pentamidine

Summary

Summary: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.

Top Publications

  1. Bray P, Barrett M, Ward S, de Koning H. Pentamidine uptake and resistance in pathogenic protozoa: past, present and future. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19:232-9 pubmed
    Diamidines, and pentamidine in particular, have a long history as valuable chemotherapeutic agents against infectious disease...
  2. Lee M, Johansen L, Zhang Y, Wilson A, Keegan M, Avery W, et al. The novel combination of chlorpromazine and pentamidine exerts synergistic antiproliferative effects through dual mitotic action. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11359-67 pubmed
    ..high-throughput screening to discover the unexpected synergistic combination of an antiparasitic agent, pentamidine, and a phenothiazine antipsychotic, chlorpromazine...
  3. Minnick M, Hicks L, Battisti J, Raghavan R. Pentamidine inhibits Coxiella burnetii growth and 23S rRNA intron splicing in vitro. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36:380-2 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pentamidine, an RNA splice inhibitor used to treat fungal and protozoal infections, was shown to reduce intracellular ..
  4. Eperon G, Schmid C, Loutan L, Chappuis F. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of sleeping sickness in Sudanese pre-school children. Acta Trop. 2007;101:31-9 pubmed
    ..b>Pentamidine treatment for first-stage illness was very safe and effective among pre-school children. In contrast, 4...
  5. Jenkins T, Lane A. AT selectivity and DNA minor groove binding: modelling, NMR and structural studies of the interactions of propamidine and pentamidine with d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1350:189-204 pubmed
    ..Calculations of interaction energy for propamidine and pentamidine with d(CGCGAAT TCGCG)2 show that this duplex contains two symmetrically equivalent binding sites of identical ..
  6. Zhang Y, Li Z, Pilch D, Leibowitz M. Pentamidine inhibits catalytic activity of group I intron Ca.LSU by altering RNA folding. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2961-71 pubmed
    The antimicrobial agent pentamidine inhibits the self-splicing of the group I intron Ca.LSU from the transcripts of the 26S rRNA gene of Candida albicans, but the mechanism of pentamidine inhibition is not clear...
  7. Ming X, Ju W, Wu H, Tidwell R, Hall J, Thakker D. Transport of dicationic drugs pentamidine and furamidine by human organic cation transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:424-30 pubmed publisher
    The antiparasitic activity of aromatic diamidine drugs, pentamidine and furamidine, depends on their entry into the pathogenic protozoa via membrane transporters...
  8. Teka I, Kazibwe A, El Sabbagh N, Al Salabi M, Ward C, Eze A, et al. The diamidine diminazene aceturate is a substrate for the high-affinity pentamidine transporter: implications for the development of high resistance levels in trypanosomes. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..in Trypanosoma brucei brucei given the lack of TbAT1/P2 and a 10-fold higher activity of the high-affinity pentamidine transporter (HAPT1). Diminazene could be transported by HAPT1 in procyclic trypanosomes...
  9. Donkor I, Huang T, Tao B, Rattendi D, Lane S, Vargas M, et al. Trypanocidal activity of conformationally restricted pentamidine congeners. J Med Chem. 2003;46:1041-8 pubmed
    A series of conformationally restricted congeners of pentamidine in which the flexible pentyl bridge of pentamidine was replaced by trans-1,2-bismethylenecyclopropyl, phenyl, pyridinyl, piperazinyl, homopiperazinyl, and piperidinyl ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Goldie S, Kaplan J, Losina E, Weinstein M, Paltiel A, Seage G, et al. Prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: using simulation modeling to inform clinical guidelines. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:921-8 pubmed
    ..quot; In TMP/SMX-intolerant patients, dapsone is more cost-effective than atovaquone. ..
  2. Delobel P, Pradinaud R. Rhabdomyolysis associated with pentamidine isethionate therapy for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:1319-20 pubmed
  3. Mallena S, Lee M, Bailly C, Neidle S, Kumar A, Boykin D, et al. Thiophene-based diamidine forms a "super" at binding minor groove agent. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:13659-69 pubmed
  4. Coelho A, Gentil L, da Silveira J, Cotrim P. Characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes resistant to pentamidine. Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:98-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Pentamidine is a second-line agent used in the treatment of leishmaniasis and its mode of action and mechanism of resistance is not well understood...
  5. Wong I, Chan K, Zhao Y, Chan T, Chow L. Quinacrine and a novel apigenin dimer can synergistically increase the pentamidine susceptibility of the protozoan parasite Leishmania. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63:1179-90 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of quinacrine and a novel apigenin dimer (compound 9d) on reversing pentamidine resistance of Leishmania parasites.
  6. Nguewa P, Fuertes M, Cepeda V, Iborra S, Carrión J, Valladares B, et al. Pentamidine is an antiparasitic and apoptotic drug that selectively modifies ubiquitin. Chem Biodivers. 2005;2:1387-400 pubmed
    We have determined the cytotoxic properties of pentamidine isethionate (2) towards the promastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum...
  7. Basselin M, Denise H, Coombs G, Barrett M. Resistance to pentamidine in Leishmania mexicana involves exclusion of the drug from the mitochondrion. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3731-8 pubmed
    The uptake of [(3)H]pentamidine into wild-type and drug-resistant strains of Leishmania mexicana was compared. Uptake was carrier mediated. Pentamidine-resistant parasites showed cross-resistance to other toxic diamidine derivatives...
  8. Wong I, Chan K, Burkett B, Zhao Y, Chai Y, Sun H, et al. Flavonoid dimers as bivalent modulators for pentamidine and sodium stiboglucanate resistance in leishmania. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:930-40 pubmed
    ..than other shorter or longer ethylene glycol-ligated dimers, with approximately 3-fold sensitization of pentamidine and sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in Leishmania, respectively...
  9. Baker N, Glover L, Munday J, Aguinaga Andrés D, Barrett M, de Koning H, et al. Aquaglyceroporin 2 controls susceptibility to melarsoprol and pentamidine in African trypanosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10996-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..drug resistance is common and melarsoprol-resistant trypanosomes often display cross-resistance to pentamidine. Although melarsoprol/pentamidine cross-resistance (MPXR) has been an area of intense interest for several ..
  10. Balasegaram M, Harris S, Checchi F, Hamel C, Karunakara U. Treatment outcomes and risk factors for relapse in patients with early-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Republic of the Congo. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:777-82 pubmed
    ..Patients with 0-10 cells/mm(3) in CSF were classed as stage 1 and treated with pentamidine. Patients with CSF of > 10 cells/mm(3) were classed as stage 2 and treated with either melarsoprol or ..
  11. Bernhard S, Nerima B, Maser P, Brun R. Melarsoprol- and pentamidine-resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense populations and their cross-resistance. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1443-8 pubmed
    Resistance to melarsoprol and pentamidine was induced in bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900 in vitro, and drug sensitivity was determined for melarsoprol, pentamidine and furamidine...
  12. Brun R, Blum J, Chappuis F, Burri C. Human African trypanosomiasis. Lancet. 2010;375:148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..WHO has stated that if national control programmes, international organisations, research institutes, and philanthropic partners engage in concerted action, elimination of this disease might even be possible. ..
  13. Sanderson L, Dogruel M, Rodgers J, De Koning H, Thomas S. Pentamidine movement across the murine blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers: effect of trypanosome infection, combination therapy, P-glycoprotein, and multidrug resistance-associated protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329:967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..stage of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is found mainly in the blood, and pentamidine treatment is used...
  14. Bakunova S, Bakunov S, Patrick D, Kumar E, Ohemeng K, Bridges A, et al. Structure-activity study of pentamidine analogues as antiprotozoal agents. J Med Chem. 2009;52:2016-35 pubmed publisher
    Diamidine 1 (pentamidine) and 65 analogues (2-66) have been tested for in vitro antiprotozoal activities against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Plasmodium falciparum, and Leishmania donovani, and for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells...
  15. Sereno D, Lemesre J. In vitro life cycle of pentamidine-resistant amastigotes: stability of the chemoresistant phenotypes is dependent on the level of resistance induced. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:1898-903 pubmed
    Using a continuous drug pressure protocol, we induced pentamidine resistance in an active and dividing population of amastigote forms of Leishmania mexicana...
  16. de Koning H. Ever-increasing complexities of diamidine and arsenical crossresistance in African trypanosomes. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty years after the introduction of pentamidine, a large effort is being made to develop a new generation of diamidines for the treatment of sleeping sickness...
  17. Bakunova S, Bakunov S, Wenzler T, Barszcz T, Werbovetz K, Brun R, et al. Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of pyridyl analogues of pentamidine. J Med Chem. 2009;52:4657-67 pubmed publisher
    A series of novel pyridyl analogues 1-18 of antiprotozoal drug 1,5-bis(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) has been synthesized and tested for in vitro activities against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Plasmodium falciparum, and ..
  18. Graf F, Ludin P, Wenzler T, Kaiser M, Brun R, Pyana P, et al. Aquaporin 2 mutations in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense field isolates correlate with decreased susceptibility to pentamidine and melarsoprol. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2475 pubmed publisher
    ..For each isolate, we quantify the sensitivity to melarsoprol, pentamidine, and diminazene, and sequence the genomic loci of the transporter genes TbAT1 and TbAQP2...
  19. Kim T, Kim S, Park K, Cho O, Sung H, Kim M, et al. Clindamycin-primaquine versus pentamidine for the second-line treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia. J Infect Chemother. 2009;15:343-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine (C-P) with that of pentamidine as a second line treatment for PCP...
  20. Alsford S, Eckert S, Baker N, Glover L, Sanchez Flores A, Leung K, et al. High-throughput decoding of antitrypanosomal drug efficacy and resistance. Nature. 2012;482:232-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further screens link ubiquinone availability to nitro-drug action, plasma membrane P-type H(+)-ATPases to pentamidine action, and trypanothione and several putative kinases to melarsoprol action...
  21. Das V, Ranjan A, Sinha A, Verma N, Lal C, Gupta A, et al. A randomized clinical trial of low dosage combination of pentamidine and allopurinol in the treatment of antimony unresponsive cases of visceral leishmaniasis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:609-13 pubmed
    A randomized clinical trial of low dosage combination of pentamidine and allopurinol was carried out with objectives to assess the efficacy and toxicity as compared to full dosage of pentamidine in antimony unresponsive visceral ..
  22. De Koning H, Jarvis S. Uptake of pentamidine in Trypanosoma brucei brucei is mediated by the P2 adenosine transporter and at least one novel, unrelated transporter. Acta Trop. 2001;80:245-50 pubmed
    Diamidine drugs such as pentamidine and berenil (diminazene aceturate) are vital drugs for the treatment of early stage human African trypanosomiasis and the corresponding veterinary condition, respectively...
  23. Sun T, Zhang Y. Pentamidine binds to tRNA through non-specific hydrophobic interactions and inhibits aminoacylation and translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1654-64 pubmed publisher
    The selective and potent inhibition of mitochondrial translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pentamidine suggests a novel antimicrobial action for this drug...
  24. Bakunov S, Bakunova S, Bridges A, Wenzler T, Barszcz T, Werbovetz K, et al. Synthesis and antiprotozoal properties of pentamidine congeners bearing the benzofuran motif. J Med Chem. 2009;52:5763-7 pubmed publisher
    Forty-eight cationically substituted pentamidine congeners possessing benzofuran rings were synthesized by a copper mediated heteroannulation of substituted o-iodophenols with phenyl acetylenes...
  25. Lightburn E, Morand J, Meynard J, Kraemer P, Chaudier B, Pages F, et al. [Management of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Outcome apropos of 326 cases treated with high-dose pentamidine isethionate]. Med Trop (Mars). 2003;63:35-44 pubmed
    The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the outcome of pentamidine isethionate treatment (4 mg/kg of Pentamidine by the intramuscular route on Days 1 and 3) of cutaneous leishmaniasis in 326 cases that occurred during ..
  26. Patel T, Lockwood D. Pentamidine as secondary prophylaxis for visceral leishmaniasis in the immunocompromised host: report of four cases. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:1064-70 pubmed publisher
    ..with relapsing visceral leishmaniasis seen at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, in whom pentamidine was used as secondary prophylaxis to prevent relapse...
  27. Maina N, Maina K, Maser P, Brun R. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from Ibba, South Sudan, an area of high melarsoprol treatment failure rate. Acta Trop. 2007;104:84-90 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that factors other than drug resistance contribute to melarsoprol treatment failures. ..
  28. Takanari H, Nalos L, Stary Weinzinger A, de Git K, Varkevisser R, Linder T, et al. Efficient and specific cardiac IK? inhibition by a new pentamidine analogue. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;99:203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The diamine antiprotozoal drug pentamidine (P) acutely inhibits IK? by plugging the cytoplasmic pore region of the channel...
  29. Torres Gómez H, Hernández Nuñez E, León Rivera I, Guerrero Alvarez J, Cedillo Rivera R, Moo Puc R, et al. Design, synthesis and in vitro antiprotozoal activity of benzimidazole-pentamidine hybrids. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:3147-51 pubmed publisher
    A series of ten novel hybrids from benzimidazole and pentamidine were prepared using a short synthetic route...
  30. Vasconcelles M, Bernardo M, King C, Weller E, Antin J. Aerosolized pentamidine as pneumocystis prophylaxis after bone marrow transplantation is inferior to other regimens and is associated with decreased survival and an increased risk of other infections. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2000;6:35-43 pubmed
    ..Post-BMT PCP prophylaxis consisted of aerosolized pentamidine (AP) 150 mg every 2 weeks or 300 mg per month, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) 160/800 mg orally b.i.d...
  31. Wilson W, Tanious F, Mathis A, Tevis D, Hall J, Boykin D. Antiparasitic compounds that target DNA. Biochimie. 2008;90:999-1014 pubmed publisher
    ..Active compounds appear to selectively target extended AT sequences and induce changes in kinetoplast DNA minicircles that cause a synergistic destruction of the catenated kinetoplast DNA network and cell death. ..
  32. Rybniker J, Goede V, Mertens J, Ortmann M, Kulas W, Kochanek M, et al. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with intravenous pentamidine and oral fluconazole in an HIV-positive patient with chronic renal failure--a case report and brief review of the literature. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e522-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A relapse of leishmaniasis in 2008 was successfully treated with a novel combination regimen of intravenous pentamidine and oral fluconazole...
  33. Charpentier T, Wilder P, Liriano M, Varney K, Pozharski E, MacKerell A, et al. Divalent metal ion complexes of S100B in the absence and presence of pentamidine. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:56-73 pubmed publisher
    As part of an effort to inhibit S100B, structures of pentamidine (Pnt) bound to Ca(2+)-loaded and Zn(2+),Ca(2+)-loaded S100B were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.15 A (R(free)=0.266) and 1.85 A (R(free)=0...
  34. Ortiz D, Sanchez M, Quecke P, Landfear S. Two novel nucleobase/pentamidine transporters from Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;163:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of TbNT11.1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that it is also a transporter for the diamidine drug pentamidine that is the principal drug employed to treat early stage human African trypanosomiasis and may thus contribute ..
  35. van der Meide W, Sabajo L, Jensema A, Peekel I, Faber W, Schallig H, et al. Evaluation of treatment with pentamidine for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48:52-8 pubmed publisher
    In Suriname, pentamidine isethionate (PI) is the only drug available for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
  36. Kobayashi J, Kato A, Ota Y, Ohba R, Komatsu K. Bisbenzamidine derivative, pentamidine represses DNA damage response through inhibition of histone H2A acetylation. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we investigated whether a bisbenzamidine derivative, pentamidine, which can inhibit endoexonuclease activity, might influence DSB-induced damage responses via inhibition of ..
  37. Kroll C, Gettes L. T wave alternans and Torsades de Pointes after the use of intravenous pentamidine. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002;13:936-8 pubmed
    ..brief bouts of torsades de pointes and QT prolongation occurred in association with intravenously administered pentamidine. This ECG marker of a potentially fatal side effect, although uncommon, should be looked for in patients ..
  38. Graves R, Pamujula S, Moiseyev R, Freeman T, Bostanian L, Mandal T. Effect of different ratios of high and low molecular weight PLGA blend on the characteristics of pentamidine microcapsules. Int J Pharm. 2004;270:251-62 pubmed
    ..Blending of Resomer 502 with Resomer 506 reduced the glass transition temperature, which resulted in higher amount of drug release throughout the dissolution study. ..
  39. Pimentel M, Baptista C, Rubin E, Vasconcellos E, Lyra M, Salgueiro M, et al. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:254-6 pubmed
    ..Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those ..
  40. Baker N, de Koning H, Maser P, Horn D. Drug resistance in African trypanosomiasis: the melarsoprol and pentamidine story. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:110-8 pubmed publisher
    Melarsoprol and pentamidine represent the two main classes of drugs, the arsenicals and diamidines, historically used to treat the diseases caused by African trypanosomes: sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in livestock...
  41. Neves L, Talhari A, Gadelha E, Silva Junior R, Guerra J, Ferreira L, et al. A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:1092-101 pubmed
    ..Moreover, treatment outcome may depend on the causative species of Leishmania...
  42. Lejon V, Legros D, Savignoni A, Etchegorry M, Mbulamberi D, Büscher P. Neuro-inflammatory risk factors for treatment failure in "early second stage" sleeping sickness patients treated with pentamidine. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;144:132-8 pubmed
    In a clinical trial on efficacy of Pentamidine in second stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients with </=20 cells/microl in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 43% of treatment failures were observed...
  43. Antoniou T, Gough K. Early-onset pentamidine-associated second-degree heart block and sinus bradycardia: case report and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy. 2005;25:899-903 pubmed
    Although various manifestations of pentamidine-induced cardiotoxicity have been reported, to our knowledge, second-degree heart block associated with this agent has not been described...
  44. Roussel M, Nacher M, Fremont G, Rotureau B, Clyti E, Sainte Marie D, et al. Comparison between one and two injections of pentamidine isethionate, at 7 mg/kg in each injection, in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:307-14 pubmed
    ..and tolerance of the intramuscular treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with a single injection of pentamidine isethionate, at 7 mg/kg, were compared with those observed, earlier, using two such injections (given 48 h ..
  45. Bridges D, Gould M, Nerima B, Maser P, Burchmore R, de Koning H. Loss of the high-affinity pentamidine transporter is responsible for high levels of cross-resistance between arsenical and diamidine drugs in African trypanosomes. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:1098-108 pubmed
    ..We induced high levels of pentamidine resistance in a line without the tbat1 gene that encodes the P2 transporter previously implicated in drug ..
  46. Singh G, Dey C. Induction of apoptosis-like cell death by pentamidine and doxorubicin through differential inhibition of topoisomerase II in arsenite-resistant L. donovani. Acta Trop. 2007;103:172-85 pubmed
    ..donovani to an anti-leishmanial agent pentamidine and an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin...
  47. Obaji J, Lee Pack L, Gutierrez C, Chan C. The pulmonary effects of long-term exposure to aerosol pentamidine: a 5-year surveillance study in HIV-infected patients. Chest. 2003;123:1983-7 pubmed
    To assess the effects of long-term exposure to aerosolized pentamidine (AP) for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia on the pulmonary function...
  48. Cortázar T, Coombs G, Walker J. Leishmania panamensis: comparative inhibition of nuclear DNA topoisomerase II enzymes from promastigotes and human macrophages reveals anti-parasite selectivity of fluoroquinolones, flavonoids and pentamidine. Exp Parasitol. 2007;116:475-82 pubmed
    ..diminazene aceturate exhibited uniformly high potencies against parasite and host TOPII, but a second diamidine pentamidine showed 17.6-fold greater specificity for Leishmania TOPII...
  49. De Koning H. Uptake of pentamidine in Trypanosoma brucei brucei is mediated by three distinct transporters: implications for cross-resistance with arsenicals. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:586-92 pubmed
    The trypanocidal action of pentamidine is dependent on the rapid, selective accumulation of this drug by the parasite...
  50. Nok A. Arsenicals (melarsoprol), pentamidine and suramin in the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Parasitol Res. 2003;90:71-9 pubmed
    ..So far the treatment for the early stage of HAT involves the drugs pentamidine and suramin which have been very successful...
  51. Chow T, Alaoui Jamali M, Yeh C, Yuen L, Griller D. The DNA double-stranded break repair protein endo-exonuclease as a therapeutic target for cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2004;3:911-9 pubmed
    ..We identify a dicationic diarylfuran, pentamidine, which has been used clinically to treat opportunistic infections and is an inhibitor of the endo-exonuclease ..
  52. Mathis A, Holman J, Sturk L, Ismail M, Boykin D, Tidwell R, et al. Accumulation and intracellular distribution of antitrypanosomal diamidine compounds DB75 and DB820 in African trypanosomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:2185-91 pubmed
    The aromatic diamidine pentamidine has long been used to treat early-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT)...
  53. Leepin A, Stüdli A, Brun R, Stephens C, Boykin D, Hemphill A. Host cells participate in the in vitro effects of novel diamidine analogues against tachyzoites of the intracellular apicomplexan parasites Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:1999-2008 pubmed publisher