chlorthalidone

Summary

Summary: A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.

Top Publications

  1. Neff K, Nawarskas J. Hydrochlorothiazide versus chlorthalidone in the management of hypertension. Cardiol Rev. 2010;18:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is despite several clinical trials that have used and documented the benefits of chlorthalidone for hypertension management...
  2. Rahman M, Pressel S, Davis B, Nwachuku C, Wright J, Whelton P, et al. Renal outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a calcium channel blocker vs a diuretic: a report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHA. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:936-46 pubmed
    ..55 years or older with at least 1 other coronary heart disease risk factor were randomized to receive chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril for a mean of 4.9 years...
  3. Heidenreich P, Davis B, Cutler J, Furberg C, Lairson D, Shlipak M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of chlorthalidone, amlodipine, and lisinopril as first-step treatment for patients with hypertension: an analysis of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23:509-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Trial (ALLHAT) found that first-line treatment with lisinopril or amlodipine was not significantly superior to chlorthalidone in terms of the primary endpoint, so differences in costs may be critical for optimizing decision-making...
  4. Sica D, Bakris G, White W, Weber M, Cushman W, Huang P, et al. Blood pressure-lowering efficacy of the fixed-dose combination of azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone: a factorial study. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..FDCs) of the angiotensin II receptor blocker azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M) and the thiazide-like diuretic chlorthalidone (CLD) with the individual monotherapies in a double-blind factorial study...
  5. Carter B, Ernst M, Cohen J. Hydrochlorothiazide versus chlorthalidone: evidence supporting their interchangeability. Hypertension. 2004;43:4-9 pubmed
    Thiazide diuretics are one of the preferred pharmacologic treatments for hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone have been the 2 most commonly used diuretics in major clinical trials...
  6. Yamanari H, Nakamura K, Miura D, Yamanari S, Ohe T. Spironolactone and chlorthalidone in uncontrolled elderly hypertensive patients treated with calcium antagonists and angiotensin II receptor-blocker: effects on endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2009;31:585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the differences between spironolactone and chlorthalidone in hypertensive elderly patients treated with calcium antagonists and angiotensin II receptor blockers...
  7. Lynch A, Boerwinkle E, Davis B, Ford C, Eckfeldt J, Leiendecker Foster C, et al. Pharmacogenetic association of the NPPA T2238C genetic variant with cardiovascular disease outcomes in patients with hypertension. JAMA. 2008;299:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants were randomly assigned to receive a diuretic (chlorthalidone; n = 13,860), a calcium antagonist (amlodipine; n = 8174), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (..
  8. Bakris G, Sica D, White W, Cushman W, Weber M, Handley A, et al. Antihypertensive efficacy of hydrochlorothiazide vs chlorthalidone combined with azilsartan medoxomil. Am J Med. 2012;125:1229.e1-1229.e10 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlorthalidone has proven efficacy to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, yet it is infrequently used in practice...
  9. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran C. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:1214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..these structurally related compounds have a very different behavior against the widespread isozyme CA II, with chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide being efficient inhibitors against CA II (K(I)s of 65-138 nM), whereas ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Cushman W, Bakris G, White W, Weber M, Sica D, Roberts A, et al. Azilsartan medoxomil plus chlorthalidone reduces blood pressure more effectively than olmesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide in stage 2 systolic hypertension. Hypertension. 2012;60:310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..blocker, is a new treatment for hypertension that is also being developed in fixed-dose combinations with chlorthalidone, a potent, long-acting thiazide-like diuretic...
  2. Raheja P, Price A, Wang Z, Arbique D, Adams Huet B, Auchus R, et al. Spironolactone prevents chlorthalidone-induced sympathetic activation and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2012;60:319-25 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies from our laboratory indicate that chlorthalidone triggers persistent activation of the sympathetic nervous system and promotes insulin resistance in hypertensive patients, independent of serum potassium...
  3. Roush G, Holford T, Guddati A. Chlorthalidone compared with hydrochlorothiazide in reducing cardiovascular events: systematic review and network meta-analyses. Hypertension. 2012;59:1110-7 pubmed publisher
    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is widely used for hypertension, and prescriptions for HCTZ outnumber those for chlorthalidone (CTDN) by >20-fold in 2 recent surveys. Some have recently expressed a preference for CTDN...
  4. Dorsch M, Gillespie B, Erickson S, Bleske B, Weder A. Chlorthalidone reduces cardiovascular events compared with hydrochlorothiazide: a retrospective cohort analysis. Hypertension. 2011;57:689-94 pubmed publisher
    There is significant controversy around whether chlorthalidone (CTD) is superior to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in hypertension management...
  5. Pareek A, Karnik N, Salagre S, Zawar S, Joglekar V, Chandurkar N, et al. Clinical effectiveness of low-dose chlorthalidone (6.25 mg) + atenolol combination in stage I hypertensive patients: a multicenter, randomized, controlled study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24:1771-9 pubmed publisher
    To compare the efficacy and safety of low-dose chlorthalidone + atenolol combination with atenolol and atenolol + amlodipine combination in stage I hypertensive patients uncontrolled on active run-in monotherapy.
  6. Wright J, Dunn J, Cutler J, Davis B, Cushman W, Ford C, et al. Outcomes in hypertensive black and nonblack patients treated with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, and lisinopril. JAMA. 2005;293:1595-608 pubmed
    ..regimens initiated with a CCB (amlodipine) or an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) vs a thiazide-type diuretic (chlorthalidone). Other medications were added to achieve goal blood pressures (BPs) less than 140/90 mm Hg...
  7. Youssef R, Maher H, El Kimary E, Hassan E, Barary M. Validated stability-indicating methods for the simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, and chlorthalidone using HPTLC and HPLC with photodiode array detector. J AOAC Int. 2013;96:313-23 pubmed
    ..methods are described for simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride (AMI), atenolol (ATE), and chlorthalidone (CHL) in combined dosage forms...
  8. Ernst M, Carter B, Goerdt C, Steffensmeier J, Phillips B, Zimmerman M, et al. Comparative antihypertensive effects of hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone on ambulatory and office blood pressure. Hypertension. 2006;47:352-8 pubmed
    Low-dose thiazide-type diuretics are recommended as initial therapy for most hypertensive patients. Chlorthalidone has significantly reduced stroke and cardiovascular end points in several landmark trials; however, hydrochlorothiazide ..
  9. Black H, Davis B, Barzilay J, Nwachuku C, Baimbridge C, Marginean H, et al. Metabolic and clinical outcomes in nondiabetic individuals with the metabolic syndrome assigned to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril as initial treatment for hypertension: a report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Pre. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:353-60 pubmed
    ..and renal outcomes in individuals assigned to initial hypertension treatment with a thiazide-like diuretic (chlorthalidone), a calcium channel blocker (CCB; amlodipine), or an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) in nondiabetic individuals ..
  10. Wolfgram D, Gundu V, Astor B, Jhagroo R. Hydrochlorothiazide compared to chlorthalidone in reduction of urinary calcium in patients with kidney stones. Urolithiasis. 2013;41:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..There has been a recent trend of using lower doses of these medications and change from chlorthalidone (CTL) use to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) use...
  11. el Gindy A, Emara S, Mostafa A. HPLC and chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of atenolol, amiloride hydrochloride and chlorthalidone. Farmaco. 2005;60:269-78 pubmed
    ..methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of atenolol (AT), amiloride hydrochloride (AM) and chlorthalidone (CD)...
  12. Dhalla I, Gomes T, Yao Z, Nagge J, Persaud N, Hellings C, et al. Chlorthalidone versus hydrochlorothiazide for the treatment of hypertension in older adults: a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:447-55 pubmed publisher
    Some evidence suggests that chlorthalidone may be superior to hydrochlorothiazide for the treatment of hypertension. To compare the effectiveness and safety of chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide in older adults...
  13. Kostis W, Cabrera J, Messerli F, Cheng J, Sedjro J, Cosgrove N, et al. Competing cardiovascular and noncardiovascular risks and longevity in the systolic hypertension in the elderly program. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:676-81 pubmed publisher
    We examined the effect of chlorthalidone-based stepped care on the competing risks of cardiovascular (CV) versus non-CV death in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP)...
  14. Menard J, Serrurier D, Bautier P, Plouin P, Corvol P. Crossover design to test antihypertensive drugs with self-recorded blood pressure. Hypertension. 1988;11:153-9 pubmed
    ..Both methods of blood pressure measurement demonstrated an antihypertensive effect of the diuretics chlorthalidone (25 mg) and triamterene (50 mg) and the beta-blocker oxprenolol (160 mg) and the greater efficacy of the ..
  15. Hayer M, Edwards N, Slinn G, Moody W, Steeds R, Ferro C, et al. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, blinded end point trial comparing the effects of spironolactone to chlorthalidone on left ventricular mass in patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease: Rationale and design of the SPIRO-CKD trial. Am Heart J. 2017;191:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to investigate the hypothesis that spironolactone is superior to chlorthalidone in the reduction of LV mass while exerting similar effects on blood pressure...
  16. Woodman R, Lockette W. Alpha-methyltyrosine inhibits formation of reactive oxygen species and diminishes apoptosis in PC12 cells. Brain Res. 2009;1296:137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..reduces reactive oxygen species formation and apoptosis in PC12 cells; and (3) that acetazolamide, chlorthalidone, and the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, which inhibits chloride transport, protect PC12 cells from apoptosis...
  17. Do A, Lynch A, Claas S, Boerwinkle E, Davis B, Ford C, et al. The effects of genes implicated in cardiovascular disease on blood pressure response to treatment among treatment-naive hypertensive African Americans in the GenHAT study. J Hum Hypertens. 2016;30:549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..channel blocker (amlodipine), and an a-adrenergic blocker (doxazosin) as compared with a thiazide diuretic (chlorthalidone) after 6 months of follow-up. Several suggestive gene by treatment interactions were identified...
  18. Shahin M, Sá A, Webb A, Gong Y, Langaee T, McDonough C, et al. Genome-Wide Prioritization and Transcriptomics Reveal Novel Signatures Associated With Thiazide Diuretics Blood Pressure Response. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..This association was replicated in independent participants treated with chlorthalidone. In addition, rs10995 G-allele was associated with increased mRNA expression of VASP (vasodilator-stimulated ..
  19. Serro Azul J, de Paula R, Gruppi C, Pinto L, Pierri H, Nussbacher A, et al. Effects of chlorthalidone and diltiazem on myocardial ischemia in elderly patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2001;76:268-72 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chlorthalidone and diltiazem on myocardial ischemia...
  20. Haris A, Rado J. Patterns of potassium wasting in response to stepwise combinations of diuretics in nephrotic syndrome. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999;37:332-40 pubmed
    ..Nine different intervention-induced changes were followed daily: furosemide (FSD) alone, FSD with chlorthalidone (CTN), "low dose" and "high dose" potassium sparing drugs (PSD), FSD with CTN and "..
  21. Crowson M, Patki A, Tucci D. A Systematic Review of Diuretics in the Medical Management of Ménière's Disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Six studies investigated isosorbide; 5, hydrochlorothiazide; 2, acetazolamide; 2, chlorthalidone; and 1 each of betahistine, hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, acetazolamide, hydrochlorothiazide-..
  22. Wright J, Harris Haywood S, Pressel S, Barzilay J, Baimbridge C, Bareis C, et al. Clinical outcomes by race in hypertensive patients with and without the metabolic syndrome: Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..outcomes by race in hypertensive individuals with and without MetS treated with a thiazide-type diuretic (chlorthalidone), a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine besylate), an alpha-blocker (doxazosin mesylate), or an angiotensin-..
  23. Dewland T, Soliman E, Yamal J, Davis B, Alonso A, Albert C, et al. Pharmacologic Prevention of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: Long-Term Results From the ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial). Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..to determine whether randomization to lisinopril reduces incident AF or atrial flutter (AFL) compared with chlorthalidone in a large clinical trial cohort with extended post-trial surveillance...
  24. Dusing R. [Hypertensive patient with metabolic syndrome: would you prescribe a diuretic as the initial treatment? (interview by Thomas Meissner)]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2008;150:17 pubmed
  25. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran C. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone and indapamide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II: when three water molecules and the keto-enol tautomerism make the difference. J Med Chem. 2009;52:322-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Acting as moderate-weak inhibitors of CA II and CA I, chlorthalidone and indapamide considerably inhibit other isozymes among the 16 CAs present in vertebrates...
  26. Moes A, Hesselink D, van den Meiracker A, Zietse R, Hoorn E. Chlorthalidone Versus Amlodipine for Hypertension in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Tacrolimus: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;69:796-804 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlorthalidone is a very effective antihypertensive drug, but it has not been studied prospectively in kidney transplant recipients with hypertension...
  27. Tziomalos K, Athyros V, Mikhailidis D, Karagiannis A. Hydrochlorothiazide vs. chlorthalidone as the optimal diuretic for the management of hypertension. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:3766-72 pubmed
    Even though hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and chlorthalidone are frequently considered interchangeable antihypertensive agents, they appear to differ both in their blood pressure lowering efficacy and in their effects on the lipid profile ..
  28. Grimm R, Grandits G, Prineas R, McDonald R, Lewis C, Flack J, et al. Long-term effects on sexual function of five antihypertensive drugs and nutritional hygienic treatment in hypertensive men and women. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Hypertension. 1997;29:8-14 pubmed
    ..women), aged 45 to 69 years, treated with placebo or one of five active drugs (acebutolol, amlodipine maleate, chlorthalidone, doxazosin maleate, or enalapril maleate)...
  29. Elshanawane A, Mostafa S, Elgawish M. Development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and chlorthalidone in their combined mixtures. J AOAC Int. 2009;92:404-9 pubmed
    ..determination of 2 ternary mixtures containing amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and chlorthalidone used in hypertension therapy...
  30. Wepner U. [Established blood pressure drug wins out in a comparative study. In hypertension, a diuretic first!]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2003;145:10-2 pubmed
  31. Einhorn P, Davis B, Wright J, Rahman M, Whelton P, Pressel S. ALLHAT: still providing correct answers after 7 years. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2010;25:355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The totality of evidence re-affirms the initial ALLHAT conclusion that thiazide and similar diuretics (at evidence-based doses) are the preferred first-step therapy in most patients with hypertension. ..
  32. Trapp O. A novel software tool for high throughput measurements of interconversion barriers: DCXplorer. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008;875:42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..DCXplorer was applied to determine the enantiomerization barrier of the diuretic drug chlorthalidone by pressure supported dynamic capillary electrokinetic chromatography (DEKC) under acidic conditions at pH 5...
  33. Os I, Landmark K, Toft I. [Can hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone be compared in the treatment of hypertension?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004;124:829 pubmed
  34. Malacco E, Mancia G, Rappelli A, Menotti A, Zuccaro M, Coppini A. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension: the SHELL study results. Blood Press. 2003;12:160-7 pubmed
    Our aim was to compare the effect of lacidipine and chlorthalidone on cardiovascular outcome as a primary parameter and blood pressure as a secondary in elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension in a prospective study with an ..
  35. Hwang A, Dave C, Smith S. Trends in Antihypertensive Medication Use Among US Patients With Resistant Hypertension, 2008 to 2014. Hypertension. 2016;68:1349-1354 pubmed
    ..unchanged from 2008 to 2014, with hydrochlorothiazide being by far the most prevalent thiazide diuretic; chlorthalidone use increased only modestly (+2.6% [3.8% to 6.4%]). Aldosterone antagonist use increased only modestly (+2...
  36. Peterzan M, Hardy R, Chaturvedi N, Hughes A. Meta-analysis of dose-response relationships for hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, and bendroflumethiazide on blood pressure, serum potassium, and urate. Hypertension. 2012;59:1104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are widely used in the management of hypertension, but recently the equivalence of hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone for blood pressure (BP) lowering and prevention of cardiovascular disease has been questioned...
  37. Rosendorff C. Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. A Case-Based Summary of the 2015 AHA/ACC/ASH Scientific Statement. Am J Med. 2016;129:372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thiazide or thiazide-like (chlorthalidone) diuretics and calcium channel blockers can be used for the management of hypertension, but the evidence for ..
  38. Kostis J, Davis B, Cutler J, Grimm R, Berge K, Cohen J, et al. Prevention of heart failure by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. SHEP Cooperative Research Group. JAMA. 1997;278:212-6 pubmed
    ..Stepped-care antihypertensive drug therapy, in which the step 1 drug is chlorthalidone (12.5-25 mg) or matching placebo, and the step 2 drug is atenolol (25-50 mg) or matching placebo...
  39. Kwon B, Jang S, Choi K, Kim D, Cho E, Ihm S, et al. Comparison of the efficacy between hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone on central aortic pressure when added on to candesartan in treatment-naïve patients of hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2013;36:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it has remained unclear whether hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or chlorthalidone (CTD) shows better improvement in central aortic pressure...
  40. Vagaonescu T, Wilson A, Kostis J. Atrial fibrillation and isolated systolic hypertension: the systolic hypertension in the elderly program and systolic hypertension in the elderly program-extension study. Hypertension. 2008;51:1552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants were randomly assigned to stepped care treatment with chlorthalidone and atenolol (n=2365) or placebo (n=2371)...
  41. Singh S, McDonough C, Gong Y, Alghamdi W, Arwood M, Bargal S, et al. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies the HMGCS2 Locus to be Associated With Chlorthalidone Induced Glucose Increase in Hypertensive Patients. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal was to identify genomic variants associated with thiazide-like diuretic/chlorthalidone-induced glucose change...
  42. Cirillo M, Marcarelli F, Mele A, Romano M, Lombardi C, Bilancio G. Parallel-group 8-week study on chlorthalidone effects in hypertensives with low kidney function. Hypertension. 2014;63:692-7 pubmed publisher
    Short-term effects of chlorthalidone are unknown in low kidney function...
  43. Kountz D, Goldman A, Mikhail J, Ezer M. Chlorthalidone: the forgotten diuretic. Postgrad Med. 2012;124:60-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlorthalidone's safety and efficacy in the management of hypertension has been demonstrated in landmark trials...
  44. Fong M, Filippone J, Beck G, Katz M, Bisognano J. Improving care in resistant hypertension: medication trends and nonpharmacologic strategies in a specialty clinic. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2007;7:449-52 pubmed
    ..the up-titration of CCBs to high doses, and the initiation of moderate doses of thiazide diuretics; mainly chlorthalidone (67% final visit vs 0% at initial visit)...
  45. Siebenhofer A, Horvath K, Kraly B, Plank J. [Diabetes and drug treatment of hypertension]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2003;153:464-8 pubmed
    ..First line antihypertensive agents are: chlorthalidone or other thiazide-type diuretics, beta-blockers and ACE-inhibitors...
  46. Haider D, Lindner G, Wolzt M, Leichtle A, Fiedler G, Sauter T, et al. Use of Diuretics is not associated with mortality in patients admitted to the emergency department: results from a cross-sectional study. J Negat Results Biomed. 2016;15:1 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Age and creatinine were independent risk factors for mortaliy (both p < 0.05). Use of diuretics is not associated with mortality in an unselected cohort of patients presenting in an emergency room. ..
  47. Cushman W, Ford C, Einhorn P, Wright J, Preston R, Davis B, et al. Blood pressure control by drug group in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008;10:751-60 pubmed publisher
    ..9 years) by randomized groups: chlorthalidone, 12.5-25 mg/d (n=15,255), amlodipine 2...
  48. Irvin M, Lynch A, Kabagambe E, Tiwari H, Barzilay J, Eckfeldt J, et al. Pharmacogenetic association of hypertension candidate genes with fasting glucose in the GenHAT Study. J Hypertens. 2010;28:2076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..GenHAT participants were randomized to receive treatment with a diuretic (chlorthalidone), calcium channel blocker (amlodipine), or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (lisinopril)...
  49. Salam A. What are the best first-line antihypertensives: answers and more questions from the ALLHAT study. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003;12:879-85 pubmed
    ..Additionally, further questions raised by the ALLHAT study are explored with ongoing studies, and future directions with which to answer these emerging new questions are outlined. ..
  50. Dell Omo G, Penno G, Del Prato S, Pedrinelli R. Chlorthalidone improves endothelial-mediated vascular responses in hypertension complicated by nondiabetic metabolic syndrome. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2005;10:265-72 pubmed
    The study was conducted to evaluate the vascular effects of chlorthalidone, a distal tubule-acting natriuretic agent, in hypertensive patients with nondiabetic metabolic syndrome, an insulin-resistant condition characterized by ..
  51. Heckman G, Psaty B. Amlodipine or lisinopril was not better than chlorthalidone in lowering CHD risk in hypertension. ACP J Club. 2003;139:A15; author reply A15 pubmed
  52. Margolis K, Piller L, Ford C, Henriquez M, Cushman W, Einhorn P, et al. Blood pressure control in Hispanics in the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial. Hypertension. 2007;50:854-61 pubmed
  53. Trimarco V, de Simone G, Izzo R, De Luca N, Giudice R, Marino M, et al. Persistence and adherence to antihypertensive treatment in relation to initial prescription: diuretics versus other classes of antihypertensive drugs. J Hypertens. 2012;30:1225-32 pubmed publisher