. J Pediatr Urol. 2008;4:475-6 pubmed publisher
    Local anesthesia with prilocaine has become a routine part of ambulatory circumcision procedures. Methemoglobinemia is a rare but potentially lethal complication of local anesthetics...
  8. Giannarini G, Autorino R, Valent F, Mogorovich A, Manassero F, De Maria M, et al. Combination of perianal-intrarectal lidocaine-prilocaine cream and periprostatic nerve block for pain control during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a randomized, controlled trial. J Urol. 2009;181:585-91; discussion 591-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the efficacy and safety of combined perianal-intrarectal lidocaine-prilocaine cream and periprostatic nerve block during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.
  9. Rosén B, Bjorkman A, Weibull A, Svensson J, Lundborg G. Improved sensibility of the foot after temporary cutaneous anesthesia of the lower leg. Neuroreport. 2009;20:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel finding may have considerable therapeutic potential in the treatment of foot sensibility disturbances in various neuropathies, such as diabetic neuropathy...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Langan S, Collins P. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study of the efficacy of topical anaesthesia with a eutetic mixture of lignocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% for topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for extensive scalp actinic ke. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:146-9 pubmed
    ..A recent study has shown that use of tetracaine gel (Ametop) did not significantly reduce pain associated with PDT...
  2. Rosen B, Bjorkman A, Lundborg G. Improved sensory relearning after nerve repair induced by selective temporary anaesthesia - a new concept in hand rehabilitation. J Hand Surg Br. 2006;31:126-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that cutaneous forearm anaesthesia of the injured limb, in combination with sensory re-education, can enhance sensory recovery after nerve repair...
  3. Raber M, Scattoni V, Roscigno M, Rigatti P, Montorsi F. Perianal and intrarectal anaesthesia for transrectal biopsy of the prostate: a prospective randomized study comparing lidocaine-prilocaine cream and placebo. BJU Int. 2005;96:1264-7 pubmed
    To assess the effectiveness of perianal and intrarectal lidocaine-prilocaine cream for prostate biopsy.
  4. Raber M, Scattoni V, Roscigno M, Deho F, Briganti A, Salonia A, et al. Topical prilocaine-lidocaine cream combined with peripheral nerve block improves pain control in prostatic biopsy: results from a prospective randomized trial. Eur Urol. 2008;53:967-73 pubmed
    To compare pain control results between periprostatic nerve block alone and combined with topical prilocaine-lidocaine cream as local anesthesia of prostate biopsy.
  5. Lindenblatt N, Belusa L, Tiefenbach B, Schareck W, Olbrisch R. Prilocaine plasma levels and methemoglobinemia in patients undergoing tumescent liposuction involving less than 2,000 ml. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2004;28:435-40 pubmed
    As a reaction to reported adverse outcomes after lidocaine infiltration in tumescent liposuction, prilocaine has gained increasing popularity...
  6. Yilmaz E, Batislam E, Tuglu D, Yuvanc E. Local anesthesia with 20-mL prilocaine infiltration: the ultimate point for analgesia during shockwave lithotripsy?. J Endourol. 2008;22:883-7 pubmed publisher
    The effectiveness of 10 mL and 20 mL local prilocaine infiltration for analgesic purposes during shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) was compared, and the differences in pain intensity and need for additional analgesics were defined.
  7. Roldan Marin R, de la Barreda Becerril F. Petechial and purpuric eruption induced by lidocaine/prilocaine cream: a rare side effect. J Drugs Dermatol. 2009;8:287-8 pubmed
    Lidocaine/prilocaine cream is a topical anesthetic commonly used in pediatric and dermatologic practice to obtain local anesthesia...
  8. Ezmek B, Arslan A, Delilbasi C, Sencift K. Comparison of hemodynamic effects of lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine solutions without vasoconstrictor in hypertensive patients. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;18:354-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare hemodynamic effects of three different local anesthetics without vasoconstrictors during tooth extraction in hypertensive patients...
  9. Kandirali E, Ulukaradag E, Uysal B, Serin E, Semercioz A, Metin A. Is only perianal anesthesia with lidocaine-prilocaine cream sufficient to decrease the pain during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy? A prospective randomized study. Urol Int. 2009;82:262-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine the optimal place to apply the local anesthetic agent and to investigate the efficacy of lidocaine-prilocaine cream on the perianal and intrarectal region during prostate biopsy.
  10. Camponovo C, Fanelli A, Ghisi D, Cristina D, Fanelli G. A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial comparing the efficacy of 40 mg and 60 mg hyperbaric 2% prilocaine versus 60 mg plain 2% prilocaine for intrathecal anesthesia in ambulatory surgery. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:568-72 pubmed publisher
    In this prospective, double-blind, randomized trial we compared 60 mg and 40 mg of 2% hyperbaric prilocaine with 60 mg of 2% plain prilocaine for spinal anesthesia in terms of sensory block onset in outpatients undergoing elective short-..
  11. Ageberg E, Bjorkman A, Rosén B, Lundborg G, Roos E. Principles of brain plasticity in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in healthy subjects: a double-blind randomized exploratory trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:99 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that temporary anesthesia of the skin area above and below the knee would improve sensorimotor function of the ipsilateral knee and leg...
  12. Bragagni M, Maestrelli F, Mennini N, Ghelardini C, Mura P. Liposomal formulations of prilocaine: effect of complexation with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin on drug anesthetic efficacy. J Liposome Res. 2010;20:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..been investigated to develop a new delivery system with improved therapeutic activity of the local anesthetic, prilocaine (PRL)...
  13. Brochard S, Blajan V, Lempereur M, Le Moine P, Peudenier S, Lefranc J, et al. Effectiveness of nitrous oxide and analgesic cream (lidocaine and prilocaine) for prevention of pain during intramuscular botulinum toxin injections in children. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2009;52:704-16 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effectiveness of an analgesic protocol with nitrous oxide and anaesthetic cream (lidocaine and prilocaine, EMLA) for children undergoing botulinum toxin injections.
  14. Yilmaz E, Batislam E, Basar M, Tuglu D, Yuvanc E. Can prilocaine infiltration alone be the most minimally invasive approach in terms of anesthesia during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?. Urology. 2006;68:24-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the analgesic effect and utility of prilocaine infiltration alone for minimal morbidity during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
  15. Niemi T, Neuvonen P, Rosenberg P. Comparison of ropivacaine 2 mg ml(-1) and prilocaine 5 mg ml(-1) for i.v. regional anaesthesia in outpatient surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:640-4 pubmed
    ..5%) after i.v. regional anaesthesia (IVRA). Whether ropivacaine 2 mg ml(-1) also exerts this advantage over prilocaine 5 mg ml(-1), the local anaesthetic of choice in IVRA in most European countries was investigated in this study.
  16. Garry D, Swoboda E, Elimian A, Figueroa R. A video study of pain relief during newborn male circumcision. J Perinatol. 2006;26:106-10 pubmed
    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of dorsal penile nerve block and topical lidocaine-prilocaine anesthesia techniques for pain relief during circumcision.
  17. Karacal N, Ambarcioglu O, Topal U, Mamedov T, Kutlu N. Enhancement of dorsal random-pattern skin flap survival in rats with topical lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA): enhancement of flap survival by EMLA. J Surg Res. 2005;124:134-8 pubmed
    ..The topical analgesia cream, EMLA is a mixture of the substances lidocaine and prilocaine. EMLA causes a biphasic vascular response comprising initial blanching and vasoconstriction (maximal after 1...
  18. Bjorkman A, Rosén B, Lundborg G. Acute improvement of hand sensibility after selective ipsilateral cutaneous forearm anaesthesia. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:2733-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings open new perspectives for sensory re-education and rehabilitation following injury to the peripheral and central nervous system...
  19. Sawyer J, Febbraro S, Masud S, Ashburn M, Campbell J. Heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch (Synera, Rapydan) compared with lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA) for topical anaesthesia before vascular access. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..eutectic mixture of lidocaine 70 mg and tetracaine 70 mg, with a eutectic mixture of lidocaine 25 mg ml(-1) and prilocaine 25 mg ml(-1) (EMLA Cream)...
  20. Soltesz S, Dittrich K, Teschendorf P, Fuss I, Molter G. [Topical anesthesia before vascular access in children. Comparison of a warmth-producing lidocaine-tetracaine patch with a lidocaine-prilocaine patch]. Anaesthesist. 2010;59:519-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, many clinicians use a local anesthesia patch (EMLA) containing a mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine in order to reduce the stress for pediatric patients...
  21. Takenami T, Yagishita S, Nara Y, Tsai Y, Hiruma H, Kawakami T, et al. Spinal procaine is less neurotoxic than mepivacaine, prilocaine and bupivacaine in rats. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we compared the histologic and functional changes induced by intrathecal injection of prilocaine, mepivacaine, procaine, and bupivacaine in rats.
  22. Shaikh F, Naqvi S, Grace P. The influence of a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine on minor surgical procedures: a randomized controlled double-blind trial. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35:948-51 pubmed publisher
    A eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) has been shown to be effective in reducing pain from needle sticks, including those associated with blood sampling and intravenous insertion.
  23. Cormio L, Pagliarulo V, Lorusso F, Selvaggio O, Perrone A, Sanguedolce F, et al. Combined perianal-intrarectal (PI) lidocaine-prilocaine (LP) cream and lidocaine-ketorolac gel provide better pain relief than combined PI LP cream and periprostatic nerve block during transrectal prostate biopsy. BJU Int. 2012;109:1776-80 pubmed publisher
    ..add? Study Type - Harm Reduction RCT Level of Evidence 1b The combination of perianal-intrarectal lidocaine-prilocaine cream and periprostatic nerve block effectively counteracts probe and sampling related pain during transrectal ..
  24. Gunduz A, Bilir A, Gulec S. Magnesium added to prilocaine prolongs the duration of axillary plexus block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:233-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of magnesium to prilocaine on the duration of sensory and motor-nerve block.
  25. Dinsmore W, Hackett G, Goldmeier D, Waldinger M, Dean J, Wright P, et al. Topical eutectic mixture for premature ejaculation (TEMPE): a novel aerosol-delivery form of lidocaine-prilocaine for treating premature ejaculation. BJU Int. 2007;99:369-75 pubmed
    To evaluate, in a phase II study, the efficacy and safety of a topical eutectic mixture for premature ejaculation (TEMPE), a metered-dose aerosol spray containing a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine, as a treatment for PE.
  26. Hendriks M, de Weert C, Snoeck M, Hu H, Pluim M, Gielen M. Plain articaine or prilocaine for spinal anaesthesia in day-case knee arthroscopy: a double-blind randomized trial. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:259-63 pubmed publisher
    Both prilocaine and articaine are short-acting local anaesthetics suited for spinal anaesthesia for day-case knee arthroscopy...
  27. Abu Al Melh M, Andersson L, Behbehani E. Reduction of pain from needle stick in the oral mucosa by topical anesthetics: a comparative study between lidocaine/prilocaine and benzocaine. J Clin Dent. 2005;16:53-6 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic effect of a topical benzocaine gel with that of a topical gel mixture of lidocaine/prilocaine (L/P).
  28. Lehr V, Cepeda E, Frattarelli D, Thomas R, Lamothe J, Aranda J. Lidocaine 4% cream compared with lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% or dorsal penile block for circumcision. Am J Perinatol. 2005;22:231-7 pubmed
    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lidocaine 4% cream (LMX4), compared with lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% (EMLA) or dorsal penile block (DPNB) for analgesia during circumcision...
  29. Pickering S, Hunter J. Bier's block using prilocaine: safe, cheap and well tolerated. Surgeon. 2003;1:283-5 pubmed
    To examine the safety of prilocaine Bier's block performed for Colles fracture manipulation, and assess patient satisfaction.
  30. Cereda C, Tofoli G, de Brito Junior R, de Jesus M, Fraceto L, Groppo F, et al. Stability and local toxicity evaluation of a liposomal prilocaine formulation. J Liposome Res. 2008;18:329-39 pubmed
    This study reports a physicochemical stability evaluation of a previously reported liposomal prilocaine (PLC(LUV)) formulation (Cereda et al. J. Pharm. Pharmaceut. Sci...
  31. Apan A, Basar H, Ozcan S, Buyukkocak U. Combination of adenosine with prilocaine and lignocaine for brachial plexus block does not prolong postoperative analgesia. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2003;31:648-52 pubmed
    ..A supraclavicular BP block was performed by injecting a mixture totalling 35 ml made up of prilocaine 1% 10 ml and lignocaine 2% 20 ml with adrenaline 1:200,000, and adenosine 10 mg in 5 ml saline (Group 1) or 5 ml ..
  32. Herdevall B, Klinge B, Persson L, Huledal G, Abdel Rehim M. Plasma levels of lidocaine, o-toluidine, and prilocaine after application of 8.5 g Oraqix in patients with generalized periodontitis: effect on blood methemoglobin and tolerability. Acta Odontol Scand. 2003;61:230-4 pubmed
    Oraqix, a novel non-injectable anesthetic gel containing lidocaine and prilocaine and a thermosetting agent has been developed to provide localized anesthesia in periodontal pockets during scaling/root planing (SRP)...
  33. Gebhardt V, Herold A, Weiss C, Samakas A, Schmittner M. Dosage finding for low-dose spinal anaesthesia using hyperbaric prilocaine in patients undergoing perianal outpatient surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2013;57:249-56 pubmed publisher
    Hyperbaric prilocaine 20 mg/ml may be preferable for perianal outpatient surgery...
  34. Bjorkman A, Weibull A, Rosén B, Svensson J, Lundborg G. Rapid cortical reorganisation and improved sensitivity of the hand following cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:837-44 pubmed publisher
  35. De Maria M, Mogorovich A, Giannarini G, Manassero F, Selli C. Lidocaine-prilocaine administration during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Endourol. 2006;20:525-9 pubmed
    ..Various modalities have been recommended to alleviate the pain, but reports on efficacy are contradictory. We assessed the possible benefit of intrarectal and perianal lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) cream.
  36. Yoon R, Chussid S. Topical anesthesia for rubber dam clamp placement in sealant placement: comparison of lidocaine/prilocaine gel and benzocaine. Pediatr Dent. 2009;31:377-81 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the efficacy of Oraqix to benzocaine while placing a rubber dam clamp during sealant placement on children...
  37. Flecknell P, Liles J, Williamson H. The use of lignocaine-prilocaine local anaesthetic cream for pain-free venepuncture in laboratory animals. Lab Anim. 1990;24:142-6 pubmed
    ..EMLA cream represents a useful refinement of current techniques for intravenous injection in some species, and is especially valuable when the procedure is to be undertaken by an inexperienced operator...
  38. Taddio A, Pollock N, Gilbert MacLeod C, Ohlsson K, Koren G. Combined analgesia and local anesthesia to minimize pain during circumcision. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:620-3 pubmed
    Pain of circumcision is only partially relieved by single modalities, such as penile nerve block, lidocaine-prilocaine cream, and sucrose pacifiers.
  39. Altunkaya H, Ozer Y, Kargi E, Babuccu O. Comparison of local anaesthetic effects of tramadol with prilocaine for minor surgical procedures. Br J Anaesth. 2003;90:320-2 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the local anaesthetic effects of tramadol hydrochloride with prilocaine.
  40. Choi W, Irwin M, Hui T, Lim H, Chan K. EMLA cream versus dorsal penile nerve block for postcircumcision analgesia in children. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:396-9, table of contents pubmed
    ..We conclude that preoperative application of EMLA cream is an effective and simple method to produce postcircumcision analgesia with a very small incidence of adverse effects...
  41. Touma S, Jackson J. Lidocaine and prilocaine toxicity in a patient receiving treatment for mollusca contagiosa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:399-400 pubmed
    ..a 3-year-old child with mollusca contagiosa whose caregiver applied a eutectic mixture of 5% lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in excessive amounts with the subsequent development of adverse reactions, including methemoglobinemia ..
  42. Abad F, Diaz Gomez N, Domenech E, Gonzalez D, Robayna M, Feria M. Oral sucrose compares favourably with lidocaine-prilocaine cream for pain relief during venepuncture in neonates. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:160-5 pubmed
    ..allocated to one of four treatment groups: placebo (2 ml spring water); 2 ml sucrose 24% w/v; 1 g lidocaine-prilocaine 5% cream (EMLA); or EMLA plus sucrose...
  43. Friedman P, Mafong E, Friedman E, Geronemus R. Topical anesthetics update: EMLA and beyond. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:1019-26 pubmed
    ..EMLA is the most commonly used agent, however, several new topical anesthetic agents have been released recently that claim increased efficacy and a faster onset of action...
  44. Wahl M, Schmitt M, Overton D, Gordon M. Injection pain of bupivacaine with epinephrine vs. prilocaine plain. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133:1652-6 pubmed
    b>Prilocaine plain has been described in the literature as causing less pain on injection than bupivacaine with epinephrine, possibly because of the higher pH of the prilocaine anesthetic solution.
  45. Friskopp J, Nilsson M, Isacsson G. The anesthetic onset and duration of a new lidocaine/prilocaine gel intra-pocket anesthetic (Oraqix) for periodontal scaling/root planing. J Clin Periodontol. 2001;28:453-8 pubmed
    A new non-injection anesthetic, lidocaine/prilocaine gel (Oraqix, AstraZeneca) in a reversible thermosetting system, has been developed to provide local anesthesia for scaling/root planing (SRP)...
  46. Friskopp J, Huledal G. Plasma levels of lidocaine and prilocaine after application of Oraqix, a new intrapocket anesthetic, in patients with advanced periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2001;28:425-9 pubmed
    Oraqix, a new non-injection local anesthetic, lidocaine/prilocaine gel 5%, has been developed to provide pain relief in association with periodontal probing and scaling/root planing (SRP)...
  47. Uziel Y, Berkovitch M, Gazarian M, Koren G, Silverman E, Schneider R, et al. Evaluation of eutectic lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA) for steroid joint injection in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:594-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of eutectic lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA) in reducing the pain associated with steroid joint injection in children with juvenile arthritis.
  48. Couper R. Methaemoglobinaemia secondary to topical lignocaine/ prilocaine in a circumcised neonate. J Paediatr Child Health. 2000;36:406-7 pubmed
    The use of topical lignocaine/prilocaine (EMLA, Astra Pharmaceuticals, North Ryde, NSW, Australia) for pain relief for neonatal circumcision is becoming more prevalent...
  49. Miyachi K, Ichinohe T, Kaneko Y. Effects of local injection of prilocaine-felypressin on the myocardial oxygen balance in dogs. Eur J Oral Sci. 2003;111:339-45 pubmed
    The authors investigated the effects of felypressin (Fely), a non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor, used together with prilocaine on myocardial oxygen balance. Six open-chest dogs were studied under urethane and alpha-chloralose anesthesia...
  50. Wahlgren C, Quiding H. Depth of cutaneous analgesia after application of a eutectic mixture of the local anesthetics lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA cream). J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:584-8 pubmed
    EMLA cream, a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine, is a topical anesthetic, frequently used to avoid pain during venipuncture and superficial surgery. However, the depth of analgesia needs further exploration.
  51. Henry R, Morales A. Topical lidocaine-prilocaine spray for the treatment of premature ejaculation: a proof of concept study. Int J Impot Res. 2003;15:277-81 pubmed
    ..developed a local anesthetic combination, in a metered-dose aerosol delivery system, that delivers lidocaine and prilocaine in base form without organic solvents...
  52. Selby I, Bowles B. Analgesia for venous cannulation: a comparison of EMLA (5 minutes application), lignocaine, ethyl chloride, and nothing. J R Soc Med. 1995;88:264-7 pubmed
    ..01). The use of lignocaine did not result in significantly more failed cannulations than the control group. It was concluded that local anaesthesia should be used before venous cannulation, even for 20G cannulae...
  53. Azuma Y, Ohura K. Comparison of the effect of lidocaine-epinephrine and prilocaine-felypressine to alter macrophage functions. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001;1:911-23 pubmed
    In vitro treatment of macrophages with lidocaine-epinephrine or prilocaine-felypressine resulted in inhibition of their adhesion, chemotaxis and phagocytosis...