Summary: Amides of salicylic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Yoshida K, Terashima I, Noguchi K. Distinct roles of the cytochrome pathway and alternative oxidase in leaf photosynthesis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:22-31 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we discuss possible roles for CP and AOX in the light. ..
  2. Inoue M, Suhara T, Sudo Y, Okubo Y, Yasuno F, Kishimoto T, et al. Age-related reduction of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor measured by PET. Life Sci. 2001;69:1079-84 pubmed
    ..4% in parietal cortex, 12.4% in occipital cortex, 12.2% in hippocampus, and 4.8% in thalamus. These findings suggest that the amounts of D2 receptor declines in all brain regions as part of the normal aging process. ..
  3. Pauk K, Zadrazilova I, Imramovsky A, Vinsova J, Pokorná M, Masaříková M, et al. New derivatives of salicylamides: Preparation and antimicrobial activity against various bacterial species. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:6574-81 pubmed publisher
    ..09?mol/L), 3h against Pasteurella multocida (?0.03?mol/L) and M. kansasii (?0.43?mol/L), 3i against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and B. cereus (?0.03?mol/L). The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all the compounds. ..
  4. Narendran R, Mason N, Chen C, Himes M, Keating P, May M, et al. Evaluation of dopamine D?/? specific binding in the cerebellum for the positron emission tomography radiotracer [¹¹C]FLB 457: implications for measuring cortical dopamine release. Synapse. 2011;65:991-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, caution is advised when using reference tissue methods that rely solely on the cerebellum signal as an input function to quantify [¹¹C]FLB 457 BP(ND)...
  5. Narendran R, Mason N, May M, Chen C, Kendro S, Ridler K, et al. Positron emission tomography imaging of dopamine D?/? receptors in the human cortex with [¹¹C]FLB 457: reproducibility studies. Synapse. 2011;65:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the further validation of [¹¹C]FLB 457 as a tool to measure amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the human cortex...
  6. Asselin M, Montgomery A, Grasby P, Hume S. Quantification of PET studies with the very high-affinity dopamine D2/D3 receptor ligand [11C]FLB 457: re-evaluation of the validity of using a cerebellar reference region. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27:378-92 pubmed
    ..Binging potential estimates from the SRTM were found to be sensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow, providing further evidence for caution in the use of the cerebellum as a reference region in measures of [(11)C]FLB 457 binding. ..
  7. Cervenka S, Gustavsson J, Halldin C, Farde L. Association between striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor binding and social desirability. Neuroimage. 2010;50:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together with previous evidence on D2-receptor binding and social behaviour, a role for dopaminergic neurotransmission in regulating displays of dominance vs. submissive behaviour is proposed. ..
  8. Sudo Y, Suhara T, Inoue M, Ito H, Suzuki K, Saijo T, et al. Reproducibility of [11 C]FLB 457 binding in extrastriatal regions. Nucl Med Commun. 2001;22:1215-21 pubmed
    ..These results support the suitability of using [11C]FLB 457 for the quantitative evaluation of extrastriatal D2 receptors and for protocols requiring repeated measurements in the same individual. ..
  9. Dinakar C, Abhaypratap V, Yearla S, Raghavendra A, Padmasree K. Importance of ROS and antioxidant system during the beneficial interactions of mitochondrial metabolism with photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Planta. 2010;231:461-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the maintenance of cellular ROS at optimal levels is a prerequisite to sustain high photosynthetic rates which in turn is regulated by respiratory capacities of COX and AOX pathways...

More Information


  1. Breier A, Kestler L, Adler C, Elman I, Wiesenfeld N, Malhotra A, et al. Dopamine D2 receptor density and personal detachment in healthy subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1440-2 pubmed
  2. Narendran R, Frankle W, Mason N, Rabiner E, Gunn R, Searle G, et al. Positron emission tomography imaging of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the human cortex: a comparative evaluation of the high affinity dopamine D2/3 radiotracers [11C]FLB 457 and [11C]fallypride. Synapse. 2009;63:447-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that [(11)C]FLB 457 is superior to [(11)C]fallypride for measurement of changes in cortical synaptic dopamine. ..
  3. Aalto S, Brück A, Laine M, Någren K, Rinne J. Frontal and temporal dopamine release during working memory and attention tasks in healthy humans: a positron emission tomography study using the high-affinity dopamine D2 receptor ligand [11C]FLB 457. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2471-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that regionally specific components of the frontotemporal dopaminergic network are functionally involved in WM performance in humans. ..
  4. Olsson H, Halldin C, Farde L. Differentiation of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor density and affinity in the human brain using PET. Neuroimage. 2004;22:794-803 pubmed
    ..In such studies, the mass of FLB 457 has to be less than 0.5 microg injected to avoid a mass effect of the radioligand itself. ..
  5. Hutter J, Martel A, Trigiani L, Barrett S, Chapman C. Rewarding stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus induces a dopamine-dependent suppression of synaptic responses in the entorhinal cortex. Behav Brain Res. 2013;252:266-74 pubmed publisher
  6. Obiol Pardo C, Lopez L, Pastor M, Selent J. Progress in the structural prediction of G protein-coupled receptors: D3 receptor in complex with eticlopride. Proteins. 2011;79:1695-703 pubmed publisher
    ..All in all, this case study highlights the current progress in modeling GPCR complexes and underlines that in silico modeling can be a valuable complement in GPCR drug discovery. ..
  7. Kaasinen V, Vilkman H, Hietala J, NAgren K, Helenius H, Olsson H, et al. Age-related dopamine D2/D3 receptor loss in extrastriatal regions of the human brain. Neurobiol Aging. 2000;21:683-8 pubmed
    ..Further, the rate of D2/3R decline may be faster in the frontal cortex as compared to the temporal and thalamic regions. ..
  8. Chien E, Liu W, Zhao Q, KATRITCH V, Han G, Hanson M, et al. Structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor in complex with a D2/D3 selective antagonist. Science. 2010;330:1091-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This difference provides direction to the design of D3R-selective agents for treating drug abuse and other neuropsychiatric indications. ..
  9. Fahmy H, El Eraky W. Synthesis and evaluation of the analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of O-substituted salicylamides. Arch Pharm Res. 2001;24:171-9 pubmed
    ..Some of the compounds were tested for their analgesic and antiinflammatory activities as well as ulcerogenic effects. Some derivatives were more effective than salicylamide and ulcerogenic activity was variably lowered. ..
  10. Okauchi T, Suhara T, Maeda J, Kawabe K, Obayashi S, Suzuki K. Effect of endogenous dopamine on extrastriatal [¹¹C]FLB 457 binding measured by PET. Synapse. 2001;41:87-95 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that [11C]FLB 457 is not sensitive to endogenous dopamine in the extrastriatal regions of rhesus monkeys, despite a sufficient dose of MAP to decrease the binding of [11C]raclopride in the striatum. ..
  11. Aalto S, Hirvonen J, Kaasinen V, Hagelberg N, Kajander J, Någren K, et al. The effects of d-amphetamine on extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled PET study with [11C]FLB 457 in healthy subjects. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that [(11)C]FLB 457 PET is not a useful method for measuring extrastriatal dopamine release in humans. ..
  12. Ott R, Chibale K, Anderson S, Chipeleme A, Chaudhuri M, Guerrah A, et al. Novel inhibitors of the trypanosome alternative oxidase inhibit Trypanosoma brucei brucei growth and respiration. Acta Trop. 2006;100:172-84 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the results suggest we have identified a new class of compounds that are inhibitors of TAO, have trypanocidal properties in vitro, and warrant further investigation in vivo. ..
  13. Volkow N, Wang G, Fowler J, Logan J, Gatley S, Hitzemann R, et al. Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects. Nature. 1997;386:830-3 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they suggest a participation of thalamic dopamine pathways in cocaine addiction, a possibility that merits further investigation. ..
  14. Loc h C, Halldin C, Bottlaender M, Swahn C, Moresco R, Maziere M, et al. Preparation of [76Br]FLB 457 and [76Br]FLB 463 for examination of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D-2 receptors with PET. Nucl Med Biol. 1996;23:813-9 pubmed
    ..5. [76Br]FLB 457 has in contrast to [76Br]FLB 463 a high uptake in thalamic structures and has therefore an additional potential as a radioligand for PET examination of extrastriatal dopamine D-2 receptors in the living human brain...
  15. Breier A, Su T, Saunders R, Carson R, Kolachana B, de Bartolomeis A, et al. Schizophrenia is associated with elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations: evidence from a novel positron emission tomography method. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2569-74 pubmed
    ..These data provide direct evidence for the hypothesis of elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations in schizophrenia. ..
  16. Gilbert López B, Llorent Martínez E, Ortega Barrales P, Molina Diaz A. Development of a multicommuted flow-through optosensor for the determination of a ternary pharmaceutical mixture. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:515-21 pubmed
    ..The sensor was applied to the determination of the analytes in several pharmaceutical preparation of the Spanish Pharmacopoeia, obtaining satisfactory results. ..
  17. Delforge J, Bottlaender M, Pappata S, Loc h C, Syrota A. Absolute quantification by positron emission tomography of the endogenous ligand. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001;21:613-30 pubmed
    ..This approach is transferable to patients, because the experimental data are obtained without pharmacologically induced modification of the EL. ..
  18. Lang Unnasch N, Murphy A. Metabolic changes of the malaria parasite during the transition from the human to the mosquito host. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1998;52:561-90 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on comparing and contrasting the carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein synthetic capabilities of asexual erythrocytic stages and sexual stages of P. falciparum. ..
  19. Seeman P, Tallerico T. Rapid release of antipsychotic drugs from dopamine D2 receptors: an explanation for low receptor occupancy and early clinical relapse upon withdrawal of clozapine or quetiapine. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:876-84 pubmed
    ..The rapid release of clozapine and quetiapine from D2 receptors by endogenous dopamine may contribute to low D2 receptor occupancy and to early clinical relapse upon withdrawal of these medications. ..
  20. Heinz A, Siessmeier T, Wrase J, Buchholz H, Grunder G, Kumakura Y, et al. Correlation of alcohol craving with striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and D2/3 receptor availability: a combined [18F]DOPA and [18F]DMFP PET study in detoxified alcoholic patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1515-20 pubmed
    ..Simultaneous assay by PET of pre- and postsynaptic markers of dopamine neurotransmission indicated that a striatal dopamine deficit correlated with alcohol craving, which was associated with a high relapse risk. ..
  21. Jenab S, Festa E, Nazarian A, Wu H, Sun W, Hazim R, et al. Cocaine induction of ERK proteins in dorsal striatum of Fischer rats. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;142:134-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this single cocaine administration does not alter the levels of phospho-CREB protein or CREB-DNA bindings in the caudate/putamen protein extracts but does increase phospho-Elk-1 protein levels in the same extracts. ..
  22. López Rodríguez M, Morcillo M, Rovat T, Fernandez E, Sanz A, Orensanz L. 1-[omega-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)alkyl]-3-diphenylmethylene-2,5- pyrrolidinediones as 5-HT1A receptor ligands: study of the steric requirements of the terminal amide fragment on 5-HT1A affinity/selectivity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1998;8:581-6 pubmed
  23. Dean B, Pavey G, Opeskin K. [3H]raclopride binding to brain tissue from subjects with schizophrenia: methodological aspects. Neuropharmacology. 1997;36:779-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the binding of [3H]raclopride is dependent on methodology and therefore data from in vitro and in vivo studies using this drug should be interpreted with caution. ..
  24. Meredith G, Switzer R, Napier T. Short-term, D2 receptor blockade induces synaptic degeneration, reduces levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and enhances D2-mediated firing in the ventral pallidum. Brain Res. 2004;995:14-22 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the functional ramifications of these changes appear to include profound alterations in the way dopamine regulates neuronal activity in this region. ..
  25. Tateno A, Arakawa R, Okumura M, Fukuta H, Honjo K, Ishihara K, et al. Striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by a novel antipsychotic, blonanserin: a PET study with [11C]raclopride and [11C]FLB 457 in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013;33:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9 to 22.1 mg/d of blonanserin required for 70% to 80% dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy in the striatum, and the good blood-brain barrier permeability that suggested a relatively lower risk of hyperprolactinemia. ..
  26. Dooley C, Devocelle M, McLoughlin B, Nolan K, Fitzgerald D, Sharkey C. A novel family of hydroxamate-based acylating inhibitors of cyclooxygenase. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;63:450-5 pubmed
    ..Hence, salicylhydroxamic acid provides a versatile backbone for the generation of a family of acylating inhibitors of cyclooxygenase. ..
  27. Steeves T, Ko J, Kideckel D, Rusjan P, Houle S, Sandor P, et al. Extrastriatal dopaminergic dysfunction in tourette syndrome. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These abnormalities of dopaminergic function localize to brain regions previously implicated in TS and suggest a mechanism for the hyperexcitability of thalamocortical circuits that has been documented in the disorder. ..
  28. Masuda M, Kanai S, Miyasaka K. Inhibitory effect of central dopamine on basal pancreatic secretion in conscious rats. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:G29-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that central dopamine inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion via D1-like receptors and that the inhibitory effect is mediated via sympathetic nerves, especially alpha-adrenoceptors...
  29. Nakagawa Y, Tayama S. Metabolism and cytotoxicity of bisphenol A and other bisphenols in isolated rat hepatocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2000;74:99-105 pubmed
    ..In addition, the toxic potency of bisphenols to hepatocytes and mitochondria depends on the relative elongation and/or molecular size of the hydrocarbon bridge between the phenolic groups. ..
  30. Gao J, Li Y, Zhu N, Brimijoin S, Sui N. Roles of dopaminergic innervation of nucleus accumbens shell and dorsolateral caudate-putamen in cue-induced morphine seeking after prolonged abstinence and the underlying D1- and D2-like receptor mechanisms in rats. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27:181-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate a critical role of dopaminergic transmission in the NAshell (via D1-like receptors) and dlCPu (via D1- and D2-like receptors) in morphine seeking after prolonged abstinence. ..
  31. Hsueh C, Kuo J, Chen S, Huang H, Cheng F, Chung L, et al. Involvement of catecholamines in recall of the conditioned NK cell response. J Neuroimmunol. 1999;94:172-81 pubmed
    ..These information indicated the possible roles of the central noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems in regulating the recall of the conditioned NK cell response. ..
  32. Stiles L, Zheng Y, Darlington C, Smith P. The D? dopamine receptor and locomotor hyperactivity following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 2012;227:150-8 pubmed publisher
  33. Mille E, Cumming P, Rominger A, la Fougere C, Tatsch K, Wängler B, et al. Compensation for cranial spill-in into the cerebellum improves quantitation of striatal dopamine D?/? receptors in rats with prolonged [¹?F]-DMFP infusions. Synapse. 2012;66:705-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this phenomenon, we developed an analytic method compensating for the effects of progressive cranial labeling on the estimation of specific binding in striatum. ..
  34. Wein S, Cermak R, Wolffram S, Langguth P. Chronic quercetin feeding decreases plasma concentrations of salicylamide phase II metabolites in pigs following oral administration. Xenobiotica. 2012;42:477-82 pubmed publisher
  35. Farrar A, Segovia K, Randall P, Nunes E, Collins L, Stopper C, et al. Nucleus accumbens and effort-related functions: behavioral and neural markers of the interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors. Neuroscience. 2010;166:1056-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, anergia and fatigue. ..
  36. Arakawa R, Ito H, Okumura M, Takano A, Takahashi H, Takano H, et al. Extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy in olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;260:345-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, although the subjects and methods were different from previous striatal occupancy studies, these results suggest that limbic occupancy by olanzapine may not be so different from that in the striatum. ..
  37. Fukami J, Yonemochi E, Yoshihashi Y, Terada K. Evaluation of rapidly disintegrating tablets containing glycine and carboxymethylcellulose. Int J Pharm. 2006;310:101-9 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that the tablet formulation containing NS-300 and glycine was highly applicable to water-insoluble drug, such as ethenzamide. ..
  38. Ko J, Ptito A, Monchi O, Cho S, van Eimeren T, Pellecchia G, et al. Increased dopamine release in the right anterior cingulate cortex during the performance of a sorting task: a [11C]FLB 457 PET study. Neuroimage. 2009;46:516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may provide some insights on the origin of cognitive deficits underlying certain neurological disorders associated with dopamine dysfunction, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. ..
  39. Tozuka Y, Oguchi T, Yamamoto K. Adsorption and entrapment of salicylamide molecules into the mesoporous structure of folded sheets mesoporous material (FSM-16). Pharm Res. 2003;20:926-30 pubmed
    ..Amorphization of salicylamide contributed to the improvement of dissolution. ..
  40. Dobrossy M, Braun F, Klein S, García J, Langen K, Weber W, et al. [18F]desmethoxyfallypride as a novel PET radiotracer for quantitative in vivo dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging in rat models of neurodegenerative diseases. Nucl Med Biol. 2012;39:1077-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, [(18)F]DMFP-PET is a suitable method for in vivo D2R-assessment in preclinical research, e.g for monitoring cell-based therapies. ..
  41. Moysés D, Barrabin H. Rotenone-sensitive mitochondrial potential in Phytomonas serpens: electrophoretic Ca(2+) accumulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1656:96-103 pubmed
    ..The electrochemical H(+) gradient can be used to promote Ca(2+) uptake by the mitochondria. ..
  42. Eiler W, Masters J, McKay P, Hardy L, Goergen J, Mensah Zoe B, et al. Amphetamine lowers brain stimulation reward (BSR) threshold in alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rats: regulation by D-sub-1 and D-sub-2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;14:361-76 pubmed
  43. Kasumov V, Köksal F. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and redox reactivity of some transition metal complexes with salicylaldimines bearing 2,6-di-phenylphenol. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2004;60:31-9 pubmed
    ..The analysis of ESR spectra of Cu(Lx)(2), Co(L1)(2) and generated phenoxyl radicals are presented. ..
  44. Zhang L, Zhang Z, Gao H, Meng X, Yang C, Liu J, et al. The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway protects the photosynthetic apparatus against photodamage in Rumex K-1 leaves. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the mitochondrial AOX pathway protected the photosynthetic apparatus against photodamage by alleviating the over-reduction of the PSI acceptor side and accelerating the induction of NPQ in Rumex K-1 leaves. ..
  45. Stiles L, Zheng Y, Darlington C, Smith P. The effects of the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, eticlopride, on attention following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2012;506:193-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BVD causes an increase in perseverative behaviour that D(2) receptor blockade does not eliminate, but that D(2) receptors in the frontal cortex are unchanged. ..
  46. Caine S, Negus S, Mello N, Patel S, Bristow L, Kulagowski J, et al. Role of dopamine D2-like receptors in cocaine self-administration: studies with D2 receptor mutant mice and novel D2 receptor antagonists. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2977-88 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that D3 and D4 receptors do not play major roles in the modulation of cocaine self-administration by D2-like drugs. ..
  47. Meng X, Zhang L, Zhang Z, Gao H, Meng Q. [Role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2012;23:1803-8 pubmed
  48. Sutoo D, Akiyama K. Music improves dopaminergic neurotransmission: demonstration based on the effect of music on blood pressure regulation. Brain Res. 2004;1016:255-62 pubmed
    ..Music might regulate and/or affect various brain functions through dopaminergic neurotransmission, and might therefore be effective for rectification of symptoms in various diseases that involve DA dysfunction. ..
  49. Doron R, Fridman L, Yadid G. Dopamine-2 receptors in the arcuate nucleus modulate cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuroreport. 2006;17:1633-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that dopaminergic neurons in the arcuate nucleus may induce the secretion of beta-endorphin in the nucleus accumbens, and that they are implicated in the cocaine reward pathway. ..
  50. Dündar Y, Ozatik Y, Ozatik O, Ergin V, Onkol T, Menevse A, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the salicylamide and salicylic acid derivatives as anti-estrogen agents. Med Chem. 2012;8:481-90 pubmed
    ..Compound 1b was also tested for in vitro anti-cancer activity against ER+, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and it reduced cell viability to 74.01% at 50 nM concentration. ..
  51. Brown P, Kiyatkin E. Sensory effects of intravenous cocaine on dopamine and non-dopamine ventral tegmental area neurons. Brain Res. 2008;1218:230-49 pubmed publisher
  52. Ray N, Miyasaki J, Zurowski M, Ko J, Cho S, Pellecchia G, et al. Extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities of DA homeostasis in Parkinson's patients with medication-induced pathological gambling: a [11C] FLB-457 and PET study. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;48:519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, altered striatal and cortical DA homeostasis may incur vulnerability for the development of PG in PD, linked with the impulsive personality trait. ..
  53. Varty G, Higgins G. Dopamine agonist-induced hypothermia and disruption of prepulse inhibition: evidence for a role of D3 receptors?. Behav Pharmacol. 1998;9:445-55 pubmed