formamides

Summary

Summary: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.

Top Publications

  1. Saladino R, Crestini C, Ciciriello F, Di Mauro E, Costanzo G. Origin of informational polymers: differential stability of phosphoester bonds in ribomonomers and ribooligomers. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5790-6 pubmed
    ..The implications of these facts on the origin of informational polymers are discussed...
  2. Kalam M, Haraguchi K, Chandani S, Loechler E, Moriya M, Greenberg M, et al. Genetic effects of oxidative DNA damages: comparative mutagenesis of the imidazole ring-opened formamidopyrimidines (Fapy lesions) and 8-oxo-purines in simian kidney cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:2305-15 pubmed
    ..dG or Fapy.dA site-specifically incorporated, which showed unequivocally that in simian kidney cells Fapy.G-->T substitutions occur at a higher frequency than 8-oxo-G-->T and that Fapy.dA is very weakly mutagenic, as is 8-oxo-dA...
  3. Yilmaz L, Noguera D. Development of thermodynamic models for simulating probe dissociation profiles in fluorescence in situ hybridization. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007;96:349-63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study offers the first theoretical method to calculate dissociation profiles for perfectly matched probes, and suggests a direction to systematically evaluate the effect of formamide on mismatched probes...
  4. Saladino R, Crestini C, Ciciriello F, Costanzo G, Di Mauro E. Formamide chemistry and the origin of informational polymers. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:694-720 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis that these specific attributes of formamide allowed the onset of prebiotic chemical equilibria capable of Darwinian evolution is discussed...
  5. Krishnamurthy N, Haraguchi K, Greenberg M, David S. Efficient removal of formamidopyrimidines by 8-oxoguanine glycosylases. Biochemistry. 2008;47:1043-50 pubmed
    ..The differences in the activity of the various glycosylases for removal of FapyG and FapyA compared to OG in nonmutagenic versus promutagenic base pair contexts may serve to alter the mutagenic profiles of these lesions in vivo...
  6. Saladino R, Crestini C, Neri V, Brucato J, Colangeli L, Ciciriello F, et al. Synthesis and degradation of nucleic Acid components by formamide and cosmic dust analogues. Chembiochem. 2005;6:1368-74 pubmed
    ..Since the major problem in the origin of informational macromolecules is the instability of their precursors, we also investigate the stabilizing effect of CDAs on the intrinsic instability of oligonucleotides in formamide...
  7. Saladino R, Crestini C, Busiello V, Ciciriello F, Costanzo G, Di Mauro E. Origin of informational polymers. Differential stability of 3'- and 5'-phosphoester bonds in deoxy monomers and oligomers. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35658-69 pubmed
    ..In certain instances the stability of the 5'-phosphoester bond is even higher in the polymer than in the mononucleotide...
  8. Saladino R, Crestini C, Neri V, Ciciriello F, Costanzo G, Di Mauro E. Origin of informational polymers: The concurrent roles of formamide and phosphates. Chembiochem. 2006;7:1707-14 pubmed
    ..The relevance of these effects with respect to the origin of informational polymers is discussed...
  9. Patro J, Haraguchi K, Delaney M, Greenberg M. Probing the configurations of formamidopyrimidine lesions Fapy.dA and Fapy.dG in DNA using endonuclease IV. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13397-403 pubmed
    ..Endo IV incises Fapy.dG to less than 5% under comparable reaction conditions, suggesting that the lesion exists almost exclusively as its beta-anomer in DNA...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Coste F, Ober M, Carell T, Boiteux S, Zelwer C, Castaing B. Structural basis for the recognition of the FapydG lesion (2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine) by formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44074-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The significant differences between the Fpg recognition modes of 8-oxodG and FapydG provide new insights into the Fpg substrate specificity...
  2. Wright A, Lang Unnasch N. Diterpene formamides from the tropical marine sponge Cymbastela hooperi and their antimalarial activity in vitro. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:492-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of the tropical marine sponge Cymbastela hooperi led to the isolation and characterization of five new diterpene formamides, 1-5...
  3. Venkataramaiah T, Plapp B. Formamides mimic aldehydes and inhibit liver alcohol dehydrogenases and ethanol metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36699-706 pubmed
    b>Formamides are unreactive analogues of the aldehyde substrates of alcohol dehydrogenases and are useful for structure-function studies and for specific inhibition of alcohol metabolism...
  4. Saladino R, Ciambecchini U, Crestini C, Costanzo G, Negri R, Di Mauro E. One-pot TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of nucleic bases and acyclonucleosides from formamide: implications for the origin of life. Chembiochem. 2003;4:514-21 pubmed
    ..Moreover, TiO2 selectively affects the rates of degradation of nucleobases, as single units and when embedded in polynucleotides...
  5. Christov P, Brown K, Kozekov I, Stone M, Harris T, Rizzo C. Site-specific synthesis and characterization of oligonucleotides containing an N6-(2-deoxy-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-2,6-diamino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine lesion, the ring-opened product from N7-methylation of deoxyguanosine. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:2324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The furanose and pyranose forms were differentiated by a series of two-dimensional NMR experiments...
  6. Patro J, Wiederholt C, Jiang Y, Delaney J, Essigmann J, Greenberg M. Studies on the replication of the ring opened formamidopyrimidine, Fapy.dG in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10202-12 pubmed
    ..coli suggest that a low dA misincorporation frequency opposite Fapy.dG and inefficient extension of a Fapy.dG:dA base pair work synergistically to minimize the levels of G --> T transversions...
  7. Wiederholt C, Delaney M, Pope M, David S, Greenberg M. Repair of DNA containing Fapy.dG and its beta-C-nucleoside analogue by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and MutY. Biochemistry. 2003;42:9755-60 pubmed
    ..The similar effects of Fapy.dG and 8-oxodG on DNA polymerase and repair enzymes in vitro raise the question as to whether Fapy.dG elicits similar effects in vivo...
  8. Saladino R, Crestini C, Ciambecchini U, Ciciriello F, Costanzo G, Di Mauro E. Synthesis and degradation of nucleobases and nucleic acids by formamide in the presence of montmorillonites. Chembiochem. 2004;5:1558-66 pubmed
    ..The oligonucleotide backbone reactivity to formamide is also affected; this shows that the interaction with montmorillonites modifies the rate of abstraction of the Halpha and Hbeta protons on the sugar moieties...
  9. Carbonniere P, Dargelos A, Ciofini I, Adamo C, Pouchan C. Vibrational analysis of glycine radical: a comparative ab initio static and dynamic study. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:4375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The validity of the analyses is checked for a similar molecule, formamide, for which experimental data are available...
  10. Jiang Y, Wiederholt C, Patro J, Haraguchi K, Greenberg M. Synthesis of oligonucleotides containing Fapy.dG (N(6)-(2-deoxy-alpha,beta-D-erythropentofuranosyl)-2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine) using a 5'-dimethoxytrityl dinucleotide phosphoramidite. J Org Chem. 2005;70:141-9 pubmed
    ..Oligonucleotide purity is assayed using the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and by ESI-MS...
  11. Delaney M, Wiederholt C, Greenberg M. Fapy.dA induces nucleotide misincorporation translesionally by a DNA polymerase. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2002;41:771-3 pubmed
  12. Delaney M, Greenberg M. Synthesis of oligonucleotides and thermal stability of duplexes containing the beta-C-nucleoside analogue of Fapy*dG. Chem Res Toxicol. 2002;15:1460-5 pubmed
    ..The formamide was derived from a nitro group at C5. The phosphoramidite coupled in 80% yield via a single 15-min coupling using tetrazole as activator. Oligonucleotides as long as 36 nucleotides were prepared and characterized by ESI-MS...
  13. Miyakawa S, Cleaves H, Miller S. The cold origin of life: A. Implications based on the hydrolytic stabilities of hydrogen cyanide and formamide. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2002;32:195-208 pubmed
    ..If the HCN polymerization was important for the origin of life, some regions of the primitive earth might have been frozen...
  14. Wiederholt C, Greenberg M. Fapy.dG instructs Klenow exo(-) to misincorporate deoxyadenosine. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:7278-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, Fapy.dG increases the probability that Klenow exo- will make a mistake during replication approximately 80-million fold compared to a template containing the native nucleotide, dG...
  15. Greenberg M, Hantosi Z, Wiederholt C, Rithner C. Studies on N4-(2-deoxy-D-pentofuranosyl)-4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (Fapy.dA) and N6-(2-deoxy-D-pentofuranosyl)-6-diamino-5-formamido-4-hydroxypyrimidine (Fapy.dG). Biochemistry. 2001;40:15856-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Fapy-dA and Fapy-dG will be sufficiently long-lived in DNA so as to warrant investigation of their genotoxicity, and both anomers will be present during this time...
  16. Saladino R, Crestini C, Costanzo G, Negri R, Di Mauro E. A possible prebiotic synthesis of purine, adenine, cytosine, and 4(3H)-pyrimidinone from formamide: implications for the origin of life. Bioorg Med Chem. 2001;9:1249-53 pubmed
    ..The role of catalysts showed to be not limited to the improvement of the yield but it is also relevant in providing a high selectivity in the products distribution...
  17. Urakawa H, Noble P, El Fantroussi S, Kelly J, Stahl D. Single-base-pair discrimination of terminal mismatches by using oligonucleotide microarrays and neural network analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:235-44 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that position of the mismatch at or near the 5' terminus plays a greater role in determining the T(d) and signal intensity of duplexes than the type of mismatch...
  18. Haraguchi K, Delaney M, Wiederholt C, Sambandam A, Hantosi Z, Greenberg M. Synthesis and characterization of oligodeoxynucleotides containing formamidopyrimidine lesions and nonhydrolyzable analogues. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:3263-9 pubmed
    ..dA is readily identified as an alkali-labile lesion with use of piperidine (1.0 M, 90 degrees C, 20 min), but Fapy.dG is less easily identified in this manner...
  19. Chakrabarti R, Schutt C. The enhancement of PCR amplification by low molecular weight amides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:2377-81 pubmed
    ..We found several of these amides to be exceptionally effective and introduce them as novel PCR enhancers...
  20. Kumar S, Kumar M, Siddavattam D, Karegoudar T. Generation of continuous packed bed reactor with PVA-alginate blend immobilized Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells for effective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide from industrial effluents. J Hazard Mater. 2012;199-200:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF...
  21. Crespo Otero R, Mardyukov A, Sanchez Garcia E, Barbatti M, Sander W. Photochemistry of N-methylformamide: matrix isolation and nonadiabatic dynamics. Chemphyschem. 2013;14:827-36 pubmed publisher
  22. Lakatos M. Measurement of residual solvents in a drug substance by a purge-and-trap method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;47:954-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that it could be an alternative sample preparation method besides the static headspace (HS) method. ..
  23. Kuse Y, Asahina D, Nishio Y. Molecular structure and liquid-crystalline characteristics of chitosan phenylcarbamate. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Wide-angle X-ray diffractometry was also used for evaluating the distance and azimuth difference between adjacent nematic thin layers in the cholesteric mesophase. ..
  24. Huang L, Liu J, Shan W, Liu B, Shi A, Li X. The asymmetric synthesis of (R,R)-formoterol via transfer hydrogenation with polyethylene glycol bound Rh catalyst in PEG2000 and water. Chirality. 2010;22:206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..With a mixture of PEG 2000 and water as the reaction media, the catalyst system could be recycled four times. ..
  25. Kamo T, Kashiwabara M, Tanaka K, Ando S, Shibata H, Hirota M. Plant growth inhibitory activity of azo- and azoxyformamides from Calvatia craniiformis and Lycoperdon hiemale. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:507-10 pubmed
    ..0 x 10(-1) mM, suggesting that the azoxy moiety contributes to the inhibitory activity. The plant growth inhibitory activities of 1, 2 and 4 against the barnyard millet seedlings were also measured. ..
  26. Imrat P, Suthanmapinanth P, Saikhun K, Mahasawangkul S, Sostaric E, Sombutputorn P, et al. Effect of pre-freeze semen quality, extender and cryoprotectant on the post-thaw quality of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) semen. Cryobiology. 2013;66:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that strict criteria for semen quality is essential for the selection of Asian elephant bull ejaculates suitable for cryopreservation; stricter initial selection should improve the mean post-thaw quality. ..
  27. Senden R, De Jean P, McAuley K, Schreiner L. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:3301-14 pubmed
    ..The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies. ..
  28. Chawla G, Bansal A. Effect of processing on Celecoxib and its solvates. Pharm Dev Technol. 2004;9:419-33 pubmed
    ..FTIR was also applied for the development of a quantification method to find the percentage of transformation in N,N-dimethyl acetamide solvated form during compression. ..
  29. Swaroop S, Sughosh P, Ramanathan G. Biomineralization of N,N-dimethylformamide by Paracoccus sp. strain DMF. J Hazard Mater. 2009;171:268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..strain DMF showed that the pathway of DMF degradation involves DMA and MMA as intermediates, ultimately leading to the formation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ammonia (NH(3))...
  30. Wang J, Gu J, Nguyen M, Springsteen G, Leszczynski J. From formamide to purine: a self-catalyzed reaction pathway provides a feasible mechanism for the entire process. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:9333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..44 kcal/mol) reported by Sponer et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 720-726). The self-catalyzed mechanistic pathway reported herein is less energetically demanding than previously proposed routes. ..
  31. Duvernay F, Chiavassa T, Borget F, Aycard J. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photodecomposition of urea isolated in cryogenic matrix: first detection of isourea. J Phys Chem A. 2005;109:6008-18 pubmed
    ..A comparison is also performed with other carboxamides, such as formamide (HCONH2) or acetamide (CH3CONH2). ..
  32. Dushanov E, Kholmurodov K, Yasuoka K. Structural and diffusion properties of formamide/water mixture interacting with TiO2 surface. Bioorg Chem. 2013;50:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural, diffusion and density properties of formamide-water mixture on TiO2 are established for a wide temperature range from T=250 K up to T=400 K. ..
  33. Tsimerman M, Mallik D, Matsuo T, Otani T, Tamao K, Organ M. Sterically demanding imidazolinium salts through the activation and cyclization of formamides. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:10352-4 pubmed
    ..This procedure was adopted for the synthesis of seven NHC salts, including ones that were demonstrated to be inaccessible using the conventional orthoformate ester type cyclization method. ..
  34. Chen X, Fang W, Fang D. An ab initio study toward understanding the mechanistic photochemistry of acetamide. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:9689-98 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the reactivity among HCONH(2), CH(3)CONH(2), and CH(3)CONHCH(3) has been made, which provides some new insights into the mechanism of the ultraviolet photodissociation of small amides. ..
  35. Olivier E, du Toit D, Hamman J. Development of an analytical method for the evaluation of N,N-dimethylformamide in dosage form design. Pharmazie. 2007;62:735-8 pubmed
    ..The boiling point of an internal standard candidate material may thereforebe useful in predicting the retention time of that compound under similar conditions...
  36. Franks A, Tronrud C, Kiakos K, Kluza J, Munde M, Brown T, et al. Targeting the ICB2 site of the topoisomerase IIalpha promoter with a formamido-pyrrole-imidazole-pyrrole H-pin polyamide. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:5553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to the authors' knowledge that reports such a markedly different cellular response between two compounds of almost identical binding characteristics. ..
  37. Van Hul M, Bauters D, Himmelreich U, Kindt N, Noppen B, Vanhove M, et al. Effect of gelatinase inhibition on adipogenesis and adipose tissue development. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;39:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Thus, the MMP inhibitor ABT-518 stimulates differentiation of 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes in vitro. It mildly reduces bodyweight gain in a murine model of diet-induced obesity, but does not affect established obesity. ..
  38. Miao M, Wang W, Yang W, Xu L, Ma J, Ren H. Spontaneous dimerization of allenes in situ: an efficient synthesis of substituted 1,2-dimethylenecyclobutanes with high regio- and stereoselectivities. Chemistry. 2015;21:14447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..derivatives from the commercially available starting materials aryl acetylenes, nBuLi, formamides, and trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN) has been achieved...
  39. Frankfurt O. Immunoassay for single-stranded DNA in apoptotic cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;282:85-101 pubmed
    ..The enzyme-linked immunoassay has the ability to distinguish anticancer drugs from toxic chemicals, to predict selective toxicity to cancer cells, and to detect drug synergism. ..
  40. Vuthiphandchai V, Nimrat S, Kotcharat S, Bart A. Development of a cryopreservation protocol for long-term storage of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) spermatophores. Theriogenology. 2007;68:1192-9 pubmed
    ..6-64.1%, respectively) at rates comparable to fresh spermatophores (70.8-78.2% and 66.3-67.8%, respectively). In conclusion, sperm within cryopreserved spermatophores stored in liquid nitrogen retained their viability for up to 210 days. ..
  41. Wang S, Chai Y, Babu B, Satam V, Lee M, David Wilson W. Conformational modulation of DNA by polyamide binding: structural effects of f-Im-Py-Im based derivatives on 5'-ACGCGT-3'. J Mol Recognit. 2013;26:331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the substituents are charged with electrostatic interactions with DNA phosphate groups, and their charge effects on DNA gel mobility have been observed. ..
  42. Grassi M, Volpe E, Colizzi V, Mariani F. An improved, real-time PCR assay for the detection of GC-rich and low abundance templates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Microbiol Methods. 2006;64:406-10 pubmed
    ..This work shows that formamide is a useful PCR additive, increasing the sensitivity and specificity of SYBR Green real-time PCR to detect low abundance mycobacterial RNA from infected samples. ..
  43. Mennucci B, da Silva C. A quantum mechanical strategy to investigate the structure of liquids: the cases of acetonitrile, formamide, and their mixture. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:6803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Only taking into proper account both these effects can a correct picture of the liquid structure be achieved. ..
  44. Kadoma Y. Kinetic polymerization behavior of fluorinated monomers for dental use. Dent Mater J. 2010;29:602-8 pubmed
    ..The overall research results suggested that TFEA and HFIPA would be potentially promising candidates for the monomer liquid component of fluorinated powder-liquid adhesive resins. ..
  45. Swiergiel J, Jadzyn J. Conductivity dynamics and static dielectric permittivity of highly conducting molecular liquids studied with impedance spectroscopy. Formamides. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:14225-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An empirical equation for epsilon(T) dependence for NMF and DMF is proposed. ..
  46. Omondi B, Levendis D, Layh M, Fernandes M. Two polymorphs of N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)formamide. Acta Crystallogr C. 2009;65:o470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..O hydrogen-bonded molecules stacked in a linear fashion. A theoretical study of the two structures allows information to be gained regarding other contributing interactions, such as pi-pi and weak C-H...F, in their crystal structures. ..
  47. Wang Z, Wang C, Zhou L, Sun J. L-Pipecolinic acid derived Lewis base organocatalyst for asymmetric reduction of N-aryl imines by trichlorosilane: effects of the side amide group on catalytic performances. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:787-97 pubmed publisher
    A series of N-formamides derived from pipecolinic acid have been synthesized and tested as Lewis base catalysts for the enantioselective reduction of N-aryl imines by trichlorosilane...
  48. Fernandes P, Shankland K, Florence A, Shankland N, Johnston A. Solving molecular crystal structures from X-ray powder diffraction data: the challenges posed by gamma-carbamazepine and chlorothiazide N,N,-dimethylformamide (1/2) solvate. J Pharm Sci. 2007;96:1192-202 pubmed
  49. Han G, O Hara L, Siniossoglou S, Carman G. Characterization of the yeast DGK1-encoded CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mm) and competitive inhibitor (apparent K(i) = 0.4 mm) of the enzyme. Diacylglycerol kinase activity was stimulated by major membrane phospholipids and was inhibited by CDP-diacylglycerol and sphingoid bases. ..
  50. Whitten A, McKinnon J, Spackman M. Electric field-derived point charges to mimic the electrostatics in molecular crystals. J Comput Chem. 2006;27:1063-70 pubmed
    ..The charges also yield an excellent approximation to the electric field surrounding a molecule in a crystal for use in cluster calculations on molecules in solids. ..
  51. Ito Y, Shibata M, Kusakabe K, Otsuki Y. Method of specific detection of apoptosis using formamide-induced DNA denaturation assay. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:683-92 pubmed
  52. Viota J, Lopez Viota M, Saake B, Stana Kleinschek K, Delgado A. Organoclay particles as reinforcing agents in polysaccharide films. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2010;347:74-8 pubmed publisher
  53. McCann J, Thaiboonrod S, Ulijn R, Saunders B. Effects of crosslinker on the morphology and properties of microgels containing N-vinylformamide, glycidylmethacrylate and vinylamine. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014;415:151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These new water-swellable core-shell microgels were prepared using scalable methods and may enable future preparation of functionalised core-shell microgels and composites. ..
  54. Miyazaki M, Saikawa J, Ishizuki H, Taira T, Fujii M. Isomer selective infrared spectroscopy of supersonically cooled cis- and trans-N-phenylamides in the region from the amide band to NH stretching vibration. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:6098-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The IR spectrum of trans-acetanilide closely resembles that of trans-formanilide, except for vibrations of the methyl group; that is, substitution of the formyl hydrogen to a methyl group has only a minor effect on the amide vibrations...
  55. Navrátil V, Klusák V, Rulísek L. Theoretical aspects of hydrolysis of peptide bonds by zinc metalloenzymes. Chemistry. 2013;19:16634-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the presented data should contribute to efforts to understand enzymatic catalysis more deeply and to gain control of the accuracy and deficiencies of the available theoretical methods and computational approaches...
  56. Andre M, Loidl J, Laus G, Schottenberger H, Bentivoglio G, Wurst K, et al. Ionic liquids as advantageous solvents for headspace gas chromatography of compounds with low vapor pressure. Anal Chem. 2005;77:702-5 pubmed
    ..4.0]undec-7-ene to adjust basic conditions. All analytes could be determined with limits of detection and limits of quantification in the low-ppm concentration range...
  57. Högberg B, Liedl T, Shih W. Folding DNA origami from a double-stranded source of scaffold. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:9154-5 pubmed publisher
  58. Yue X, Chen X, Li Q, Li Z. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phases of a phytosterol ethoxylate in amide solvents. Langmuir. 2013;29:11013-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The results discussed herein should prove to be a useful complement to the growing body of literature regarding steroid surfactant aggregation in polar organic solvents. ..
  59. Massey M, Krull U. A fluorescent molecular switch for room temperature operation based on oligonucleotide hybridization without labeling of probes or targets. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;750:182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The improved signal-to-noise achieved by use of formamide is likely due to preferential displacement of dye molecules that are otherwise electrostatically bound to the polyanionic nucleic acid backbone...
  60. Wallace I, Roberts D. Distinct transport selectivity of two structural subclasses of the nodulin-like intrinsic protein family of plant aquaglyceroporin channels. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16826-34 pubmed
  61. Sanz P, Mó O, Yáñez M, Elguero J. The effects of C by N replacement on the hydrogen bonding of malonaldehyde: N-formylformimidic acid, N-(hydroxymethyl)formamide and related compounds. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:762-9 pubmed publisher
  62. Renic M, Klaus J, Omura T, Kawashima N, Onishi M, Miyata N, et al. Effect of 20-HETE inhibition on infarct volume and cerebral blood flow after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of TS-011 are not associated with changes in the area at risk or CBF and may be because of a potential protective effect in neurons subjected to ischemic stress...
  63. Chao K, Wang P, Chen C, Tang P. Assessment of skin exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide and methyl ethylketone through chemical protective gloves and decontamination of gloves for reuse purposes. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:1024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of this study include an understanding of the use duration of neoprene gloves and proper decontamination of chemical protective gloves for reuse...
  64. Farhadi K, Farajzadeh M, Matin A. Liquid chromatographic determination of benomyl in water samples after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. J Sep Sci. 2009;32:2442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed method has good linearity (0.998) with wide linear dynamic range (0.01-25 mg/L) and low detection limit (0.0033 mg/L), making it suitable for benomyl determination in water samples...
  65. Cwiklik L, Andersson G, Dang L, Jungwirth P. Segregation of inorganic ions at surfaces of polar nonaqueous liquids. Chemphyschem. 2007;8:1457-63 pubmed
    ..g. methanol), the surface-ion effect all but disappears. Based on the present data a general picture of inorganic-ion solvation at the solution-vapor interface of polar liquids is outlined...
  66. Kim J, Choi J, Shin K, Chang S. Copper-mediated sequential cyanation of aryl C-B and arene C-H bonds using ammonium iodide and DMF. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:2528-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation that the reaction proceeds via a two-step process, initial iodination and then cyanation, led us to propose that ammonium iodide plays a dual role to provide iodide and nitrogen atom of the cyano moiety...
  67. Angelina E, Peruchena N. Strength and nature of hydrogen bonding interactions in mono- and di-hydrated formamide complexes. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:4701-10 pubmed publisher
  68. Despa S, Bers D. Functional analysis of Na+/K+-ATPase isoform distribution in rat ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C321-7 pubmed
    ..The functional density of NKA-alpha2 is approximately 4.5 times higher in the T-tubules vs. ESL, whereas NKA-alpha1 is almost uniformly distributed between the TT and ESL...
  69. Berry R, Despa S, Fuller W, Bers D, Shattock M. Differential distribution and regulation of mouse cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase alpha1 and alpha2 subunits in T-tubule and surface sarcolemmal membranes. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:92-100 pubmed
    ..The subcellular distribution of these isoforms in T-tubule and surface sarcolemmal (SSL) membranes and their regulation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is unclear...
  70. Eggert U, Kiger A, Richter C, Perlman Z, Perrimon N, Mitchison T, et al. Parallel chemical genetic and genome-wide RNAi screens identify cytokinesis inhibitors and targets. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e379 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that parallel RNA interference and small molecule screening is a generally useful approach to identifying active small molecules and their target pathways...
  71. Tanabe A, Kawata K. Impact of N,N-dimethylformamide from domestic effluents on river waters. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009;83:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The domestic DMF load per person was calculated to be 0.25 mg/d/person. The percent DMF loads of domestic effluents in the rivers were estimated to be below (8%-32%)...
  72. Li X, Liu W, Sun K, Wang Y, Tan H, Chen G. Theoretical exploration of the cooperative effect in NMF-NMF-amino acid residue hydrogen bonding system. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2008;10:5607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The good performances of PBE1PBE and PM6 have been established by comparisons between these methods...
  73. Gorelik J, Yang L, Zhang Y, Lab M, Korchev Y, Harding S. A novel Z-groove index characterizing myocardial surface structure. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;72:422-9 pubmed
    ..We have used a new method, the Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope (SICM), to investigate in more detail the changes in surface structure of live myocytes during these interventions and to relate them to contractile effects...
  74. Masek T, Vopalensky V, Suchomelova P, Pospisek M. Denaturing RNA electrophoresis in TAE agarose gels. Anal Biochem. 2005;336:46-50 pubmed
    ..Additionally, another benefit is the reduced exposure of laboratory personnel to hazardous chemicals...
  75. Liles M, Williamson L, Rodbumrer J, Torsvik V, Goodman R, Handelsman J. Recovery, purification, and cloning of high-molecular-weight DNA from soil microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3302-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Nucleases that copurified with the metagenomic DNA were removed by incubating plugs with a high-salt and -formamide solution. This method was used to construct large-insert soil metagenomic libraries...
  76. Kumar G, Kumar R, Kumar P, Reddy N, Kumar K, Kantam M, et al. Copper catalyzed oxidative coupling of amines with formamides: a new approach for the synthesis of unsymmetrical urea derivatives. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013;49:6686-8 pubmed publisher
    Direct access to unsymmetrical urea derivatives via copper catalysed C-H/N-H coupling of formamides with amines has been developed at room temperature. This protocol is also applied to the synthesis of chiral urea derivatives.
  77. Moon S, Case D. A new model for chemical shifts of amide hydrogens in proteins. J Biomol NMR. 2007;38:139-50 pubmed
    ..Comparison to observed shifts for 15 proteins shows a significant improvement over existing structure-shift correlations. These additions are incorporated in a new version of the SHIFTS program...
  78. Yamakawa H, Yokoyama S, Hirano T, Kitamura H, Ohara O. A simple and robust method for preparation of cDNA nylon microarrays. DNA Res. 2004;11:353-60 pubmed
    ..The results in this study demonstrate that the introduction of these two modifications in preparation of nylon DNA array greatly improved its quality...
  79. Saladino R, Botta G, Pino S, Costanzo G, Di Mauro E. Genetics first or metabolism first? The formamide clue. Chem Soc Rev. 2012;41:5526-65 pubmed publisher
    ..As a note of caution, we discuss the fact that these observations only indicate possible solutions at the level of organic substrates, not at the systemic chemical level...
  80. Ding S, Jiao N. Direct transformation of N,N-dimethylformamide to -CN: Pd-catalyzed cyanation of heteroarenes via C-H functionalization. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:12374-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This transformation offers an alternative method for preparing aryl nitriles, though it is currently limited in scope to indoles and benzofurans...
  81. Jiranusornkul S, Laughton C. Destabilization of DNA duplexes by oxidative damage at guanine: implications for lesion recognition and repair. J R Soc Interface. 2008;5 Suppl 3:S191-8 pubmed publisher
  82. Ishida T, Haruta M. N-formylation of amines via the aerobic oxidation of methanol over supported gold nanoparticles. ChemSusChem. 2009;2:538-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This process generates methyl formate in situ, followed by reaction with amines...
  83. Bose D, Idrees M. Hypervalent iodine mediated intramolecular cyclization of thioformanilides: expeditious approach to 2-substituted benzothiazoles. J Org Chem. 2006;71:8261-3 pubmed
    ..The reaction proceeds via a thiyl radical in high yields to give the novel compound oxybis benzothiazole and is also amenable to generating combinatorial libraries of heterocyclic compounds by solid-phase synthesis...
  84. Wang J, Gu J, Nguyen M, Springsteen G, Leszczynski J. From formamide to adenine: a self-catalytic mechanism for an abiotic approach. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:14039-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this self-catalyzed mechanism accounts for the yields of purine and adenine previously observed in experiments. This mechanism may elucidate processes that were vital for the emergence of life on the early earth. ..
  85. Yasui Y, Takeda H, Takemoto Y. Toward general access to the aspidosperma-type terpenoid indole alkaloids: synthesis of the key 3,3-disubstituted piperidones through enantioselective intramolecular heck-type reaction of chloroformamides. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008;56:1567-74 pubmed
    ..The desired piperidone was formed in the presence of a palladium catalyst, an optically active phosphoramidite ligand, K3PO4 and Ag3PO4. The obtained piperidone was converted to epieburnamonine...
  86. Antol I, Eckert Maksić M, Barbatti M, Lischka H. Simulation of the photodeactivation of formamide in the nO-pi* and pi-pi* states: an ab initio on-the-fly surface-hopping dynamics study. J Chem Phys. 2007;127:234303 pubmed
    ..From fractional occupations of trajectories, lifetimes of formamide were estimated: tau(S(1))=441 fs and tau(S(2))=66 fs...