raclopride

Summary

Summary: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.

Top Publications

  1. MacDonald C, Meck W. Interaction of raclopride and preparatory interval effects on simple reaction time performance. Behav Brain Res. 2006;175:62-74 pubmed
    ..In Experiment 3, 100 microg/kg i.p. of raclopride proportionally slowed RT as a function of the PI...
  2. Dejean C, ARBUTHNOTT G, Wickens J, Le Moine C, Boraud T, Hyland B. Power fluctuations in beta and gamma frequencies in rat globus pallidus: association with specific phases of slow oscillations and differential modulation by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of this hierarchical organization and subsequent disordered beta-gamma balance in basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson's disease may be important in the pathogenesis of their symptoms. ..
  3. Shidahara M, Tsoumpas C, McGinnity C, Kato T, Tamura H, Hammers A, et al. Wavelet-based resolution recovery using an anatomical prior provides quantitative recovery for human population phantom PET [¹¹C]raclopride data. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:3107-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to evaluate a resolution recovery (RR) method using a variety of simulated human brain [¹¹C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) images...
  4. Boileau I, Dagher A, Leyton M, Gunn R, Baker G, Diksic M, et al. Modeling sensitization to stimulants in humans: an [11C]raclopride/positron emission tomography study in healthy men. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:1386-95 pubmed
    ..3 mg/kg by mouth) were administered on days 1, 3, and 5. Using positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride, we measured dopamine release in response to amphetamine on the first exposure (day 1) and 14 days and 1 year ..
  5. Kuroda Y, Motohashi N, Ito H, Ito S, Takano A, Nishikawa T, et al. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on [11C]raclopride binding and cognitive function in patients with depression. J Affect Disord. 2006;95:35-42 pubmed
    ..chronic rTMS on central dopaminergic function in depression using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride. Nine patients with depression were treated with 10 daily sessions of rTMS (10 Hz, 5 s train, 20 trains at 100% ..
  6. Qu W, Huang Z, Xu X, Matsumoto N, Urade Y. Dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors are essential for the arousal effect of modafinil. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..at 30 microg/kg or D(2)R antagonist raclopride at 2 mg/kg blocked the arousal effects of low-dose modafinil at 22.5 and 45 mg/kg...
  7. Boileau I, Payer D, Chugani B, Lobo D, Behzadi A, Rusjan P, et al. The D2/3 dopamine receptor in pathological gambling: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin and [11C]raclopride. Addiction. 2013;108:953-63 pubmed publisher
    ..with the D3 receptor preferring agonist [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO) and the other with [11C]raclopride) to assess D(2/3) DA receptor availability, and behavioural measures (self-report questionnaires and slot-..
  8. Volkow N, Wang G, Telang F, Fowler J, Logan J, Jayne M, et al. Profound decreases in dopamine release in striatum in detoxified alcoholics: possible orbitofrontal involvement. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12700-6 pubmed
    ..measuring brain glucose metabolism with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose) and dopamine increases (measured with [11C]raclopride, a D2/D3 receptor ligand with binding that is sensitive to endogenous dopamine) induced by the stimulant drug ..
  9. Hosp J, Molina Luna K, Hertler B, Atiemo C, Luft A. Dopaminergic modulation of motor maps in rat motor cortex: an in vivo study. Neuroscience. 2009;159:692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..maleate, SCH 23390) or D2-receptor (raclopride) antagonists into the M1 forelimb area of rats. Stimulation mapping of M1 was repeated after 24 h...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Bullich S, Cot A, Gallego J, Gunn R, Suarez M, Pavia J, et al. Impact of scatter correction on D2 receptor occupancy measurements using 123I-IBZM SPECT: comparison to 11C-Raclopride PET. Neuroimage. 2010;50:1511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..RO) achieved by antipsychotic drugs tend to be lower when measured with (123)I-IBZM SPECT than with (11)C-Raclopride PET...
  2. Tomer R, Goldstein R, Wang G, Wong C, Volkow N. Incentive motivation is associated with striatal dopamine asymmetry. Biol Psychol. 2008;77:98-101 pubmed
    ..Nineteen healthy participants were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]raclopride to assess the availability of dopamine D2 receptors in left and right striatum...
  3. Spencer T, Madras B, Bonab A, Dougherty D, Clarke A, Mirto T, et al. A positron emission tomography study examining the dopaminergic activity of armodafinil in adults using [¹¹C]altropane and [¹¹C]raclopride. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:964-70 pubmed publisher
    ..With positron emission tomography imaging, we determined DAT occupancy and changes in extracellular dopamine by armodafinil in vivo...
  4. Reimold M, Globas C, Gleichmann M, Schulze M, Gerloff C, Bares R, et al. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, and 3 and restless legs syndrome: striatal dopamine D2 receptor status investigated by [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1667-73 pubmed
    ..dopaminergic function in SCA1, 2, and 3, dopamine D(2) receptor binding potential (BP) was assessed by [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography in 10 SCA patients, 4 of whom suffered from RLS as demonstrated by polysomnography...
  5. Ko J, Monchi O, Ptito A, Bloomfield P, Houle S, Strafella A. Theta burst stimulation-induced inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reveals hemispheric asymmetry in striatal dopamine release during a set-shifting task: a TMS-[(11)C]raclopride PET study. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:2147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..to transiently disrupt its function and to measure MCST performance and striatal dopamine release during [(11)C]raclopride PET. A significant hemispheric asymmetry was observed...
  6. Patel V, Lee D, Alexoff D, Dewey S, Schiffer W. Imaging dopamine release with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and (11)C-raclopride in freely moving animals. Neuroimage. 2008;41:1051-66 pubmed publisher
    ..a catheterized line and permitted to move freely for 30 min during uptake of the imaging agent, in this case 11C-raclopride. After this Awake Uptake period, animals are anesthetized and scanned for 25 min...
  7. Seneca N, Finnema S, Farde L, Gulyas B, Wikström H, Halldin C, et al. Effect of amphetamine on dopamine D2 receptor binding in nonhuman primate brain: a comparison of the agonist radioligand [11C]MNPA and antagonist [11C]raclopride. Synapse. 2006;59:260-9 pubmed
    ..to assess and compare the sensitivity of the agonist radioligand [(11)C]MNPA and antagonist radioligand [(11)C]raclopride to synaptic DA levels...
  8. Goodwin R, Mackay C, Nilsson A, Harrison D, Farde L, Andren P, et al. Qualitative and quantitative MALDI imaging of the positron emission tomography ligands raclopride (a D2 dopamine antagonist) and SCH 23390 (a D1 dopamine antagonist) in rat brain tissue sections using a solvent-free dry matrix application method. Anal Chem. 2011;83:9694-701 pubmed publisher
    ..dopamine receptor antagonist 3,5-dichloro-N-{[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl}-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide (raclopride) and the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist 7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol (SCH ..
  9. Strafella A, Ko J, Monchi O. Therapeutic application of transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: the contribution of expectation. Neuroimage. 2006;31:1666-72 pubmed
    ..from rTMS, which actually was delivered only as sham rTMS (placebo-rTMS) induced changes in striatal [11C] raclopride binding potentials (BP) as measured with positron emission tomography (PET)...
  10. Urban N, Slifstein M, Thompson J, Xu X, Girgis R, Raheja S, et al. Dopamine release in chronic cannabis users: a [11c]raclopride positron emission tomography study. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71:677-83 pubmed publisher
    ..D(2/3) availability and DA release in abstinent cannabis users compared with control subjects and explored relationships to cannabis use history using [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography and an amphetamine challenge paradigm.
  11. Monchi O, Ko J, Strafella A. Striatal dopamine release during performance of executive functions: A [(11)C] raclopride PET study. Neuroimage. 2006;33:907-12 pubmed
    ..We used D2-dopamine receptor ligand [(11)C] raclopride PET in healthy subjects while performing the Montreal Card Sorting Task (MCST)...
  12. Kim E, Howes O, Kim B, Yu K, Jeong J, Lee J, et al. The use of healthy volunteers instead of patients to inform drug dosing studies: a [¹¹C]raclopride PET study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;217:515-23 pubmed publisher
  13. Zhou Y, Chen M, Endres C, Ye W, Brasic J, Alexander M, et al. An extended simplified reference tissue model for the quantification of dynamic PET with amphetamine challenge. Neuroimage. 2006;33:550-63 pubmed
    ..Violations of this assumption may result in unreliable estimation of the amphetamine-induced percent change in the binding potential (DeltaBP%)...
  14. Egerton A, Shotbolt J, Stokes P, Hirani E, Ahmad R, Lappin J, et al. Acute effect of the anti-addiction drug bupropion on extracellular dopamine concentrations in the human striatum: an [11C]raclopride PET study. Neuroimage. 2010;50:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of bupropion on extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum were investigated using [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in rats administered saline, 11 or 25 mg/kg bupropion i.p...
  15. Egerton A, Ahmad R, Hirani E, Grasby P. Modulation of striatal dopamine release by 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonists: [11C]raclopride PET studies in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;200:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is not known whether 5-HT2A/2C receptor-mediated modulation of DA release can be quantified with non-invasive neurochemical imaging, as would be required for investigation of these processes in man...
  16. Schott B, Minuzzi L, Krebs R, Elmenhorst D, Lang M, Winz O, et al. Mesolimbic functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during reward anticipation correlate with reward-related ventral striatal dopamine release. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..we obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of reward-related neural activity and [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography measures of dopamine release in the same human participants, while they performed a ..
  17. Meyer J, McNeely H, Sagrati S, Boovariwala A, Martin K, Verhoeff N, et al. Elevated putamen D(2) receptor binding potential in major depression with motor retardation: an [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography study. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1594-602 pubmed
    ..Striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding potential measured with positron emission tomography is an index of D(2) type receptors and is sensitive ..
  18. Ginovart N, Wilson A, Hussey D, Houle S, Kapur S. D2-receptor upregulation is dependent upon temporal course of D2-occupancy: a longitudinal [11C]-raclopride PET study in cats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:662-71 pubmed publisher
    ..D(2)-receptors were measured using positron emission tomography and Scatchard analyses of [(11)C]raclopride binding, before and after withdrawal of treatment...
  19. Martinez D, Narendran R, Foltin R, Slifstein M, Hwang D, Broft A, et al. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:622-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the relationship between this dopamine response and the choice to self-administer cocaine in a laboratory model of relapse was investigated...
  20. Hirvonen J, Karlsson H, Kajander J, Markkula J, Rasi Hakala H, Någren K, et al. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors in medication-naive patients with major depressive disorder as assessed with [11C]raclopride PET. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;197:581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous in vivo imaging studies have studied striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in depression but the results are equivocal thus far...
  21. Volkow N, Wang G, Newcorn J, Telang F, Solanto M, Fowler J, et al. Depressed dopamine activity in caudate and preliminary evidence of limbic involvement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:932-40 pubmed
    ..There is considerable evidence that brain dopamine is involved in ADHD, but it is unclear whether dopamine activity is enhanced or depressed...
  22. Levesque M, Bedard M, Courtemanche R, Tremblay P, Scherzer P, Blanchet P. Raclopride-induced motor consolidation impairment in primates: role of the dopamine type-2 receptor in movement chunking into integrated sequences. Exp Brain Res. 2007;182:499-508 pubmed
    ..We therefore hypothesized that a D(2)R blocking substance, such as raclopride, would affect motor learning by specifically disrupting the grouping of movements into sequences...
  23. Van Laere K, Clerinx K, D Hondt E, de Groot T, Vandenberghe W. Combined striatal binding and cerebral influx analysis of dynamic 11C-raclopride PET improves early differentiation between multiple-system atrophy and Parkinson disease. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:588-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether the differential diagnostic value of (11)C-raclopride PET could be improved by dynamic scan analysis combining D2R binding and regional tracer influx.
  24. Martin Soelch C, Szczepanik J, Nugent A, Barhaghi K, Rallis D, Herscovitch P, et al. Lateralization and gender differences in the dopaminergic response to unpredictable reward in the human ventral striatum. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1706-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Using [¹¹C]raclopride-PET to assess the striatal DA response to unpredictable monetary rewards, we hypothesized that such rewards ..
  25. Smith G, Ma Y, Dhawan V, Chaly T, Eidelberg D. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) modulation of striatal dopamine measured with [11C]-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Synapse. 2009;63:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..has been measured in several studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [11C]-raclopride as a method for the in vivo imaging of serotonin modulation of striatal dopamine in human subjects...
  26. Steeves T, Miyasaki J, Zurowski M, Lang A, Pellecchia G, van Eimeren T, et al. Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study. Brain. 2009;132:1376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe results of a [(11)C] raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) study comparing dopaminergic function during gambling in Parkinson's disease ..
  27. Wong K, Wojnicki F, Corwin R. Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat/sucrose mixtures under limited access conditions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;92:528-36 pubmed publisher
    This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol...
  28. Catafau A, Suarez M, Bullich S, Llop J, Nucci G, Gunn R, et al. Within-subject comparison of striatal D2 receptor occupancy measurements using [123I]IBZM SPECT and [11C]Raclopride PET. Neuroimage. 2009;46:447-58 pubmed publisher
    ..D2 receptor occupancy values tend to be lower when measured with [(123)I]IBZM SPECT than with [(11)C]Raclopride PET. To clarify this issue, D2 receptor occupancy was measured in the same subjects using both techniques...
  29. Volkow N, Wang G, Kollins S, Wigal T, Newcorn J, Telang F, et al. Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications. JAMA. 2009;302:1084-91 pubmed publisher
    ..radioligands for dopamine transporters (DAT) using [(11)C]cocaine and for D(2)/D(3) receptors using [(11)C]raclopride, quantified as binding potential (distribution volume ratio -1)...
  30. Joutsa J, Johansson J, Niemela S, Ollikainen A, Hirvonen M, Piepponen P, et al. Mesolimbic dopamine release is linked to symptom severity in pathological gambling. Neuroimage. 2012;60:1992-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Human reward-seeking gambling behavior, and especially pathological gambling, has been presumed to be modulated by brain dopamine...
  31. Qu W, Xu X, Yan M, Wang Y, Urade Y, Huang Z. Essential role of dopamine D2 receptor in the maintenance of wakefulness, but not in homeostatic regulation of sleep, in mice. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The D(2)R antagonist raclopride mimicked these effects in WT mice...
  32. Lappin J, Reeves S, Mehta M, Egerton A, Coulson M, Grasby P. Dopamine release in the human striatum: motor and cognitive tasks revisited. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:554-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine release was quantified using [(11)C]-raclopride in two studies using a triple-scan approach, comprising active task, motor control, and rest...
  33. Peng T, Zysk J, Dorff P, Elmore C, Ström P, Malmquist J, et al. D2 receptor occupancy in conscious rat brain is not significantly distinguished with [3H]-MNPA, [3H]-(+)-PHNO, and [3H]-raclopride. Synapse. 2010;64:624-33 pubmed publisher
    Positron emission tomography (PET) antagonist ligands such as [(11)C]-raclopride are commonly used to study dopamine D2 receptor (D2) binding of antipsychotics...
  34. Stokes P, Egerton A, Watson B, Reid A, Breen G, Lingford Hughes A, et al. Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge. Neuroimage. 2010;52:1521-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also ..
  35. Slifstein M, Hwang D, Martinez D, Ekelund J, Huang Y, Hackett E, et al. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the dopamine D2 ligand 11C-raclopride determined from human whole-body PET. J Nucl Med. 2006;47:313-9 pubmed
    Whole-body radiation dosimetry of 11C-raclopride was performed in healthy human volunteers.
  36. Mamo D, Graff A, Mizrahi R, Shammi C, Romeyer F, Kapur S. Differential effects of aripiprazole on D(2), 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(1A) receptor occupancy in patients with schizophrenia: a triple tracer PET study. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1411-7 pubmed
    ..The authors conducted a positron emission tomography (PET) study to characterize the simultaneous effects of aripiprazole at the D(2), 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(1A) receptors in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
  37. Rousset O, Collins D, Rahmim A, Wong D. Design and implementation of an automated partial volume correction in PET: application to dopamine receptor quantification in the normal human striatum. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:1097-106 pubmed publisher
  38. Montgomery A, Lingford Hughes A, Egerton A, Nutt D, Grasby P. The effect of nicotine on striatal dopamine release in man: A [11C]raclopride PET study. Synapse. 2007;61:637-45 pubmed
    ..A recent PET study assessing the effect of smoking in humans showed no change in [(11)C]raclopride binding in the brain, but did find that "hedonia" correlated with a reduction in [(11)C]raclopride ..
  39. Corwin R, Wojnicki F. Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat and sucrose under limited access conditions. Behav Pharmacol. 2009;20:537-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects of baclofen (GABAB agonist), SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), raclopride (D2 antagonist), and naltrexone (opioid antagonist) were assessed...
  40. Ito H, Takano H, Takahashi H, Arakawa R, Miyoshi M, Kodaka F, et al. Effects of the antipsychotic risperidone on dopamine synthesis in human brain measured by positron emission tomography with L-[beta-11C]DOPA: a stabilizing effect for dopaminergic neurotransmission?. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..PET studies using [(11)C]raclopride and L-[beta-(11)C]DOPA were performed under resting condition and oral administration of single dose of the ..
  41. Volkow N, Wang G, Telang F, Fowler J, Logan J, Wong C, et al. Sleep deprivation decreases binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the human brain. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied 15 healthy subjects using positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand) and [11C]cocaine (dopamine transporter radioligand)...
  42. Sawamoto N, Piccini P, Hotton G, Pavese N, Thielemans K, Brooks D. Cognitive deficits and striato-frontal dopamine release in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2008;131:1294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..dopamine levels during task performance were monitored using a marker of dopamine D2-receptor availability (11)C-raclopride (RAC) PET...
  43. Kiss B, Horti F, Bobok A. In vitro and in vivo comparison of [³H](+)-PHNO and [³H]raclopride binding to rat striatum and lobes 9 and 10 of the cerebellum: a method to distinguish dopamine D? from D? receptor sites. Synapse. 2011;65:467-78 pubmed publisher
    In vitro binding characteristics of the dopamine D?/D? antagonist [³H]raclopride were compared to the D?/D? agonist [³H](+)-PHNO in membrane preparations from rat striatum, cerebellum Lobules 9 and 10 (CB L9,10), and other cerebellar ..
  44. Thanos P, Michaelides M, Piyis Y, Wang G, Volkow N. Food restriction markedly increases dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in a rat model of obesity as assessed with in-vivo muPET imaging ([11C] raclopride) and in-vitro ([3H] spiperone) autoradiography. Synapse. 2008;62:50-61 pubmed
    ..Here we assess DA D2 receptors (D2R) in a genetic rodent obesity model characterized by leptin-receptor deficiency and assess the influence of food restriction on these receptors...
  45. Tohka J, Reilhac A. Deconvolution-based partial volume correction in Raclopride-PET and Monte Carlo comparison to MR-based method. Neuroimage. 2008;39:1570-84 pubmed
    ..We limited our interest to quantitative radioligand PET imaging, particularly to (11)C-Raclopride and striatal imaging...
  46. Scott D, Stohler C, Koeppe R, Zubieta J. Time-course of change in [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride binding potential after a nonpharmacological challenge. Synapse. 2007;61:707-14 pubmed
    ..shown to induce robust reductions in micro-opioid and DA D2 BP, as measured with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride. It was hypothesized that, contrary to pharmacological probes, the use of a more "physiological" ..
  47. Hoekzema E, Herance R, Rojas S, Pareto D, Abad S, Jimenez X, et al. The effects of aging on dopaminergic neurotransmission: a microPET study of [11C]-raclopride binding in the aged rodent brain. Neuroscience. 2010;171:1283-6 pubmed publisher
    ..effects can be discerned in rat brains, using in vivo molecular imaging with the radioactive compound [(11)C]-raclopride. We observed a robust decline in striatal [(11)C]-raclopride uptake in the aged rats in comparison to the young ..
  48. Shotbolt P, Tziortzi A, Searle G, Colasanti A, van der Aart J, Abanades S, et al. Within-subject comparison of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO and [(11)C]raclopride sensitivity to acute amphetamine challenge in healthy humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2012;32:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..be more affected by acute fluctuations in synaptic dopamine than that of antagonist radiotracers such as [(11)C]raclopride. In this study, the authors compared the effects of an oral dose of the dopamine releaser amphetamine (0...
  49. Baladi M, France C. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;610:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Free access to high fat chow increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning without changing sensitivity to raclopride-induced catalepsy or quinpirole-induced hypothermia...
  50. Finnema S, Halldin C, Bang Andersen B, Gulyas B, Bundgaard C, Wikström H, et al. Dopamine D(2/3) receptor occupancy of apomorphine in the nonhuman primate brain--a comparative PET study with [11C]raclopride and [11C]MNPA. Synapse. 2009;63:378-89 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 36 PET measurements were performed with the D(2/3) antagonist [11C]raclopride or the D(2/3) agonist [11C]MNPA in two cynomolgus monkeys...
  51. Montgomery A, Stokes P, Kitamura Y, Grasby P. Extrastriatal D2 and striatal D2 receptors in depressive illness: pilot PET studies using [11C]FLB 457 and [11C]raclopride. J Affect Disord. 2007;101:113-22 pubmed
    ..Second, the hypothesis that selective serotonin reuptake inhibiting (SSRI) antidepressants affect the striatal binding of [(11)C]raclopride was tested.
  52. Eltayb A, Wadenberg M, Svensson T. Enhanced cortical dopamine output and antipsychotic-like effect of raclopride with adjunctive low-dose L-dopa. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:337-43 pubmed
  53. Kita J, Parker L, Phillips P, Garris P, Wightman R. Paradoxical modulation of short-term facilitation of dopamine release by dopamine autoreceptors. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1115-24 pubmed
    ..established D(2)-mediated autoinhibition, the short-term depressive component of dopamine release was blocked by raclopride, a D(2) antagonist, and enhanced by quinpirole, a D(2)-receptor agonist...
  54. Hirvonen J, Hietala J, Kajander J, Markkula J, Rasi Hakala H, Salminen J, et al. Effects of antidepressant drug treatment and psychotherapy on striatal and thalamic dopamine D2/3 receptors in major depressive disorder studied with [11C]raclopride PET. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:1329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor binding was quantified before and after treatment as the binding potential (BP (ND)) using [(11)C]raclopride and 3D positron emission tomography...
  55. Urban N, Kegeles L, Slifstein M, Xu X, Martinez D, Sakr E, et al. Sex differences in striatal dopamine release in young adults after oral alcohol challenge: a positron emission tomography imaging study with [¹¹C]raclopride. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:689-96 pubmed publisher
    We used a positron emission tomography paradigm with the D2/3 radiotracer [¹¹C]raclopride and an alcohol challenge to examine the magnitude of alcohol-induced dopamine release and compare it between young men and women.
  56. Volkow N, Wang G, Telang F, Fowler J, Logan J, Childress A, et al. Dopamine increases in striatum do not elicit craving in cocaine abusers unless they are coupled with cocaine cues. Neuroimage. 2008;39:1266-73 pubmed
    ..Using PET and [(11)C]raclopride (D2 receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine) we show that in cocaine abusers (n=..
  57. Talvik M, Nordstrom A, Okubo Y, Olsson H, Borg J, Halldin C, et al. Dopamine D2 receptor binding in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia examined with raclopride-C11 and positron emission tomography. Psychiatry Res. 2006;148:165-73 pubmed
    ..hypothesis of schizophrenia in a further analysis of D(2)-like dopamine binding using the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride and high resolution 3-dimensional (3D) PET...
  58. Dennis R, Muir W, Cheng H. Effects of raclopride on aggression and stress in diversely selected chicken lines. Behav Brain Res. 2006;175:104-11 pubmed
    ..We tested this hypothesis by injecting either a D2 antagonist (raclopride) or saline in the dominant individual in pair-housed birds for 10 days and examining stress coping ability...
  59. Strafella A, Ko J, Grant J, Fraraccio M, Monchi O. Corticostriatal functional interactions in Parkinson's disease: a rTMS/[11C]raclopride PET study. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:2946-52 pubmed
    ..In the present study, using [11C]raclopride PET, we sought to investigate early PD patients with evidence of unilateral motor symptoms...
  60. Ishibashi K, Ishii K, Oda K, Mizusawa H, Ishiwata K. Competition between 11C-raclopride and endogenous dopamine in Parkinson's disease. Nucl Med Commun. 2010;31:159-66 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to understand whether the increase in 11C-raclopride binding in the striatum of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the depletion of endogenous dopamine.