Summary: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.

Top Publications

  1. Petroske E, Meredith G, Callen S, Totterdell S, Lau Y. Mouse model of Parkinsonism: a comparison between subacute MPTP and chronic MPTP/probenecid treatment. Neuroscience. 2001;106:589-601 pubmed
    ..We have developed an alternative mouse model, in which co-administration of MPTP with probenecid results in the chronic loss of striatal dopamine for at least 6 months after cessation of treatment...
  2. Price K, Sautin Y, Long D, Zhang L, Miyazaki H, Mu W, et al. Human vascular smooth muscle cells express a urate transporter. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:1791-5 pubmed
    ..functional was provided by the finding that uptake of 14C-urate was significantly inhibited in the presence of probenecid, an organic anion transporter inhibitor...
  3. Cox V, Zed P. Once-daily cefazolin and probenecid for skin and soft tissue infections. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:458-63 pubmed
    To review the pharmacokinetic and clinical evidence for the use of once-daily cefazolin and probenecid in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI)...
  4. Solomon D, Avorn J, Levin R, Brookhart M. Uric acid lowering therapy: prescribing patterns in a large cohort of older adults. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:609-13 pubmed
    ..15, 95% CI 0.96-1.38 compared with rheumatologists or nephrologists). Adherence with UALT is poor. While uric acid levels were not measured in this study, poor adherence with UALT is likely to reduce attainment of goal uric acid levels. ..
  5. Landersdorfer C, Kirkpatrick C, Kinzig M, Bulitta J, Holzgrabe U, Jaehde U, et al. Competitive inhibition of renal tubular secretion of ciprofloxacin and metabolite by probenecid. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;69:167-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Probenecid influences transport processes of drugs at several sites in the body and decreases elimination of several quinolones...
  6. George J, Carr E, Davies J, Belch J, Struthers A. High-dose allopurinol improves endothelial function by profoundly reducing vascular oxidative stress and not by lowering uric acid. Circulation. 2006;114:2508-16 pubmed
    ..heart failure, comparing 300 mg allopurinol, 600 mg allopurinol, and placebo for the first study and 1000 mg probenecid versus placebo in the second study...
  7. Anandhan A, Tamilselvam K, Radhiga T, Rao S, Essa M, Manivasagam T. Theaflavin, a black tea polyphenol, protects nigral dopaminergic neurons against chronic MPTP/probenecid induced Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2012;1433:104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic administration of MPTP/probenecid (MPTP/p) leads to oxidative stress, induction of apoptosis, and loss of dopominergic neurons which results in ..
  8. Knyihar Csillik E, Toldi J, Krisztin Peva B, Chadaide Z, Nemeth H, Fenyo R, et al. Prevention of electrical stimulation-induced increase of c-fos immunoreaction in the caudal trigeminal nucleus by kynurenine combined with probenecid. Neurosci Lett. 2007;418:122-6 pubmed
    ..present investigation tested the hypothesis of whether kynurenine in combination with systemically administered probenecid protects second-order trigeminal neurons against stimulation arriving via central processes of trigeminal ..
  9. Reinders M, van Roon E, Jansen T, Delsing J, Griep E, Hoekstra M, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of urate-lowering drugs in gout: a randomised controlled trial of benzbromarone versus probenecid after failure of allopurinol. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..antihyperuricaemic treatment for gout, and compare the efficacy and tolerability of benzbromarone and probenecid as second-choice treatment...

More Information


  1. Grayson M, McDonald M, Gibson K, Athan E, Munckhof W, Paull P, et al. Once-daily intravenous cefazolin plus oral probenecid is equivalent to once-daily intravenous ceftriaxone plus oral placebo for the treatment of moderate-to-severe cellulitis in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1440-8 pubmed
    A once-daily regimen of cefazolin (2 g intravenously [iv]) plus probenecid (1 g by mouth) was compared with a once-daily regimen of ceftriaxone (1 g iv) plus oral placebo in a randomized, double-blind equivalence trial of home-based ..
  2. Carrillo Mora P, Méndez Cuesta L, Perez De La Cruz V, Fortoul van Der Goes T, Santamaria A. Protective effect of systemic L-kynurenine and probenecid administration on behavioural and morphological alterations induced by toxic soluble amyloid beta (25-35) in rat hippocampus. Behav Brain Res. 2010;210:240-50 pubmed publisher
    ..immediate metabolic precursor of KYNA, L-kynurenine (L-KYN), and a proved inhibitor of KYNA's brain transport, probenecid (PROB), have shown to produce neuroprotective effects in a considerable number of experimental toxic conditions; ..
  3. Pineda Farias J, Perez Severiano F, González Esquivel D, Barragán Iglesias P, Bravo Hernández M, Cervantes Durán C, et al. The L-kynurenine-probenecid combination reduces neuropathic pain in rats. Eur J Pain. 2013;17:1365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..l-Kynurenine (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) or probenecid (100 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect allodynia in neuropathic rats. In contrast, l-kynurenine (50-200 mg/kg, i.p...
  4. Rahi M, Heikkinen T, Hakala K, Laine K. The effect of probenecid and MK-571 on the feto-maternal transfer of saquinavir in dually perfused human term placenta. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;37:588-92 pubmed publisher
    ..A dual perfusion of human placenta was performed to study effect of MK-571 and probenecid, inhibitors of the MRP1 and OATP transporters, expressed in the basal trophoblast membrane, on the transfer of ..
  5. Wolf D, Rodriguez C, Mucci M, Ingrosso A, Duncan B, Nickens D. Pharmacokinetics and renal effects of cidofovir with a reduced dose of probenecid in HIV-infected patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;43:43-51 pubmed
    To reduce possible nephrotoxicity, intravenous prehydration with normal saline and administration of probenecid must be used with each infusing of the antiviral cidofovir...
  6. Rayner C, Chanu P, Gieschke R, Boak L, Jonsson E. Population pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir when coadministered with probenecid. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;48:935-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma concentrations of the active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate, are increased in the presence of probenecid, suggesting that the combination could allow for the use of reduced doses of oseltamivir...
  7. Silverman W, Locovei S, Dahl G. Probenecid, a gout remedy, inhibits pannexin 1 channels. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C761-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Probenecid is a well-established drug for the treatment of gout and is thought to act on an organic anion transporter, thereby affecting uric acid excretion in the kidney by blocking urate reuptake...
  8. Stocker S, Williams K, McLachlan A, Graham G, Day R. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between allopurinol and probenecid in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47:111-8 pubmed
    Combination therapy with allopurinol and probenecid is used to treat tophaceous gout in patients who do not respond sufficiently to allopurinol alone...
  9. Holodniy M, Penzak S, Straight T, Davey R, Lee K, Goetz M, et al. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oseltamivir combined with probenecid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:3013-21 pubmed publisher
    ..and given 75 mg oral oseltamivir every 24 h (group 1), 75 mg oseltamivir every 48 h (q48h) combined with 500 mg probenecid four times a day (group 2), or 75 mg oseltamivir q48h combined with 500 mg probenecid twice a day (group 3) for ..
  10. Izzedine H, Brocheriou I, Becart J, Deray G. Probenecid-induced membranous nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:2405-6 pubmed
  11. Schackis R. Hyperuricaemia and preeclampsia: is there a pathogenic link?. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63:239-44 pubmed
    ..A tertiary referral center. Forty women with preeclampsia between 26 and 32 weeks gestation. Probenecid 250 mg twice daily for seven days. Renal function and haematological parameters, hypertensive control...
  12. Silverman W, de Rivero Vaccari J, Locovei S, Qiu F, Carlsson S, Scemes E, et al. The pannexin 1 channel activates the inflammasome in neurons and astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of the inflammasome by K(+) was inhibited by the pannexin 1 channel blocker probenecid, supporting a role of pannexin 1 in inflammasome activation...
  13. Araya C, Lew J, Fennell R, Neiberger R, Dharnidharka V. Intermediate-dose cidofovir without probenecid in the treatment of BK virus allograft nephropathy. Pediatr Transplant. 2006;10:32-7 pubmed
    ..75-1.0 mg/kg/dose) without probenecid, and without concomitant nephrotoxicity...
  14. Monien B, Müller C, Bakhiya N, Donath C, Frank H, Seidel A, et al. Probenecid, an inhibitor of transmembrane organic anion transporters, alters tissue distribution of DNA adducts in 1-hydroxymethylpyrene-treated rats. Toxicology. 2009;262:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested the hypothesis that probenecid, a characteristic OAT inhibitor, interferes with kidney damage brought about by 1-SMP formed in rats...
  15. Blum A, Walsh B, Dubyak G. Extracellular osmolarity modulates G protein-coupled receptor-dependent ATP release from 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Probenecid attenuated PAR1-stimulated ATP release under isotonic but not mild hypotonic conditions and had no effect on ..
  16. Ilett K, Hackett L, Ingle B, Bretz P. Transfer of probenecid and cephalexin into breast milk. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:986-9 pubmed
    To report a case of the transfer of probenecid and cephalexin into human milk...
  17. Masseno V, Muriithi S, Nzila A. In vitro chemosensitization of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarials by verapamil and probenecid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:3131-4 pubmed publisher
    We tested the effect of probenecid and verapamil in chemosensitizing Plasmodium falciparum to 14 antimalarials using the multidrug-resistant strain V1S and the drug-sensitive 3D7. Verapamil chemosensitizes V1S to quinine and chloroquine...
  18. Li A, Leung C, Peterson Yantorno K, Mitchell C, Civan M. Pathways for ATP release by bovine ciliary epithelial cells, the initial step in purinergic regulation of aqueous humor inflow. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C1308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..bCE ATP release was inhibited by the relatively selective blocker of pannexin-1 (PX1) hemichannels (probenecid, 1 mM, 47 ± 2%), by a connexin inhibitor (heptanol, 1 mM, 49 ± 4%), and by an inhibitor of vesicular release (..
  19. Tahara H, Kusuhara H, Chida M, Fuse E, Sugiyama Y. Is the monkey an appropriate animal model to examine drug-drug interactions involving renal clearance? Effect of probenecid on the renal elimination of H2 receptor antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316:1187-94 pubmed
    The renal drug-drug interaction between famotidine (an H(2) receptor antagonist) and probenecid has not been reproduced in rats...
  20. Nzila A, Mberu E, Bray P, Kokwaro G, Winstanley P, Marsh K, et al. Chemosensitization of Plasmodium falciparum by probenecid in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2108-12 pubmed
    ..Studies with human tumor cells have shown that probenecid can reverse resistance to the antifolate methotrexate, but the potential for reversal of antifolate resistance ..
  21. Nzila A, Kokwaro G, Winstanley P, Marsh K, Ward S. Therapeutic potential of folate uptake inhibition in Plasmodium falciparum. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:109-12 pubmed
  22. Sirotnak F, Wendel H, Bornmann W, Tong W, Miller V, Scher H, et al. Co-administration of probenecid, an inhibitor of a cMOAT/MRP-like plasma membrane ATPase, greatly enhanced the efficacy of a new 10-deazaaminopterin against human solid tumors in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6:3705-12 pubmed
    Earlier studies from this laboratory have shown that the uricosuric agent probenecid (PBCD) will inhibit the extrusion of folate analogues from tumor cells mediated by a plasma membrane ATPase resembling the canicular multispecific ..
  23. Dogan A, Legrand O, Faussat A, Perrot J, Marie J. Evaluation and comparison of MRP1 activity with three fluorescent dyes and three modulators in leukemic cell lines. Leuk Res. 2004;28:619-22 pubmed
    ..diacetate (CFDA) and Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in combination with the modulators cyclosporin A (CsA), probenecid and MK571...
  24. Reinders M, van Roon E, Houtman P, Brouwers J, Jansen T. Biochemical effectiveness of allopurinol and allopurinol-probenecid in previously benzbromarone-treated gout patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:1459-65 pubmed
    ..compared with previous treatment with benzbromarone; and (2) investigate the combination therapy allopurinol-probenecid as an effective alternative treatment compared with previous benzbromarone treatment...
  25. Sowunmi A, Fehintola F, Adedeji A, Gbotosho G, Falade C, Tambo E, et al. Open randomized study of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine vs. pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine plus probenecid for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:606-14 pubmed
    ..b>Probenecid, an inhibitor of organic anion transporters and multiresistance-associated proteins, can chemosensitize P...
  26. Al Jarrah M, Pothakos K, Novikova L, Smirnova I, Kurz M, Stehno Bittel L, et al. Endurance exercise promotes cardiorespiratory rehabilitation without neurorestoration in the chronic mouse model of parkinsonism with severe neurodegeneration. Neuroscience. 2007;149:28-37 pubmed injecting male C57BL/6 mice with 10 doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (25 mg/kg) and probenecid (250 mg/kg) over 5 weeks...
  27. Lacy S, Hitchcock M, Lee W, Tellier P, Cundy K. Effect of oral probenecid coadministration on the chronic toxicity and pharmacokinetics of intravenous cidofovir in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol Sci. 1998;44:97-106 pubmed
    ..b>Probenecid, a competitive inhibitor of organic anion transport in the proximal tubular epithelial cells, was evaluated for ..
  28. Sowunmi A, Adedeji A, Fateye B, Fehintola F. Comparative effects of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, with and without probenecid, on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in children with acute, uncomplicated malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:873-8 pubmed
  29. Wein S, Fauroux M, Laffitte J, de Nadai P, Guaïni C, Pons F, et al. Mediation of annexin 1 secretion by a probenecid-sensitive ABC-transporter in rat inflamed mucosa. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;67:1195-202 pubmed
    ..4+/-2.8% in the presence of 1mM pervanadate. Probenecid, an inhibitor of several ABC-transporters of the subfamilly ABCC or MRP (multidrug resistant associated protein),..
  30. Myllynen P, Kurttila T, Vaskivuo L, Vahakangas K. DNA damage caused by benzo(a)pyrene in MCF-7 cells is increased by verapamil, probenecid and PSC833. Toxicol Lett. 2007;169:3-12 pubmed
    ..125-100 microM), PSC833 (0.05-5 microM) or probenecid (0.05-2 mM)...
  31. Kang D, Han L, Ouyang X, Kahn A, Kanellis J, Li P, et al. Uric acid causes vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by entering cells via a functional urate transporter. Am J Nephrol. 2005;25:425-33 pubmed
    ..VSMC under polarized and depolarized conditions and in the presence of organic anion transport (OAT) inhibitors (probenecid and benzbromarone) or p-aminohippurate (PAH)...
  32. Tahara H, Kusuhara H, Maeda K, Koepsell H, Fuse E, Sugiyama Y. Inhibition of oat3-mediated renal uptake as a mechanism for drug-drug interaction between fexofenadine and probenecid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:743-7 pubmed
    ..Simultaneous administration of probenecid increases the plasma concentration of fexofenadine due to an inhibition of its renal elimination in healthy ..
  33. Steffgen J, Rohrbach S, Beery E, Ersoy D, Jarry H, Metten M, et al. Demonstration of a probenecid-inhibitable anion exchanger involved in the release of cortisol and cAMP and in the uptake of p-aminohippurate in bovine adrenocortical cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 1999;9:72-80 pubmed
    Recently we provided evidence for the involvement of a probenecid-inhibitable anion exchanger in cortisol release from primary cultures of bovine adrenocortical cells...
  34. Wang P, Wang Q, Sims P, Hyde J. Characterisation of exogenous folate transport in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;154:40-51 pubmed
    ..Import into both infected erythrocytes and free parasites was strongly inhibited by the anion-channel blockers probenecid and furosemide, which are likely to be acting predominantly on specific folate transporters in both cases...
  35. Bang S, Kim K, Yoo S, Lee S, Hwang S. Transient receptor potential V2 expressed in sensory neurons is activated by probenecid. Neurosci Lett. 2007;425:120-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast, specific agents for another vanilloid subtype channel, TRPV2 have been lacking. Here, we show that probenecid is able to activate TRPV2 using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques with TRPV2-expressing ..
  36. Alvarez Fischer D, Guerreiro S, Hunot S, Saurini F, Marien M, Sokoloff P, et al. Modelling Parkinson-like neurodegeneration via osmotic minipump delivery of MPTP and probenecid. J Neurochem. 2008;107:701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal cell loss occurred, however, if MPTP was infused concomitantly with probenecid, an uricosuric agent which potentiates the effects of the toxin injected via the i.p. route...
  37. Koch S, Gao X, Haar L, Jiang M, Lasko V, Robbins N, et al. Probenecid: novel use as a non-injurious positive inotrope acting via cardiac TRPV2 stimulation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:134-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Probenecid is a highly lipid soluble benzoic acid derivative originally used to increase serum antibiotic concentrations. It was later discovered to have uricosuric effects and was FDA approved for gout therapy...
  38. Silva Adaya D, Perez De La Cruz V, Villeda Hernandez J, Carrillo Mora P, Gonzalez Herrera I, Garcia E, et al. Protective effect of L-kynurenine and probenecid on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced striatal toxicity in rats: implications of modulating kynurenate as a protective strategy. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011;33:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The systemic administration of L-kynurenine (L-KYN)--the precursor of KYNA--together with probenecid (PROB)--an inhibitor of organic acids transport--to rodents increases KYNA levels in the brain in a dose-..
  39. Di Virgilio F, Steinberg T, Silverstein S. Inhibition of Fura-2 sequestration and secretion with organic anion transport blockers. Cell Calcium. 1990;11:57-62 pubmed
    ..sequestration and secretion are mediated by organic anion transport systems and are blocked by the inhibitors probenecid and sulfinpyrazone...
  40. Ko H, Cathcart K, Griffith D, Peters G, Adams W. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered cefmetazole and cefoxitin and effects of probenecid on cefmetazole elimination. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33:356-61 pubmed
    ..three-way crossover study comparing the pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole, cefoxitin, and cefmetazole with probenecid pretreatment...
  41. Adelson M, Graves W, Osborne N. Treatment of urinary infections in pregnancy using single versus 10-day dosing. J Natl Med Assoc. 1992;84:73-5 pubmed
    ..Two hundred two patients were randomized prospectively to a single oral dose of 3.5 g ampicillin plus 1 g probenecid (98 patients) versus 500 mg ampicillin orally four times a day for 10 days (104 patients)...
  42. Warwick Z, Dean G, Fisher M. Should syphilis be treated differently in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals? Treatment outcomes at a university hospital, Brighton, UK. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:229-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We report our experience using a 17-day course of daily procaine penicillin plus probenecid in HIV-positive individuals and two doses of benzathine in HIV-negative patients...
  43. Penuela S, Kelly J, Churko J, Barr K, Berger A, Laird D. Panx1 regulates cellular properties of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in skin development and wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2026-2035 pubmed publisher
    ..mice exhibited significantly reduced contraction, comparable to WT fibroblasts treated with the Panx1 blocker, probenecid. KO fibroblasts did not increase ?-smooth muscle actin expression in response to TGF-?, as is the case for ..
  44. Hu J, Liu X, Xie L, Wang G, Liu H. Possible multiple transporters were involved in hepatobiliary excretion of antofloxacin in rats. Xenobiotica. 2007;37:579-91 pubmed
    ..When plasma concentrations of ATFX reached steady state, cyclosporin A, erythromycin, probenecid, cimetidine and diclofenac were administered intravenously to the rats...
  45. Fury M, Krug L, Azzoli C, Sharma S, Kemeny N, Wu N, et al. A phase I clinical pharmacologic study of pralatrexate in combination with probenecid in adults with advanced solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;57:671-7 pubmed
    ..Preclinical models indicated that the efficacy of pralatrexate may be enhanced by coadministration with probenecid. The aim of this phase I study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose of pralatrexate when combined with ..
  46. Cai S, Horne D. Transport of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate into primary cultured rat astrocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;410:161-6 pubmed
    ..Uptake was also inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate and by the anions probenecid and 4,4(')-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2(')-disulfonic acid...
  47. Salzer W, Widemann B, McCully C, Adamson P, Balis F. Effect of probenecid on ventricular cerebrospinal fluid methotrexate pharmacokinetics after intralumbar administration in nonhuman primates. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2001;48:235-40 pubmed
    ..The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of intralumbar and intravenous probenecid on ventricular CSF MTX concentrations after intralumbar administration of MTX, and to compare the ..
  48. Balis F, Blaney S, McCully C, Bacher J, Murphy R, Poplack D. Methotrexate distribution within the subarachnoid space after intraventricular and intravenous administration. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2000;45:259-64 pubmed
    ..Methotrexate CSF distribution after intraventricular injection was uneven, and at steady-state CSF methotrexate concentrations were lower at sites that were more distant from the injection site. ..
  49. Laethem M, Belpaire F, Wijnant P, Bogaert M. Effect of probenecid on the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of oxprenolol and its glucuronides in the rabbit. Pharm Res. 1995;12:1964-7 pubmed
    To study the effect of probenecid on the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of oxprenolol and its glucuronides in the rabbit...
  50. Chayakul P, Yipintsoi T. Intravenous followed by oral antimicrobial therapy for staphylococcal endocarditis. J Med Assoc Thai. 1993;76:559-63 pubmed
    ..intravenous cloxacillin for an average of 10 days and followed by oral cloxacillin or dicloxacillin, both with probenecid, for a total duration of 4 wks...
  51. Park Y, Son J, Lee B, Kim H, Yoon S. Highly Eribulin-resistant KBV20C Oral Cancer Cells Can Be Sensitized by Co-treatment with the Third-generation P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor, Elacridar, at a Low Dose. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:4139-4146 pubmed
    ..P-gp inhibitors, verapamil, elacridar, cyclosporine A, mitotane, piperine, fumagillin, curcumin, indomethacin, probenecid, sulindac, tesmilifene, and C-4...
  52. Kobayashi Y, Tsuchiya A, Hayashi T, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T. Isolation and characterization of polyspecific mouse organic solute carrier protein 1 (mOscp1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:1239-45 pubmed
    ..mOscp1 transported various kinds of structurally dissimilar drugs and chemicals such as probenecid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and glutarate with some differences in substrate specificity compared with ..
  53. Hainz N, Wolf S, Tschernig T, Meier C. Probenecid Application Prevents Clinical Symptoms and Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Inflammation. 2016;39:123-128 pubmed publisher
    ..As Panx1 is expressed on T cells, we here propose that application of probenecid, a known Panx inhibitor, will prevent the onset of clinical symptoms in a mouse model of MS, the experimental ..