Summary: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)

Top Publications

  1. Rosenbaum J, Alex G, Roberts H, Orchard D. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms secondary to sulfasalazine. J Paediatr Child Health. 2010;46:193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report informs readers of the association of sulfasalazine and DRESS in an 11-year-old with inflammatory bowel disease and discusses its pathogenesis and treatment...
  2. Shukla K, Thomas A, Ferraris D, Hin N, Sattler R, Alt J, et al. Inhibition of xc? transporter-mediated cystine uptake by sulfasalazine analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:6184-7 pubmed publisher
    A series of sulfasalazine analogs were synthesized and tested for their ability to block cystine-glutamate antiporter system xc? using L-[(14)C]cystine as a substrate...
  3. Soejima M, Kawaguchi Y, Hara M, Kamatani N. Prospective study of the association between NAT2 gene haplotypes and severe adverse events with sulfasalazine therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:724 pubmed
  4. Lyons S, Chung W, Weaver A, Ogunrinu T, Sontheimer H. Autocrine glutamate signaling promotes glioma cell invasion. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9463-71 pubmed
    ..dose-dependent inhibition of cell migration when glutamate release was inhibited using either S-(4)-CPG or sulfasalazine, both potent blockers of system xC...
  5. Sevgi E, Yalcin G, Kansu T, Varli K. Drug induced intracranial hypertension associated with sulphasalazine treatment. Headache. 2008;48:296-8 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis of intracranial hypertension is important in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving 5 ASA treatment to prevent visual complications. ..
  6. Braun J, van der Horst Bruinsma I, Huang F, Burgos Vargas R, Vlahos B, Koenig A, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of etanercept versus sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized, double-blind trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sulfasalazine is frequently used for the treatment of both axial symptoms and peripheral symptoms of AS, and it has been the ..
  7. van Tuyl L, Plass A, Lems W, Voskuyl A, Dijkmans B, Boers M. Why are Dutch rheumatologists reluctant to use the COBRA treatment strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis?. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:974-6 pubmed
    ..The reluctance of Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe effective COBRA therapy may be due to perceptions of complexity of the treatment schedule and negative patient-related consequences of the therapy. ..
  8. Chidley C, Haruki H, Pedersen M, Muller E, Johnsson K. A yeast-based screen reveals that sulfasalazine inhibits tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7:375-83 pubmed publisher for erlotinib and atorvastatin, as well as an enzyme target for the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine. We demonstrate that sulfasalazine and its metabolites, sulfapyridine and mesalamine, are inhibitors of the ..
  9. Marks W. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. versus Sulfasalazine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a well-designed clinical trial of a botanical demonstrating effectiveness. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:85-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Why this article was published in a peer reviewed Allopathic medical journal is an important question that begs examination and may lay the future promise of TM/AM therapeutic interventions...

More Information


  1. Robe P, Martin D, Nguyen Khac M, Artesi M, Deprez M, Albert A, et al. Early termination of ISRCTN45828668, a phase 1/2 prospective, randomized study of sulfasalazine for the treatment of progressing malignant gliomas in adults. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:372 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfasalazine, a NF-kappaB and x(c)-cystine/glutamate antiport inhibitor, has demonstrated a strong antitumoral potential in preclinical models of malignant gliomas...
  2. Goldbach Mansky R, Wilson M, Fleischmann R, Olsen N, Silverfield J, Kempf P, et al. Comparison of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F versus sulfasalazine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:229-40, W49-51 pubmed
    ..To compare the benefits and side effects of TwHF extract with those of sulfasalazine for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis. Randomized, controlled trial...
  3. Lakey R, Cawston T. Sulfasalazine blocks the release of proteoglycan and collagen from cytokine stimulated cartilage and down-regulates metalloproteinases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:1208-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that in addition to acting as an anti-inflammatory agent, SSZ may have a therapeutic role in protecting cartilage from damage in OA. ..
  4. Urquhart B, Ware J, Tirona R, Ho R, Leake B, Schwarz U, et al. Breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and drug disposition: intestinal expression, polymorphisms and sulfasalazine as an in vivo probe. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:439-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study is to confirm the human BCRP-mediated transport of sulfasalazine in vitro, evaluate interindividual variation in BCRP expression in human intestine and to determine the role ..
  5. Wang J, Gigliotti F, Bhagwat S, George T, Wright T. Immune modulation with sulfasalazine attenuates immunopathogenesis but enhances macrophage-mediated fungal clearance during Pneumocystis pneumonia. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001058 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study the effects of immune modulation with sulfasalazine were evaluated in a mouse model of PcP-related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (PcP-IRIS)...
  6. Nath C, Ananth C, Smulian J, Peltier M. Can sulfasalazine prevent infection-mediated pre-term birth in a murine model?. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2010;63:144-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfasalazine (SASP) blocks activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in gestational tissues in vitro- one of the earliest signals in the inflammatory response...
  7. Narang V, Pauletti G, Gout P, Buckley D, Buckley A. Sulfasalazine-induced reduction of glutathione levels in breast cancer cells: enhancement of growth-inhibitory activity of Doxorubicin. Chemotherapy. 2007;53:210-7 pubmed
    We previously showed that the anti-inflammatory drug, sulfasalazine (salicylazosulfapyridine, SASP), can arrest proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary cancer cells by inhibiting uptake of cystine via the x(c-) cystine/glutamate ..
  8. van Tuyl L, Lems W, Voskuyl A, Kerstens P, Garnero P, Dijkmans B, et al. Tight control and intensified COBRA combination treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: 90% remission in a pilot trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:1574-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3; mean disease duration 3 months) were treated with COBRA treatment comprising sulfasalazine, methotrexate and high-dose step-down prednisolone, intensified by adding hydroxychloroquine and continued low-..
  9. Mennicke M, Zawodniak A, Keller M, Wilkens L, Yawalkar N, Stickel F, et al. Fulminant liver failure after vancomycin in a sulfasalazine-induced DRESS syndrome: fatal recurrence after liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:2197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a 60-year-old man with polyarthritis treated with sulfasalazine who developed DRESS and fulminant liver failure after additional vancomycin treatment...
  10. Moreland L, O Dell J, Paulus H, Curtis J, Bathon J, St Clair E, et al. A randomized comparative effectiveness study of oral triple therapy versus etanercept plus methotrexate in early aggressive rheumatoid arthritis: the treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis Trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2824-35 pubmed publisher
    ..and to assess whether combination therapy with MTX plus etanercept is superior to the combination of MTX plus sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine...
  11. O Dell J, Mikuls T, Taylor T, Ahluwalia V, Brophy M, Warren S, et al. Therapies for active rheumatoid arthritis after methotrexate failure. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:307-18 pubmed publisher
    ..despite methotrexate therapy to a triple regimen of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine) or etanercept plus methotrexate...
  12. van der Kooij S, de Vries Bouwstra J, Goekoop Ruiterman Y, van Zeben D, Kerstens P, Gerards A, et al. Limited efficacy of conventional DMARDs after initial methotrexate failure in patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis treated according to the disease activity score. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:1356-62 pubmed
    ..4) or toxicity were classified as "MTX failures." In group 1, these patients switched to sulfasalazine (SSA), then leflunomide and finally to MTX + infliximab (IFX)...
  13. Schoels M, Kapral T, Stamm T, Smolen J, Aletaha D. Step-up combination versus switching of non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: results from a retrospective observational study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:1059-65 pubmed
    ..Our results do not implicate any predication about step-up design including biologicals, where the benefit of combination therapy has been suggested convincingly. ..
  14. Mut S, Kutlu G, Ucler S, Erdal A, Inan L. Reversible encephalopathy due to sulfasalazine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2008;31:368-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfasalazine was devised by Swedish physician in the late 1930s in an attempt to treat "rheumatic polyarthritis...
  15. Lay J, Hong C, Huang J, Yang Y, Pao C, Liu C, et al. Sulfasalazine suppresses drug resistance and invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma cells expressing AXL. Cancer Res. 2007;67:3878-87 pubmed
    ..role in the enhancement of invasiveness and doxorubicin resistance, as shown by using the NF-kappaB inhibitor, sulfasalazine, and IkappaB dominant-negative transfectants...
  16. Rantalaiho V, Korpela M, Laasonen L, Kautiainen H, Jarvenpaa S, Hannonen P, et al. Early combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy and tight disease control improve long-term radiologic outcome in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the 11-year results of the Finnish Rheumatoid Arthritis Combination Therapy tri. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R122 pubmed publisher
    ..with early active RA were initially randomized to receive treatment with a combination of methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine with prednisolone (FIN-RACo), or treatment with a single DMARD (initially, ..
  17. Zawodniak A, Lochmatter P, Beeler A, Pichler W. Cross-reactivity in drug hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine and sulfamethoxazole. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine represents an important exception...
  18. van Vollenhoven R, Ernestam S, Geborek P, Petersson I, Coster L, Waltbrand E, et al. Addition of infliximab compared with addition of sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine to methotrexate in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (Swefot trial): 1-year results of a randomised trial. Lancet. 2009;374:459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to compare addition of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine) with addition of a tumour necrosis factor antagonist (infliximab) to methotrexate in ..
  19. van Tuyl L, Boers M, Lems W, Landewé R, Han H, van der Linden S, et al. Survival, comorbidities and joint damage 11 years after the COBRA combination therapy trial in early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In the COBRA trial, 155 patients with early RA were treated with sulfasalazine (SSZ) monotherapy (SSZ group) or a combination of step-down prednisolone, methotrexate (MTX) and SSZ (COBRA ..
  20. Tabit C, Holbrook M, Shenouda S, Dohadwala M, Widlansky M, Frame A, et al. Effect of sulfasalazine on inflammation and endothelial function in patients with established coronary artery disease. Vasc Med. 2012;17:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We treated patients with coronary artery disease with sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of NF?B, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study design...
  21. Rantalaiho V, Korpela M, Hannonen P, Kautiainen H, Jarvenpaa S, Leirisalo Repo M, et al. The good initial response to therapy with a combination of traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is sustained over time: the eleven-year results of the Finnish rheumatoid arthritis combination therapy trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..with early active RA were initially randomized to receive treatment with a combination of methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine with prednisolone or treatment with a single DMARD (initially, sulfasalazine) with or ..
  22. Wang S, Wang J, Bian H. [Clinical observation on total glucosides of paeony combined with sulfasalazine in treatment of ankylosing spondylitis]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2007;27:217-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy and adverse reaction of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) combined with sulfasalazine (SSZ) in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)...
  23. Rashidi T, Mahd A. Treatment of persistent alopecia areata with sulfasalazine. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:850-2 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sulfasalazine has been reported to show success in the treatment of persistent cases of alopecia areata...
  24. de Jong P, Hazes J, Barendregt P, Huisman M, Van Zeben D, van der Lubbe P, et al. Induction therapy with a combination of DMARDs is better than methotrexate monotherapy: first results of the tREACH trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..were randomised into three induction therapy strategies: (A) combination therapy (methotrexate (MTX) + sulfasalazine + hydroxychloroquine) with GCs intramuscularly; (B) combination therapy with an oral GC tapering scheme and (C)..
  25. Güler Yüksel M, Klarenbeek N, Goekoop Ruiterman Y, de Vries Bouwstra J, van der Kooij S, Gerards A, et al. Accelerated hand bone mineral density loss is associated with progressive joint damage in hands and feet in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R96 pubmed publisher
    ..Hand BMD loss in the first year of recent-onset RA predicts subsequent progressive total joint damage, however not independent of progressive joint damage in the first year. ..
  26. Chung W, Sontheimer H. Sulfasalazine inhibits the growth of primary brain tumors independent of nuclear factor-kappaB. J Neurochem. 2009;110:182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sulfasalazine which is used clinically to treat Crohn's disease has emerged as a potential inhibitor of NF-kappaB and has ..
  27. Lee H, Zhang H, Orlovich D, Fawcett J. The influence of probiotic treatment on sulfasalazine metabolism in rat. Xenobiotica. 2012;42:791-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated their effect on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine (SSZ), a drug whose efficacy depends on metabolism by azoreductase (AR) in the gut microbiota to sulfapyridine ..
  28. Couto D, Ribeiro D, Freitas M, Gomes A, Lima J, Fernandes E. Scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by the prodrug sulfasalazine and its metabolites 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulfapyridine. Redox Rep. 2010;15:259-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfasalazine is a prodrug composed by a molecule of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine (SP), linked by an azo bond, which has been shown to be effective in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative ..
  29. Dharane Neé Ligam P, Manuelpillai U, Wallace E, Walker D. NF?B-dependent increase of kynurenine pathway activity in human placenta: inhibition by sulfasalazine. Placenta. 2010;31:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of 10 ?g/ml LPS for 24 or 48 h; duplicates of each explant were incubated either with or without 5mM sulfasalazine added to the medium...
  30. Omidian M, Ayoobi A, Mapar M, Feily A, Cheraghian B. Efficacy of sulfasalazine in the treatment of generalized lichen planus: randomized double-blinded clinical trial on 52 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:1051-4 pubmed publisher
    Oral sulfasalazine has been reported to be effective in patients with idiopathic cutaneous lichen planus (LP). Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of this drug in the treatment of generalized cutaneous lichen planus (GLP)...
  31. Yamasaki Y, Ieiri I, Kusuhara H, Sasaki T, Kimura M, Tabuchi H, et al. Pharmacogenetic characterization of sulfasalazine disposition based on NAT2 and ABCG2 (BCRP) gene polymorphisms in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84:95-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the impact of genetic polymorphisms of ABCG2 (421C>A) and NAT2 on the pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine (SASP), a dual substrate, in 37 healthy volunteers, taking 2,000 mg of conventional SASP tablets...
  32. Zamek Gliszczynski M, Bedwell D, Bao J, Higgins J. Characterization of SAGE Mdr1a (P-gp), Bcrp, and Mrp2 knockout rats using loperamide, paclitaxel, sulfasalazine, and carboxydichlorofluorescein pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012;40:1825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..transporter probes [P-glycoprotein (P-gp): loperamide and paclitaxel; breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp): sulfasalazine; and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2): carboxydichlorofluorescein] were studied systematically ..
  33. Vermeer M, Kuper H, Hoekstra M, Haagsma C, Posthumus M, Brus H, et al. Implementation of a treat-to-target strategy in very early rheumatoid arthritis: results of the Dutch Rheumatoid Arthritis Monitoring remission induction cohort study. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:2865-72 pubmed publisher
    ..6 (methotrexate, followed by the addition of sulfasalazine, and exchange of sulfasalazine with biologic agents in case of persistent disease activity)...
  34. Masuda H, Takahashi Y, Nishida Y, Asai S. Comparison of the effect of mesalazine and sulfasalazine on laboratory parameters: a retrospective observational study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;68:1549-55 pubmed publisher
    Mesalazine and sulfasalazine are commonly used drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease...
  35. Berti Mattera L, Kern T, Siegel R, Nemet I, Mitchell R. Sulfasalazine blocks the development of tactile allodynia in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2008;57:2801-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The reported link between nociception and targets of the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine prompted us to investigate its effect on neuropathic pain in diabetes...
  36. Nikfar S, Rahimi R, Rezaie A, Abdollahi M. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of sulfasalazine in comparison with 5-aminosalicylates in the induction of improvement and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:1157-70 pubmed publisher
    Historically, sulfasalazine (SSZ) and 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs) have been a mainstay of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) remission induction and maintenance therapy...
  37. Song I, Hermann K, Haibel H, Althoff C, Althoff C, Listing J, et al. Effects of etanercept versus sulfasalazine in early axial spondyloarthritis on active inflammatory lesions as detected by whole-body MRI (ESTHER): a 48-week randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:590-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the potential of etanercept versus sulfasalazine to reduce active inflammatory lesions on whole-body MRI in active axial spondyloarthritis with a symptom duration of less than 5 years.
  38. Yamamoto T, Umegae S, Matsumoto K. Long-term clinical impact of early introduction of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in new onset, moderately active, extensive ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis. 2012;6:750-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was to see if the introduction of GMA at an early stage reduces corticosteroid administration and steroid dependency in the long term clinical course of UC...
  39. Aghaei S. An uncontrolled, open label study of sulfasalazine in severe alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:611-3 pubmed
    ..According to the response to sulfasalazine, patients were grouped into 3 categories: no hair regrowth (< 10% terminal hair), partial hair regrowth (10%..
  40. van Vollenhoven R, Geborek P, Forslind K, Albertsson K, Ernestam S, Petersson I, et al. Conventional combination treatment versus biological treatment in methotrexate-refractory early rheumatoid arthritis: 2 year follow-up of the randomised, non-blinded, parallel-group Swefot trial. Lancet. 2012;379:1712-20 pubmed publisher
    ..months, those who failed treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to group A (conventional treatment; additional sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine) or group B (biological treatment; additional infliximab)...
  41. Kohno H, Suzuki R, Yasui Y, Miyamoto S, Wakabayashi K, Tanaka T. Ursodeoxycholic acid versus sulfasalazine in colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in mice. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:2519-25 pubmed
    ..acid (UDCA) can inhibit colitis-related mouse colon carcinogenesis and compared it with the effects of sulfasalazine. Male CD-1 mice were given a single i.p...
  42. Boccia M, Freudenthal R, Blake M, de la Fuente V, Acosta G, Baratti C, et al. Activation of hippocampal nuclear factor-kappa B by retrieval is required for memory reconsolidation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13436-45 pubmed
    ..First, we administered intracerebroventricular or intrahippocampal sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of IKK (IkappaB kinase), the kinase that activates NF-kappaB...
  43. Dahan A, Amidon G. MRP2 mediated drug-drug interaction: indomethacin increases sulfasalazine absorption in the small intestine, potentially decreasing its colonic targeting. Int J Pharm. 2010;386:216-20 pubmed publisher
    ..resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is responsible for sulfasalazine low-permeability in the small intestine, thereby enabling its colonic targeting and therapeutic action...
  44. Dahan A, Amidon G. Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G371-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfasalazine is characterized by low intestinal absorption, which essentially enables its colonic targeting and therapeutic action. The mechanisms behind this low absorption have not yet been elucidated...
  45. Alonso V, Linares V, Belles M, Albina M, Sirvent J, Domingo J, et al. Sulfasalazine induced oxidative stress: a possible mechanism of male infertility. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:35-40 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of action of sulfasalazine (SASP) in male infertility is not well elucidated. For it, an oxidative stress-like mechanism inductor of infertility was hypothesized...
  46. Guan J, Lo M, Dockery P, Mahon S, Karp C, Buckley A, et al. The xc- cystine/glutamate antiporter as a potential therapeutic target for small-cell lung cancer: use of sulfasalazine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether the xc- cystine transporter could be a useful therapeutic target for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC)...
  47. Kuhn U, Anschütz M, Schmücker K, Schug B, Hippius M, Blume H. Phenotyping with sulfasalazine - time dependence and relation to NAT2 pharmacogenetics. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;48:1-10 pubmed
    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype-phenotype relation with sulfasalazine as probe drug by means of detailed genotype analysis and kinetic data evaluation...
  48. James H, Gillis D, Hissaria P, Lester S, Somogyi A, Cleland L, et al. Common polymorphisms in the folate pathway predict efficacy of combination regimens containing methotrexate and sulfasalazine in early rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:562-71 pubmed
    To study genetic polymorphisms in the folate pathway, a site of action of methotrexate (MTX) and sulfasalazine (SSZ), as predictors of efficacy of combination disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) regimens containing MTX and SSZ ..
  49. Guo W, Zhao Y, Zhang Z, Tan N, Zhao F, Ge C, et al. Disruption of xCT inhibits cell growth via the ROS/autophagy pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2011;312:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that xCT may be a promising therapeutic target for human HCC. ..
  50. Zaher H, Khan A, Palandra J, Brayman T, Yu L, Ware J. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/abcg2) is a major determinant of sulfasalazine absorption and elimination in the mouse. Mol Pharm. 2006;3:55-61 pubmed
    b>Sulfasalazine is used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. When administered orally, sulfasalazine is poorly absorbed with an estimated bioavailability of 3-12%...
  51. Leirisalo Repo M, Kautiainen H, Laasonen L, Korpela M, Kauppi M, Kaipiainen Seppanen O, et al. Infliximab for 6 months added on combination therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis: 2-year results from an investigator-initiated, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the NEO-RACo Study). Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:851-7 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with combination treatment starting with methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and prednisolone (FIN-RACo strategy) is superior to monotherapy...
  52. Kim J, Cho H, Sir J, Kim B, Hur J, Youn S, et al. Sulfasalazine induces haem oxygenase-1 via ROS-dependent Nrf2 signalling, leading to control of neointimal hyperplasia. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:550-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Although sulfasalazine (SSZ) has been used as an anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory agent in various inflammatory diseases, its ..
  53. Ransford R, Langman M. Sulphasalazine and mesalazine: serious adverse reactions re-evaluated on the basis of suspected adverse reaction reports to the Committee on Safety of Medicines. Gut. 2002;51:536-9 pubmed
    ..Pancreatitis and interstitial nephritis appear significantly more common with mesalazine, and advice on renal monitoring in patients who receive mesalazine may need reinforcing. ..