inosine pranobex

Summary

Summary: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.

Top Publications

  1. Solomon T, Hart C, Vinjamuri S, Beeching N, Malucci C, Humphrey P. Treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with interferon-alpha, ribavirin, and inosiplex. J Child Neurol. 2002;17:703-5 pubmed
    ..However, after 10 months, he deteriorated suddenly and died before further intraventricular treatment could be instituted. Further trials are needed to evaluate long-term combination therapy in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis...
  2. Gołebiowska Wawrzyniak M, Markiewicz K, Kozar A, Derentowicz P, Czerwinska Kartowicz I, Jastrzebska Janas K, et al. [Immunological and clinical study on therapeutic efficacy of inosine pranobex]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2005;19:379-82 pubmed
    Many studies in vitro and in vivo have shown immunomodulating and antiviral activities of inosine pranobex. The object of this research was to examine the potential beneficial effects of inosine pranobex (Groprinosin) on immune system in ..
  3. Gagnon A, Bouchard R. Fulminating adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 49-year-old man. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:1160-1 pubmed
    ..In about 10% of all cases, the disease can progress rapidly and lead to death within a few months. The oldest previously reported fulminating case was in a 25-year-old man...
  4. Jakubowska T, Luczywek E, Sobczyk W, Piłkowska E. [Changes of cognitive and emotional processes during immunostimulatory treatment in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1993;27:45-53 pubmed
    ..This was particularly evident in the visuospatial orientation. Prolongation of survival time in SSPE owing to specific treatment increases the need for psychoreactive and therapeutic influences for stimulation of cognitive processes...
  5. Saint André P, Baquillon G, David M. [Immunomodulator treatment of multibacillary leprosy using extracts of microbial ribosomes]. Acta Leprol. 1989;7:57-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our experience, we feel that only isoprinosine, whose effectiveness and good tolerance we have demonstrated, can be used for self-treatment in a mass campaign...
  6. Tajima Y, Sudoh K, Matsumoto A. [A case of adult onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis; sequential clinico-radiological findings over two years]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2005;45:674-8 pubmed
    ..Although inosine pranobex and intrathecal interferon were administered, symptoms worsened insidiously and he became bedridden after ..
  7. Mindel A, Carney O, Sonnex C, Freris M, Patou G, Williams P. Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex. Genitourin Med. 1989;65:103-5 pubmed
    The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex...
  8. Ito M, Go T, Okuno T, Mikawa H. Chronic mumps virus encephalitis. Pediatr Neurol. 1991;7:467-70 pubmed
    ..Chronic mumps encephalitis was diagnosed. Her mental state and seizures improved markedly with inosine pranobex therapy.
  9. Skrzydlewska E, Chyczewski L, Worowski K. [Effect of immunomodulating drugs on the release and activities of lysosomal proteinases of the liver of rats with ethanol poisoning]. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 1990;35-36:163-75 pubmed
    ..Encorton, and to a markedly lesser degree, Levamisole and isoprinosine++ caused a regression of vacuolar degeneration and of necrotic lesions and an increase in the number of glycogen granules in the livers of ethanol-intoxicated rats...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Giełdanowski J, Lemmel E. Studies on immunotropic activity of certain immunomodulators. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 1987;35:155-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, it may be assumed that synthetic immunomodulators and thymus hormones have much alike mechanisms of activity. The usefulness of both tests applied, however, differed; more sensitive appeared the model of the rosette test...
  2. Majewska A, Lasek W, Młynarczyk G. [Inosine pranobex - cytotoxic activities and effect of on replication of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV-2, HPIV-4), entroviruses (CA16, EV71) and adenoviruses (HAdV-2, HAdV-5) in vitro]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2015;67:107-13 pubmed
    There are no specific antivirals designed for many viral infections. Inosine pranobex (PI) is a purine nucleoside that is involved in a wide variety of intracellular biochemical processes...
  3. Daniluk J, Kandefer Szerszen M. Isoprinosine and levamisole as stimulators of interferon production in blood leukocytes of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 1997;45:183-7 pubmed
    ..For example, IFN titers induced by PHA in the presence of levamisole (1 ng/ml) in cirrhotic patients were 2.5 times lower (20.2 +/- 11.1 U/ml) in comparison to healthy subjects (50.6 +/- 27.3 U/ml)...
  4. Tekgul H, Tutuncuoglu S, Kutukculer N, Dizdarer G, Huseyinov A. Lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory mediators in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 1999;14:418-21 pubmed
    ..Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma TNF-alpha and IL-2 levels were nondetectable in two patients who had a stationary course of disease and were markedly elevated in patient 3, who displayed a rapidly progressive course...
  5. Kato Z, Asano T, Kondo N. Inosiplex affects the spectra of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:177-8 pubmed
  6. Tsang P, Sei Y, Bekesi J. Isoprinosine-induced modulation of T-helper-cell subsets and antigen-presenting monocytes (Leu M3 + Ia +) resulted in improvement of T- and B-lymphocyte functions, in vitro in ARC and AIDS patients. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1987;45:166-76 pubmed
    ..These interferences with the defective helper/suppressor regulatory pathways may have important therapeutic implications...
  7. Mehta P, Kulczycki J, Patrick B, Sobczyk W, Wisniewski H. Effect of treatment on oligoclonal IgG bands and intrathecal IgG synthesis in sequential cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Neurol Sci. 1992;109:64-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that treatment of SSPE patients with isoprinosine or with isoprinosine and alpha-interferon had no significant effect on the CSF oligoclonal band profiles or IgG synthesis within the central nervous system...
  8. Hosoya M. [Therapy and prognosis in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65:1483-6 pubmed
    ..The therapeutic efficacy should be evaluated in the patients who are treated with the therapy at an early stage of SSPE...
  9. Małaczewska J, Rotkiewicz Z. Effect of methisoprinol on virus replication in cell cultures. Pol J Vet Sci. 2004;7:97-102 pubmed
  10. Gascon G, Yamani S, Crowell J, Stigsby B, Nester M, Kanaan I, et al. Combined oral isoprinosine-intraventricular alpha-interferon therapy for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Brain Dev. 1993;15:346-55 pubmed
    ..05) and 5% spontaneous remission in the literature. Combined oral isoprinosine-intraventricular alpha-interferon appears to be an effective treatment for SSPE...
  11. Tsang P, Bekesi J. Normalization of immunoregulatory T-helper T-suppressor sublineages and cell-mediated immunity by isoprinosine in vitro in the early stages of AIDS. Cancer Detect Prev Suppl. 1987;1:611-8 pubmed
    ..These interferences with the helper-suppressor regulatory loop may explain the therapeutic efficacy of this drug in the early stages of AIDS...
  12. Berth Jones J, Hutchinson P. Treatment of alopecia totalis with a combination of inosine pranobex and diphencyprone compared to each treatment alone. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1991;16:172-5 pubmed
    Recent developments in alopecia areata have included the use of oral inosine pranobex and the introduction of diphencyprone as a contact sensitizer. Good results have been claimed for these treatments even in severe forms of the disease...
  13. Gadoth N, Kott E, Levin S, Hahn T. The interferon system in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and its response to isoprinosine. Brain Dev. 1989;11:308-12 pubmed
    ..Induction of the abolished IFN production was observed with initiation of therapy. However, discontinuation of isoprinosine for 10 days resulted in recurrence of the inactivation state of the IFN system...
  14. Pocchiari M, Schmittinger S, Masullo C. Amphotericin B delays the incubation period of scrapie in intracerebrally inoculated hamsters. J Gen Virol. 1987;68 ( Pt 1):219-23 pubmed
    ..AmB may interact with the scrapie agent on cell plasma membranes and may thereby decrease the rate of scrapie replication. However, AmB did not have any effect when administered after the clinical onset of scrapie disease...
  15. Kurata T, Matsubara E, Yokoyama M, Nagano I, Shoji M, Abe K. Improvement of SSPE by intrathecal infusion of alpha-IFN. Neurology. 2004;63:398-9 pubmed
  16. Juryńczyk J, Jurkowski A, Jedrzejczak Sodulska B. [A case of Steel-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1990;24:90-3 pubmed
    ..The authors propose including therapy with antiviral and antiparkinsonian drugs in S-R-O disease. The presented case confirms the effectiveness of this treatment...
  17. Siwicki A, Morand M, Kazuń B, Trapkowska S, Pozet F. In vitro immunomodulating influence of methisoprinol on the head kidney phagocyte and lymphocyte activity after suppression induced by VHSV in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pol J Vet Sci. 2003;6:51-3 pubmed
    ..The results of our study showed that methisoprinol at a concentration of 100 microl/ml modulated and restored the phagocyte and lymphocyte activity suppressed by VHSV...
  18. Schmutzler W, Neukirch B, Ziesche R. Study of the antiallergic component of inosine pranobex (Inosiplex, Isoprinosine). Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1989;88:244-6 pubmed
    b>Inosine pranobex (INPX) at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M inhibits significantly the concanavalin A or antihuman IgE induced histamine release from human mast cells...
  19. Janeczko J. [Immunomodulatory treatment of lymphopenia after infectious mononucleosis]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2001;55:433-41 pubmed
    ..It may be therefore assumed, that in persons with the history of infectious mononucleosis with persistent marked lymphopenia, thymosine and isoprinosine may be used in the therapy as additional immunomodulators...
  20. Eichler F, Krueger G. Effects of non-specific immunostimulants (echinacin, isoprinosine and thymus factors) on the infection and antigen expression in herpesvirus-6 exposed human lymphoid cells. In Vivo. 1994;8:565-75 pubmed
    ..g. secondary to selective expression of viral antigens). More detailed studies are needed to this effect including long-term controls in patients treated by these substances...
  21. Colpak A, Erdener S, Ozgen B, Anlar B, Kansu T. Neuro-ophthalmology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: two cases and a review of the literature. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012;23:466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..One patient had cortical visual disturbances and the other had visual loss due to retinal pigment epithelial changes...
  22. Lawton P, Walchshofer N, Sarciron M. In vitro effects of isoprinosine and a dipeptide methyl ester on Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. J Helminthol. 2001;75:251-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the previously reported in vivo activities of these drugs result largely from a direct effect on the parasite...
  23. Garg R. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Neurol. 2008;255:1861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral isoprinosine and intrathecal or intraventricular alpha-interferon may prolong survival to some extent. Immunization against measles is currently the most effective strategy against SSPE...
  24. Bijlenga G. The efficacy of a new single post-exposure treatment of rabies in mice without vaccination. Vet Q. 2001;23:187-90 pubmed
    ..The same principle could be applied to other emerging viral infections of humans (for example, human immunodeficiency virus infection) and animals, for which no effective vaccines are available at this moment...
  25. Haspolat S, Anlar B, Kose G, Coskun M, Yegin O. Interleukin-1beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and the effects of different treatment protocols. J Child Neurol. 2001;16:417-20 pubmed
    ..Further studies on higher numbers of patients may better document the immunologic status of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and the effects of different treatment modes...
  26. Georgala S, Katoulis A, Befon A, Georgala K, Stavropoulos P. Inosiplex for treatment of alopecia areata: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86:422-4 pubmed
    ..Larger studies are required, however, before inosiplex may be recommended as an efficacious and safe alternative systemic form of therapy for recalcitrant alopecia areata...
  27. Thorsen S, Pedersen C, Sandstrom E, Petersen C, Norkrans G, Gerstoft J, et al. One-year follow-up on the safety and efficacy of isoprinosine for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Scandinavian Isoprinosine Study Group. J Intern Med. 1992;231:607-15 pubmed
    ..No severe adverse reactions or toxicities were observed. We conclude that HIV-seropositive patients without AIDS may be safely and effectively treated with isoprinosine...
  28. Wolinsky J, Dau P, Buimovici Klein E, Mednick J, Berg B, Lang P, et al. Progressive rubella panencephalitis: immunovirological studies and results of isoprinosine therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 1979;35:397-404 pubmed
    ..Increasing serum titres of interferon which did not appear to be lymphoid or immune-specific in origin were found in these two cases...
  29. Milano S, Dieli M, Millott S, Miceli M, Maltese E, Cillari E. Effect of isoprinosine on IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 production in vivo and in vitro. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1991;13:1013-8 pubmed
    ..It also significantly increased the IFN-gamma secretion and decreased the IL-4 production in vivo. The significance of these findings in terms of immune regulation is discussed...
  30. Bekesi J, Tsang P, Wallace J, Roboz J. Immunorestorative properties of isoprinosine in the treatment of patients at high risk of developing ARC or AIDS. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1987;24:155-61 pubmed
    ..The kinetics of these effects suggest that isoprinosine stimulates the production of precursor lymphocytes and initiates a process of cell differentiation capable of producing long-term restoration of host immunity...
  31. Sobczyk W, Piłkowska E, Iwińska Buksowicz B, Milewska D. [Selective problems from catamnestic studies of SSPE patients (1980-1989)]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1994;28:67-78 pubmed
    ..The best results were obtained using Propionibacterium granulosum vaccine and treating with interferons. The survival times were shortest in the group not treated systematically...
  32. Szklarz E, Jaszczołt M, Woźnicki Z, Głuszczyk Ferenc B. Evaluation of Livingston's chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy in treatment of small cell lung carcinoma. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 1989;37:641-9 pubmed
    ..The mean survival time in the first group amounted to 3 weeks, in the second to 43 weeks and in the third to 49 weeks. It was also shown that post-chemotherapy complications were less frequent and less intensive...
  33. Gascon G. Randomized treatment study of inosiplex versus combined inosiplex and intraventricular interferon-alpha in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): international multicenter study. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:819-27 pubmed
  34. Praticò A, Saporito M, Iacono O, Castellano Chiodo D, Pavone P. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report. Minerva Pediatr. 2011;63:73-78 pubmed
    ..We have reported this girl who was affected by this severe affliction in the hope that, because of the rarity of SSPE, it would not go undiagnosed...
  35. Hadden J, Caspritz G, Zheng Q, Chen H, Wolstencroft R, Hadden E. Thymosin, interleukins, isoprinosine and imuthiol do not reconstitute T-cells in athymic nude mice. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1989;11:13-9 pubmed
    ..Minor changes in proliferative responses were noted at 3 weeks with all treatments; however, no biologically significant reconstitution of T-cell number or function was observed...
  36. Sobczyk W, Kulczycki J, Iwinska B, Vainiene M, Plachcińska J, Szmigielski S, et al. [Propionibacterium granulosum KP-45 in the treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz). 1989;41:344-51 pubmed
    ..The results show a favourable effect of the combined treatment in a part of the patients. They are discussed in detail...
  37. Sobczyk W, Piłkowska E, Iwińska Buksowicz B, Jakubowska T. [Assessment of early treatment results with antineoplaston AS2-1 in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1997;31:1147-56 pubmed
    ..The treatment had no effect on MRI results, EEG and antimeasles antibodies levels. No adverse effects were observed...
  38. Małaczewska J, Rotkiewicz Z, Siwicki A. Effect of Methisoprinol and KLP-602 on the development of immunocompetent organs and selected biochemical indices of the allantoic fluid of chicken embryos. Pol J Vet Sci. 2003;6:21-4 pubmed
    ..KLP-602 positively affected the reactivity of lymphocytes and the development of immunocompetent organs of chicken embryos as well as it increased the activity of ceruloplasmin in allantoic fluid 6 hours after injection...
  39. Nunes M, da Costa J, Da Silva L. Trihexyphenidyl and isoprinosine in the treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Pediatr Neurol. 1995;13:153-6 pubmed
    ..They received trihexyphenidyl with good results. We suggest the use of trihexyphenidyl in combination with isoprinosine in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with myoclonic seizures refractory to valproic acid...
  40. Anlar B, Yalaz K, Kose G, Saygi S. Beta-interferon plus inosiplex in the treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 1998;13:557-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that beta-interferon might be efficient in some patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and justify its trial in larger studies with longer follow-up...
  41. Aydin O, Senbil N, Kuyucu N, Gurer Y. Combined treatment with subcutaneous interferon-alpha, oral isoprinosine, and lamivudine for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:104-8 pubmed
    ..For this reason, and as well as because interferon-alpha therapy has an easier route of application and a higher family compliance, we have considered this an alternative protocol for patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis...
  42. Linhares R, Wigg M, Lagrota M, Nozawa C. The in vitro antiviral activity of isoprinosine on simian rotavirus (SA-11). Braz J Med Biol Res. 1989;22:1095-103 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of synthesis of viral macromolecules increased with drug concentration...
  43. Singh H, Herndon D. Effect of isoprinosine on lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity following thermal injury. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1989;11:631-44 pubmed
    ..Our studies thus indicate that ISO can be a potential immunomodulator of suppressed immune function following thermal injury, particularly in patients whose lymphocyte responses to T cell mitogen Con-A are not completely suppressed...
  44. Thorsen S, Pedersen C, Sandstrom E, Petersen C, Norkrans G, Gerstoft J, et al. [Controlled, clinical trial of isoprinosine administration to HIV-infected patients. Results of a Danish/Swedish multicenter study. The Scandinavian Isoprinosine Study Group]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1994;156:3314-8 pubmed
    ..3-6.2). Intention-to-treat analysis showed identical results. No severe adverse reactions or toxicities were observed. We conclude that HIV-infected individuals without AIDS may be safely and effectively treated with isoprinosine...
  45. Chwiecko M, Holownia A, Pawlowska D, Farbiszewski R. The effect of immunostimulatory drugs on sulfhydryl compounds in plasma, liver and brain after ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Alcohol. 1991;8:179-81 pubmed
    ..No changes in nonprotein SH compounds were observed in rat brain after treatment with isoprinosine, levamisole or ethanol. Furthermore, levamisole shortens the time necessary for the return of AlAT activity to normal value...
  46. Stenzel T, Tykałowski B, Lewczuk B, Przybylska Gornowicz B, Andrzejewski M, Koncicki A. The influence of methisoprinol administered in ovo on the morphological structure of the spleen in turkeys. Pol J Vet Sci. 2010;13:225-31 pubmed
    ..In spleens of the poults from this group, the morphometric examination also demonstrated a higher number of germinal centres of the white pulp as compared to their number in spleens of the birds from the other groups...
  47. Cianciara J, Laskus T, Gabinska E, Loch T. Isoprinosine in the treatment of chronic active hepatitis type B. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990;22:645-8 pubmed
    ..However, only 2 (11%) seroconverted to anti-HBe. Histological improvement was seen in 5 (28%) controls. Thus, it seems that isoprinosine may exert a beneficial effect on the course and outcome of CAH-B...
  48. Furusawa E, Furusawa S. Anticancer potential of Viva-Natural, a dietary seaweed extract, on Lewis lung carcinoma in comparison with chemical immunomodulators and on cyclosporine-accelerated AKR leukemia. Oncology. 1989;46:343-8 pubmed
    ..Viva-Natural reversed the potentiation effect of ciclosporin on the development of leukemia in AKR mice at preleukemic stage...
  49. De Simone C, De Marco F, Arancia G, Tzantzoglou S, Paradisi S, Sorice F. Influence of methisoprinol (isoprinosine) on HIV-infected human lymphocytes: in vitro immunological, virological, and ultrastructural studies. J Clin Lab Anal. 1989;3:26-33 pubmed
  50. Kovacs J, Powell F, Voeller D, Allegra C. Inhibition of Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthetase by para-acetamidobenzoic acid: possible mechanism of action of isoprinosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993;37:1227-31 pubmed
    ..Prevention of PCP by PaCBA through inhibition of P. carinii DHPS may explain the activity of isoprinosine in decreasing the progression to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients...
  51. Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C. Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL); open trial of surgery compared with combined therapy using surgery and methisoprinol in papillomavirus-related PVL. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;30:318-22 pubmed
    ..alone compared to only two recurrences in the patients treated also with methisoprinol (isoprinosine or inosine pranobex), a synthetic agent with immunomodulatory properties and some antiviral activity against HPV...
  52. Eroglu E, Gokcil Z, Bek S, Ulas U, Ozdag M, Odabasi Z. Long-term follow-up of patients with adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. J Neurol Sci. 2008;275:113-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we suggest that isoprinosine alone or in combination with intraventricular interferon did not change the prognosis in long-term follow-up periods...
  53. Kunika N, Yasaki S, Oshima J, Ino M, Saito N. [Serial changes of MRI and SPECT findings in a case of adult-onset SSPE]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1995;35:1214-20 pubmed
    ..b>Inosine pranobex was administrated orally (4,800mg per day)...