rafoxanide

Summary

Summary: Veterinary anthelmintic for grazing animals; used to treat fluke, hookworm and other infestations.

Top Publications

  1. van Wyk J, Malan F. Resistance of field strains of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin, closantel, rafoxanide and the benzimidazoles in South Africa. Vet Rec. 1988;123:226-8 pubmed
    ..to the benzimidazole anthelmintics in South Africa, further strains of the same species developed resistance to rafoxanide and closantel, and a strain of Ostertagia species became resistant to the benzimidazoles...
  2. el Banna H, Goudah A, El Zorba H, Abd El Rahman S. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ivermectin alone and a novel formulation of ivermectin and rafoxanide in calves and sheep. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:1337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of 200 microg/kg body weight of IVM alone or in combination with an anthelmintic consisting of ivermectin and rafoxanide (200 microg/kg of IVM and 2.5 mg/kg rafoxanide) for use in calves and sheep...
  3. AlAmri M, Kadri H, Alderwick L, Simpkins N, Mehellou Y. Rafoxanide and Closantel Inhibit SPAK and OSR1 Kinases by Binding to a Highly Conserved Allosteric Site on Their C-terminal Domains. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:639-645 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in silico screening, we identified the antiparasitic agent rafoxanide as a novel allosteric inhibitor of SPAK and OSR1...
  4. Saad A, Hamdy A, Salama F, Abdelkawy M. Validated UPLC and TLC-Densitometry Stability Indicating Methods for the Determination of Rafoxanide in the Presence of Its Degradation Products. J Chromatogr Sci. 2016;: pubmed
    ..and accurate stability-indicating chromatographic methods were developed and validated for the determination of rafoxanide (RFX). Degradation products were identified by mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy...
  5. Tharmalingam N, Port J, Castillo D, Mylonakis E. Repurposing the anthelmintic drug niclosamide to combat Helicobacter pylori. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3701 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the inhibitory effects of anthelmintic drugs (niclosamide, oxyclozanide, closantel, rafoxanide) against Helicobacter pylori strain 60190 and pursued further characterization of niclosamide against H. pylori...
  6. Echevarria F, Correa M, Wehrle R, Correa I. Experiments on anthelmintic control of Fasciola hepatica in Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 1992;43:211-22 pubmed
    ..and December); G2, TCBZ twice a year (May and September); G3, nitroxynil twice a year (May and September); G4, rafoxanide twice a year (May and September); G5, untreated controls...
  7. Elitok B, Elitok O, Kabu M. Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:279-85 pubmed
    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle...
  8. van Wyk J, Malan F, Van Rensburg L, Oberem P, Allan M. Quality control in generic anthelmintics: is it adequate?. Vet Parasitol. 1997;72:157-65 pubmed
    ..consequences this would have for sheep farming, it was decided to test the efficacy of some of the generic rafoxanide products available on the South African market...
  9. Taylor S, Mallon T, Blanchflower J, Kennedy D, Hewitt S. Effects of dietary variations on plasma concentrations of oral flukicides in sheep. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1993;16:48-54 pubmed
    ..were either housed and fed hay and concentrates or were grazing on pasture were dosed with the oral flukicides rafoxanide and triclabendazole and subsequent plasma concentrations monitored...

More Information

Publications40

  1. Poul J, Verlinde V, Abjean J, Laurentie M. Oral toxicity in weanling and adult rats and in vitro genotoxicity of the veterinary anthelmintic rafoxanide. J Appl Toxicol. 1993;13:117-22 pubmed
    The oral toxicity of the veterinary anthelmintic Rafoxanide was evaluated in newborn rats exposed in utero and during lactation. In another group, 3 months of oral treatment started after weaning...
  2. Swan G, Botha C, Taylor J, Mulders M, Minnaar P, Kloeck A. Differences in the oral bioavailability of three rafoxanide formulations in sheep. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1995;66:197-201 pubmed
    The bioavailability of a modified rafoxanide oral suspension was compared to the original innovator product and a generic formulation in a single dose, randomised, parallel design study in sheep (n = 30)...
  3. Maurer K, Decere M, Fried B. Effects of the anthelmintics clorsulon, rafoxanide, mebendazole and arprinocid on Echinostoma caproni in ICR mice. J Helminthol. 1996;70:95-6 pubmed
    ..At 14 days post-exposure, mice were fed by stomach tube clorsulon (1000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 100 mg/ kg) or rafoxanide (50 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) carrier and mebendazole (1000 mg/kg and ..
  4. Boersema J, Pandey V. Anthelmintic resistance of trichostrongylids in sheep in the highveld of Zimbabwe. Vet Parasitol. 1997;68:383-8 pubmed
    ..On ten farms the efficacy of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide was tested by a faecal egg count reduction test...
  5. Power C, Danaher M, Sayers R, O BRIEN B, Whelan M, Furey A, et al. Investigation of the persistence of rafoxanide residues in bovine milk and fate during processing. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30:1087-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Rafoxanide is an effective treatment for the control of fluke infections in animals, but it is currently not permitted for treating animals whose milk is intended for human consumption...
  6. Swan G, Koeleman H, Steyn H, Mulders M. Intravascular plasma disposition and salivary secretion of closantel and rafoxanide in sheep. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1999;70:75-9 pubmed
    The plasma and salivary disposition of closantel and rafoxanide were examined following intravenous administration in adult sheep. Two studies were conducted with rafoxanide at 7.5 mg/kg and 1 with closantel using 2 doses (5 and 15 mg/kg)...
  7. van Wyk J, Stenson M, van der Merwe J, Vorster R, Viljoen P. Anthelmintic resistance in South Africa: surveys indicate an extremely serious situation in sheep and goat farming. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1999;66:273-84 pubmed
    ..Alternative methods of integrated worm control, including biological, must be sought and implemented with urgency, to reduce further selection for resistance and to induce reversion of the resistance that has already developed...
  8. Benchaoui H, McKellar Q. Determination of rafoxanide and closantel in ovine plasma by high performance liquid chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr. 1993;7:181-3 pubmed
    A high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of rafoxanide and closantel in ovine plasma. Acetonitrile and chloroform were used for the extraction. The mean recoveries were 78.69% and 80...
  9. Ostlind D, Mickle W, Smith S, Cifelli S, Ewanciw D. The Hymenolepis diminuta-golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model for the evaluation of gastrointestinal anticestode activity. J Parasitol. 2004;90:898-9 pubmed
    ..The gastrointestinal nematode anthelmintics, cambendazole and mebendazole, were active at 50 mg/kg. Rafoxanide (fasciolicide) was active at 25 mg/kg, the lowest level tested...
  10. Ram H, Rasool T, Sharma A, Meena H, Singh S. Comparative efficacy of different anthelmintics against fenbendazole-resistant nematodes of pashmina goats. Vet Res Commun. 2007;31:719-23 pubmed
    A trial using albendazole, albendazole plus rafoxanide combination, ivermectin and doramectin was conducted in Pashmina goats having history of fenbendazole resistance to Haemonchus spp...
  11. Srivastava R, Sharma S. Synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted benzimidazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 3,5-diiodosalicylanilides as structural congeners of rafoxanide and closantel. Pharmazie. 1990;45:34-7 pubmed
    ..33-38) and benzoxazines (14, 30, 31) has been carried out as the structural congeners of rafoxanide and closantel...
  12. Atef M, El Gendi A, Amer A, Abd El Aty A. Effect of three anthelmentics on disposition kinetics of florfenicol in goats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3340-4 pubmed publisher
    ..wt. Animals were pre-treated with albendazole orally in a dose of 2.5 mg kg(-1) b.wt, ivermectin or rafoxanide subcutaneously in a dose 0.2 and 7.5 mg kg(-1) b.wt, respectively...
  13. Waruiru R, Kogi J, Weda E, Ngotho J. Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Kenya. Vet Parasitol. 1998;75:191-7 pubmed
    The anthelmintic efficacy of benzimidazoles, levamisole, rafoxanide and ivermectin was evaluated on an institutional farm in Kenya using faecal egg count reduction test, larval cultures and a controlled slaughter trial...
  14. Yeung H, Ching W, Lai S, Lee W, Wong Y. Quantitative analysis of closantel and rafoxanide in bovine and ovine muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:1672-7 pubmed
    ..method with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was described for the quantitative determination of closantel and rafoxanide in bovine and ovine muscles. A structural analog closely related to rafoxanide, viz...
  15. Lai S, Yeung H, Lee W, Ho C, Wong Y. Determination of closantel and rafoxanide in animal tissues by online anionic mixed-mode solid-phase extraction followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2011;34:1366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..pre-concentration and clean-up using anionic mixed-mode SPE was described for the determination of closantel and rafoxanide in edible bovine and ovine tissues...
  16. Cringoli G, Rinaldi L, Veneziano V, Genchi C. A dual anthelmintic treatment strategic scheme for the control of fasciolosis in dairy sheep farms. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:700-5 pubmed
    ..of either one of two different anthelmintics on the flock, albendazole sulphoxide (SO) at 1-month intervals and rafoxanide at 2-month intervals, administered to the lactating and non-lactating animals, respectively...
  17. Matsubara K, Sanoh S, Ohta S, Kitamura S, Sugihara K, Fujimoto N. An improved thyroid hormone reporter assay to determine the thyroid hormone-like activity of amiodarone, bithionol, closantel and rafoxanide. Toxicol Lett. 2012;208:30-5 pubmed publisher
    ..activity from the antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone, and from three anti-parasitic drugs, bithionol, closantel and rafoxanide, all commonly used in veterinary medicine...
  18. Richards R, Bowen F, Essenwein F, Steiger R, Buscher G. The efficacy of triclabendazole and other anthelmintics against Fasciola hepatica in controlled studies in cattle. Vet Rec. 1990;126:213-6 pubmed
    ..were used to assess the efficacies of triclabendazole, albendazole, clorsulon, nitroxynil, oxyclozanide and rafoxanide against Fasciola hepatica...
  19. Bakunzi F. Anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area of South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2003;74:82-3 pubmed
    ..In herds belonging to 10 small-holder goat farmers, the efficacies of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide were tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests...
  20. Swarnkar C, Sanyal P, Singh D, Khan F, Bhagwan P. Anthelmintic resistance on an organized sheep farm in India. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2001;33:305-12 pubmed
    ..sheep farm in the semi-arid area of Rajasthan revealed the emergence of resistance to benzimidazoles and rafoxanide and a potential risk of the development of levamisole/tetramisole resistance...
  21. Maurer K, Decere M, Fried B. Effects of the anthelmintics clorsulon, rafoxanide, mebendazole and arprinocid on Echinostoma caproni in ICR mice [corrected and reapublished in J Helminthol 1996 Mar;70(1):95-6]. J Helminthol. 1995;69:373-4 pubmed
    ..At 14 days post-exposure, mice were fed by stomach tube clorsulon (1000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) or rafoxanide (50 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) carrier and mebendazole (1000 mg/kg and ..
  22. Swan G, Mulders M. Pharmacokinetics of rafoxanide in suckling and weaned lambs following oral administration. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1993;64:67-70 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetics of rafoxanide administered orally at 15 mg kg-1 were compared in suckling lambs (n = 8), aged 5-8 weeks and weaned lambs (n = 8), aged 21-22 weeks. A significant difference (p < 0...
  23. Gill J, Redwin J, van Wyk J, Lacey E. Avermectin inhibition of larval development in Haemonchus contortus--effects of ivermectin resistance. Int J Parasitol. 1995;25:463-70 pubmed
    ..isolates from both Australia and South Africa, including isolates known to be resistant to levamisole or rafoxanide and/or the benzimidazoles, were equally sensitive to inhibition by AVMs. In contrast, 6 isolates of H...
  24. van Wyk J, Malan F, Gerber H, Alves R. The problem of escalating resistance of Haemonchus contortus to the modern anthelmintics in South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1989;56:41-9 pubmed
    ..Four of the 5 strains were resistant to ivermectin, 2 to closantel, 2 to rafoxanide and 2 to the benzimidazoles...
  25. Swan G, Oliver D, Van Rensburg J, Steyn H, Mulders M. Stability and partitioning of closantel and rafoxanide in ruminal fluid of sheep. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2000;67:97-103 pubmed
    The stability and the partitioning of closantel and rafoxanide in ruminal fluid (RF) was examined in vitro. Stability was evaluated in two studies in a ruminal fluid-artificial saliva (RF-AS) mixture containing either drug...
  26. Yeung H, Lee W, Wong Y. Screening of closantel and rafoxanide in animal muscles by HPLC with fluorescence detection and confirmation using MS. J Sep Sci. 2010;33:206-11 pubmed publisher
    A sensitive and selective LC-FLD method was described for determination of closantel and rafoxanide in bovine and ovine muscles. Bovine and ovine muscles were extracted with ACN and acetone mixture (80:20, v/v)...
  27. Swan G, Koeleman H, Steyn H, Mulders M. Relative bioavailability of rafoxanide following intraruminal and intra-abomasal administration in sheep. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1999;70:71-4 pubmed
    The bioavailability of rafoxanide was compared after intraruminal and intra-abomasal administration in healthy adult sheep (n = 6) in a single dose, 2 parallel group study at 7.5 mg/kg...
  28. Benchaoui H, McKellar Q. Effect of early treatment with rafoxanide on antipyrine clearance in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica. Xenobiotica. 1993;23:439-48 pubmed
    1. The effect of the salicylanilide compound rafoxanide against immature stages of Fasciola hepatica was investigated in sheep using a series of antipyrine clearance tests and measuring glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl ..
  29. Miller C, Howell M, Boray J. Glutathione S-transferases as markers of salicylanilide resistance in isolates of Fasciola hepatica. Int J Parasitol. 1994;24:533-42 pubmed
    ..Evidence was collected to show that this may be a selective process since flukes which had survived exposure to rafoxanide and closantel in vivo (in sheep) had lower activity levels of GST than flukes from untreated sheep...
  30. Prchal L, Vokřál I, Kasný M, Rejšková L, Zajíčková M, Lamka J, et al. Metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics in giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Xenobiotica. 2016;46:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Benzimidazoles like albendazole, mebendazole, triclabendazole and salicylanilides closantel and rafoxanide are the most used anthelmintics to control fascioloidosis...
  31. Rapic D, Dzakula N, Sakar D, Richards R. Comparative efficacy of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and rafoxanide against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. Vet Rec. 1988;122:59-62 pubmed
    In two trials the fasciolicidal activities of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and rafoxanide were assessed in cattle naturally infected with predominantly immature stages of Fasciola hepatica...