procarbazine

Summary

Summary: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

Top Publications

  1. Walker C, Haylock B, Husband D, Joyce K, Fildes D, Jenkinson M, et al. Clinical use of genotype to predict chemosensitivity in oligodendroglial tumors. Neurology. 2006;66:1661-7 pubmed
    ..The -1p/-19q genotype has been associated with prolonged survival and chemosensitivity in oligodendroglial neoplasms, but the predictive and prognostic significance of genotype in the routine clinic is not established...
  2. Massoud M, Armand J, Ribrag V. Procarbazine in haematology: an old drug with a new life?. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:1924-7 pubmed
    b>Procarbazine (PCB) was developed in the 1960s and was rapidly recognised as an active agent in lymphoid malignancies...
  3. Sanson M, Cartalat Carel S, Taillibert S, Napolitano M, Djafari L, Cougnard J, et al. Initial chemotherapy in gliomatosis cerebri. Neurology. 2004;63:270-5 pubmed
    ..Because of the diffuse nature of gliomatosis cerebri (GC), surgery is not suitable, and large field radiotherapy carries the risk of severe toxicity. In this setting, initial chemotherapy warrants further investigation...
  4. Fritsch K, Kasenda B, Hader C, Nikkhah G, Prinz M, Haug V, et al. Immunochemotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and lomustine for primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) in the elderly. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:2080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we report the results of a pilot trial adding rituximab to the established regimen consisting of methotrexate, procarbazine, and lomustine (R-MCP).
  5. Wick W, Hartmann C, Engel C, Stoffels M, Felsberg J, Stockhammer F, et al. NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of sequential radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or temozolomide. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:5874-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The NOA-04 phase III trial compared efficacy and safety of radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy at progression with the reverse sequence in patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas...
  6. van den Bent M, Chinot O, Boogerd W, Bravo Marques J, Taphoorn M, Kros J, et al. Second-line chemotherapy with temozolomide in recurrent oligodendroglioma after PCV (procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine) chemotherapy: EORTC Brain Tumor Group phase II study 26972. Ann Oncol. 2003;14:599-602 pubmed
    ..tumors are chemosensitive, with two-thirds of patients responding to PCV combination chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine...
  7. Morris P, Correa D, Yahalom J, Raizer J, Schiff D, Grant B, et al. Rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine followed by consolidation reduced-dose whole-brain radiotherapy and cytarabine in newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma: final results and long-term outcome. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:3971-9 pubmed publisher
    A multicenter phase II study was conducted to assess the efficacy of rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine (R-MPV) followed by consolidation reduced-dose whole-brain radiotherapy (rdWBRT) and cytarabine in primary CNS ..
  8. Yang S, Hong Y, Yoon S, Kim B, Lee Y, Lee T, et al. Radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy for patients with malignant glioma. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:1359-64 pubmed
    ..Both external involved field radiotherapy and chemotherapy, composed of CCNU (75-110 mg/m(2)), procarbazine (60 mg/m(2)) and vincristine (1.4 mg/m(2)), were started simultaneously two weeks after surgery...
  9. Coates J, Barone G, Dewey C, Vitale C, Holloway Azene N, Sessions J. Procarbazine as adjunctive therapy for treatment of dogs with presumptive antemortem diagnosis of granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis: 21 cases (1998-2004). J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:100-6 pubmed
    ..Remission often is short-lived in dogs treated with glucocorticoids. Procarbazine is T cell-specific and crosses the blood-brain barrier.

More Information

Publications63

  1. van den Bent M, Carpentier A, Brandes A, Sanson M, Taphoorn M, Bernsen H, et al. Adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine improves progression-free survival but not overall survival in newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas: a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Can. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2715-22 pubmed
    ..We investigated, in a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy improves overall survival (OS) in newly diagnosed patients with ..
  2. Cornetta K, Croop J, Dropcho E, Abonour R, Kieran M, Kreissman S, et al. A pilot study of dose-intensified procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine for poor prognosis brain tumors utilizing fibronectin-assisted, retroviral-mediated modification of CD34+ peripheral blood cells with O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase. Cancer Gene Ther. 2006;13:886-95 pubmed
    ..to transduce hematopoietic progenitors, which were subsequently used in the setting of alkylator therapy (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine (PCV)) for poor prognosis brain tumors...
  3. Prados M, Seiferheld W, Sandler H, Buckner J, Phillips T, Schultz C, et al. Phase III randomized study of radiotherapy plus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine with or without BUdR for treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma: final report of RTOG 9404. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;58:1147-52 pubmed
    ..anaplastic glioma other than glioblastoma multiforme comparing external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus adjuvant procarbazine, cyclohexylchloroethylnitrosurea (lomustine), and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy with or without ..
  4. Newlands E, Foster T, Zaknoen S. Phase I study of temozolamide (TMZ) combined with procarbazine (PCB) in patients with gliomas. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:248-51 pubmed
    ..b>Procarbazine (PCB) has been used for treating gliomas for many years and here both agents were combined in the treatment...
  5. Sung K, Lee E, Kim Y. Factors influencing the response to high dose methotrexate-based vincristine and procarbazine combination chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..5 g/m(2)) and vincristine (1.4 mg/m(2)/day) for one day during weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, and procarbazine (100 mg/m(2)/day) for one week during weeks 1, 5, and 9. Forty-one patients (78...
  6. Brada M, Stenning S, Gabe R, Thompson L, Levy D, Rampling R, et al. Temozolomide versus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in recurrent high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No prospective comparison with nitrosourea-based chemotherapy exists. We report, to our knowledge, the first randomized trial of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) versus TMZ in chemotherapy-naive patients with recurrent HGG.
  7. Ruan J, Martin P, Coleman M, Furman R, Cheung K, Faye A, et al. Durable responses with the metronomic rituximab and thalidomide plus prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide regimen in elderly patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma. Cancer. 2010;116:2655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..authors report safety, activity, and angiogenic profiling results with the rituximab and thalidomide plus prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide (RT-PEPC) regimen in patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  8. van den Bent M, Looijenga L, Langenberg K, Dinjens W, Graveland W, Uytdewilligen L, et al. Chromosomal anomalies in oligodendroglial tumors are correlated with clinical features. Cancer. 2003;97:1276-84 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated the correlation between genetic and clinical characteristics of OD in 33 patients who received chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine for recurrent disease after receiving radiotherapy.
  9. Silvani A, Lamperti E, Gaviani P, Eoli M, Fiumani A, Salmaggi A, et al. Salvage chemotherapy with procarbazine and fotemustine combination in the treatment of temozolomide treated recurrent glioblastoma patients. J Neurooncol. 2008;87:143-51 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of Procarbazine (PCB) and fotemustine (FTM) combination in the treatment of pre-temozolomide treated, recurrent GBM patients...
  10. Erdem Eraslan L, Gravendeel L, de Rooi J, Eilers P, Idbaih A, Spliet W, et al. Intrinsic molecular subtypes of glioma are prognostic and predict benefit from adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy in combination with other prognostic factors in anaplastic oligodendroglial brain tumors: a report from EORT. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:328-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 26951, a randomized phase III clinical trial investigating adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors...
  11. Cairncross G, Berkey B, Shaw E, Jenkins R, Scheithauer B, Brachman D, et al. Phase III trial of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone for pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2707-14 pubmed
    ..oligoastrocytoma (AOA) are treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT) at diagnosis, but they also respond to procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV), raising the possibility that early chemotherapy will improve survival...
  12. Mauz Körholz C, Hasenclever D, Dörffel W, Ruschke K, Pelz T, Voigt A, et al. Procarbazine-free OEPA-COPDAC chemotherapy in boys and standard OPPA-COPP in girls have comparable effectiveness in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma: the GPOH-HD-2002 study. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3680-6 pubmed publisher
    ..vincristine, prednisone, and dacarbazine (COPDAC) is derived from standard vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and doxorubicin (OPPA)-cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) ..
  13. Ogawa K, Yoshii Y, Inoue O, Toita T, Saito A, Kakinohana Y, et al. Prospective trial of radiotherapy after hyperbaric oxygenation with chemotherapy for high-grade gliomas. Radiother Oncol. 2003;67:63-7 pubmed
    ..The current study indicated that radiotherapy immediately after HBO with chemotherapy was feasible for high-grade gliomas...
  14. Buckner J, Gesme D, O Fallon J, Hammack J, Stafford S, Brown P, et al. Phase II trial of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine as initial therapy for patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma: efficacy and associations with chromosomal abnormalities. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:251-5 pubmed
  15. Yamanaka R, Homma J, Sano M, Tsuchiya N, Yajima N, Shinbo Y, et al. Immuno-chemotherapy with a combination of rituximab, methotrexate, pirarubicin and procarbazine for patients with primary CNS lymphoma--a preliminary report. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:1019-22 pubmed
  16. Grossman S, Carson K, Batchelor T, Lesser G, Mikkelsen T, Alavi J, et al. The effect of enzyme-inducing antiseizure drugs on the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of procarbazine hydrochloride. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:5174-81 pubmed
    b>Procarbazine hydrochloride (PCB) is one of the few anticancer drugs with activity against high-grade gliomas...
  17. Sieber M, Bredenfeld H, Josting A, Reineke T, Rueffer U, Koch T, et al. 14-day variant of the bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone regimen in advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of a pilot study of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:1734-9 pubmed
    ..and efficacy of a time-intensified bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) regimen given in 14-day intervals (BEACOPP-14) with granulocyte colony-stimulating ..
  18. van den Bent M, Brandes A, Taphoorn M, Kros J, Kouwenhoven M, Delattre J, et al. Adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy in newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long-term follow-up of EORTC brain tumor group study 26951. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:344-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We now present the long-term follow-up findings of a randomized phase III study on the addition of six cycles of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT).
  19. Malek F, Möritz K, Fanghanel J. Effects of prenatal procarbazine administration on intrauterine development in rats. Ann Anat. 2003;185:117-9 pubmed
    The effects of prenatal procarbazine (PCZ) administration on the intrauterine development of rat fetuses were investigated. Gravid rats were treated on day 14 of gestation (GD14) with 25 mg or 50 mg/kg body weight PCZ via stomach tube...
  20. Ogawa K, Ishiuchi S, Inoue O, Yoshii Y, Saito A, Watanabe T, et al. Phase II trial of radiotherapy after hyperbaric oxygenation with multiagent chemotherapy (procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine) for high-grade gliomas: long-term results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:732-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas...
  21. Lee C, Gianos M, Klaustermeyer W. Diagnosis and management of hypersensitivity reactions related to common cancer chemotherapy agents. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;102:179-87; quiz 187-9, 222 pubmed publisher
    ..To review clinical hypersensitivity reactions related to common cancer chemotherapy agents and to discuss potential management strategies...
  22. Brandes A, Tosoni A, Vastola F, Pasetto L, Coria B, Danieli D, et al. Efficacy and feasibility of standard procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma recurrent after radiotherapy. A Phase II study. Cancer. 2004;101:2079-85 pubmed
    ..knowledge, there is a scarcity of accurate data regarding the feasibility of standard chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) in a homogeneous series of patients with primary anaplastic oligodendroglioma ..
  23. Kouwenhoven M, Gorlia T, Kros J, Ibdaih A, Brandes A, Bromberg J, et al. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951. Neuro Oncol. 2009;11:737-46 pubmed publisher
    ..III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 26951 on the effects of adjuvant procarbazine, chloroethyl cyclohexylnitrosourea (lomustine), and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial ..
  24. Macdonald D, Kiebert G, Prados M, Yung A, Olson J. Benefit of temozolomide compared to procarbazine in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse: effect on neurological functioning, performance status, and health related quality of life. Cancer Invest. 2005;23:138-44 pubmed
    ..the value of multiple outcome measures using the results of a recent clinical trial comparing temozolomide with procarbazine in the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme...
  25. Coleman M, Martin P, Ruan J, Furman R, Niesvizky R, Elstrom R, et al. Prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide (PEP-C) oral combination chemotherapy regimen for recurring/refractory lymphoma: low-dose metronomic, multidrug therapy. Cancer. 2008;112:2228-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Many patients with recurrent lymphoma are unable to tolerate intensive therapies, or have disease that is refractory. Metronomic chemotherapy offers a novel, potentially less toxic yet effective treatment strategy...
  26. DeAngelis L, Seiferheld W, Schold S, Fisher B, Schultz C. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 93-10. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:4643-8 pubmed
    ..Cranial irradiation alone rarely results in long-term disease control or prolonged survival. We prospectively studied the use of combination chemotherapy plus cranial irradiation in newly diagnosed patients with PCNSL...
  27. Malek F, Möritz K, Fanghänel J, Bienengräber V. Reduction of procarbazine-induced cleft palates by prenatal folic acid supplementation in rats. Pathol Res Pract. 2004;200:33-40 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of prenatal folic acid supplementation on procarbazine (PCZ)-induced intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR), cleft palates, and microgenia...
  28. Engelhard H, Stelea A, Mundt A. Oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma: clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. Surg Neurol. 2003;60:443-56 pubmed
    ..In this article, the topic of oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma is reviewed, highlighting the new clinical developments...
  29. Illerhaus G, Marks R, Muller F, Ihorst G, Feuerhake F, Deckert M, et al. High-dose methotrexate combined with procarbazine and CCNU for primary CNS lymphoma in the elderly: results of a prospective pilot and phase II study. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), we conducted a phase II study with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) combined with procarbazine and CCNU...
  30. Markova J, Kahraman D, Kobe C, Skopalova M, Mocikova H, Klaskova K, et al. Role of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in early and late therapy assessment of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma treated with bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine and prednis. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Interim PET after four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone (BEACOPP) is a strong prognostic marker for PFS in advanced HL.
  31. Shah G, Yahalom J, Correa D, Lai R, Raizer J, Schiff D, et al. Combined immunochemotherapy with reduced whole-brain radiotherapy for newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:4730-5 pubmed
  32. Kim Y, Kim S, Chang J, Suh C, Kim S, Kim Y, et al. Early response to high-dose methotrexate, vincristine, and procarbazine chemotherapy-adapted strategy for primary CNS lymphoma: no consolidation therapy for patients achieving early complete response. Ann Hematol. 2014;93:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of high-dose methotrexate, vincristine, and procarbazine (MVP) chemotherapy followed by an interim response-adapted intensification strategy in immunocompetent patients ..
  33. Cairncross J, Wang M, Jenkins R, Shaw E, Giannini C, Brachman D, et al. Benefit from procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in oligodendroglial tumors is associated with mutation of IDH. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:783-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although patients with codeleted tumors lived longest, patients with noncodeleted IDH-mutated tumors also lived longer after CRT. ..
  34. Chaar B, Salem P, Petruska P. Procarbazine for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006;47:637-40 pubmed
    b>Procarbazine hydrochloride is an oral alkylating agent with activity against lymphoma. It is most commonly used in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease...
  35. Stege E, Kros J, de Bruin H, Enting R, van Heuvel I, Looijenga L, et al. Successful treatment of low-grade oligodendroglial tumors with a chemotherapy regimen of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine. Cancer. 2005;103:802-9 pubmed
    ..The authors retrospectively studied the outcome of the procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy regimen in a group of 16 patients with newly diagnosed OD and 5 ..
  36. Malek F, Möritz K, Fanghanel J, Bienengräber V. Sex-related differences in procarbazine-induced cleft palate and microgenia and the anti-teratogenic effect of prenatal folic acid supplementation in rats. Ann Anat. 2003;185:465-70 pubmed
    Sex-related differences in the frequency of cleft palates and microgenia in rat fetuses prenatally treated with procarbazine (200 mg/kg on day 14 of gestation (GD14), group 1), and the anti-teratogenic effect of prenatal folic acid ..
  37. Brandes A, Ermani M, Basso U, Paris M, Lumachi F, Berti F, et al. Temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma at second relapse after first line nitrosourea-procarbazine failure: a phase II study. Oncology. 2002;63:38-41 pubmed
    ..TTP), response rate and toxicity, a phase II study was conducted in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) following surgery plus radiotherapy and a first-line regimen based on nitrosourea, procarbazine and vincristine.
  38. Ogawa K, Yoshii Y, Toita T, Saito A, Kakinohana Y, Iraha S, et al. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy (procarbazine, ACNU and vincristine) for high-grade gliomas: a prospective study. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2457-62 pubmed
    To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy, including procarbazine, nimustine (ACNU) and vincristine, in adults with high-grade gliomas.
  39. Preiss R, Baumann F, Regenthal R, Matthias M. Plasma kinetics of procarbazine and azo-procarbazine in humans. Anticancer Drugs. 2006;17:75-80 pubmed
    The plasma kinetics of procarbazine (PCB) and its major metabolite azo-procarbazine (azo-PCB) were systematically investigated in humans for the first time...
  40. Bredenfeld H, Franklin J, Nogova L, Josting A, Fries S, Mailänder V, et al. Severe pulmonary toxicity in patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin's disease treated with a modified bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine (BEACOPP) regimen is probably related to the combinat. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2424-9 pubmed
    ..nonleukemogenic polychemotherapy regimen, BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, gemcitabine) in a phase I/II dose-escalation study in patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin' s ..
  41. Halbsguth T, Nogova L, Mueller H, Sieniawski M, Eichenauer D, Schober T, et al. Phase 2 study of BACOPP (bleomycin, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) in older patients with Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). Blood. 2010;116:2026-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus developed a new regimen, BACOPP (bleomycin, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone), to improve both tolerability and efficacy of treatment for older HL patients...
  42. Pagani M. The complex clinical picture of presumably allergic side effects to cytostatic drugs: symptoms, pathomechanism, reexposure, and desensitization. Med Clin North Am. 2010;94:835-52, xiii pubmed publisher
    ..Hypersensitivity reactions are common with platinum compounds, L-asparaginase, taxanes, procarbazine, and epipodophyllotoxins, whereas they are unusual, but always possible, with the other chemotherapeutic drugs...
  43. Ruiz J, Case D, Enevold G, Rosdhal R, Tatter S, Ellis T, et al. A phase II trial of thalidomide and procarbazine in adult patients with recurrent or progressive malignant gliomas. J Neurooncol. 2012;106:611-7 pubmed publisher
    Thalidomide and procarbazine have demonstrated single agent activity against malignant gliomas (MG). We evaluated the combination of thalidomide and procarbazine with a single arm phase II trial in adults with recurrent or progressive MG...
  44. Levin V, Lamborn K, Wara W, Davis R, Edwards M, Rabbitt J, et al. Phase II study of 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy with radiotherapy for treating malignant glioma in children. Neuro Oncol. 2000;2:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a single-arm phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine (TPDCV) chemotherapy for treating malignant astrocytoma in ..
  45. Wakabayashi T, Kajita Y, Mizuno M, Nagasaka T, Yoshida J. Efficacy of adjuvant therapy with procarbazine, MCNU, and vincristine for oligodendroglial tumors. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001;41:115-9; discussion 119-20 pubmed
    An adjuvant chemotherapy regimen consisting of procarbazine, MCNU, and vincristine (PMV) was evaluated for the treatment of malignant oligodendroglial tumors...
  46. Prados M, Edwards M, Rabbitt J, Lamborn K, Davis R, Levin V. Treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas with a nitrosourea-based multiagent chemotherapy regimen. J Neurooncol. 1997;32:235-41 pubmed
    ..b>Procarbazine, 6-thioguanine, and dibromodulcitol were given before lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine was given 1 and 3 weeks ..
  47. Hildebrand J, De Witte O, Sahmoud T. Response of recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma to dibromodulcitol, BCNU and procarbazine--a phase-II study. J Neurooncol. 1998;37:155-60 pubmed
    ..70/100 were treated at recurrence with dibromodulcitol (DBD) 1400 mg/m2 on day 1, BCNU 150 mg/m2 on day 2, and procarbazine (PCZ) 150 mg/day on days 1 to 15...
  48. Suzuki T, Uno Y, Idehara K, Baba T, Maniwa J, Ohkouchi A, et al. Procarbazine genotoxicity in the MutaMouse; strong clastogenicity and organ-specific induction of lacZ mutations. Mutat Res. 1999;444:269-81 pubmed
    b>Procarbazine, a drug used for cancer chemotherapy, is carcinogenic in rodent bioassays...
  49. Prados M, Scott C, Curran W, Nelson D, Leibel S, Kramer S. Procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma: A retrospective review of radiation therapy oncology group protocols comparing survival with carmustine or PCV adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:3389-95 pubmed
    To determine any differences in outcome for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) treated with adjuvant carmustine (BCNU) versus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy.
  50. Osoba D, Brada M, Yung W, Prados M. Health-related quality of life in patients treated with temozolomide versus procarbazine for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:1481-91 pubmed
    To determine whether chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) versus procarbazine (PCB) for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was associated with improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL).
  51. Abrey L, Yahalom J, DeAngelis L. Treatment for primary CNS lymphoma: the next step. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:3144-50 pubmed
    ..The reported protocol was designed to optimize and enhance the chemotherapeutic component of treatment...
  52. Ferreri A, Reni M, Dell Oro S, Ciceri F, Bernardi M, Camba L, et al. Combined treatment with high-dose methotrexate, vincristine and procarbazine, without intrathecal chemotherapy, followed by consolidation radiotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent patients. Oncology. 2001;60:134-40 pubmed
  53. Boiardi A, Silvani A, Ciusani E, Watson A, Margison G, Berger E, et al. Fotemustine combined with procarbazine in recurrent malignant gliomas: a phase I study with evaluation of lymphocyte 06-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity. J Neurooncol. 2001;52:149-56 pubmed
    ..the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and toxicity profile of fotemustine when combined with a fixed dose of procarbazine (PCZ), and to evaluate the extent of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (ATase) depletion in circulating ..
  54. Jeremic B, Jovanovic D, Djuric L, Jevremovic S, Mijatovic L. Advantage of post-radiotherapy chemotherapy with CCNU, procarbazine, and vincristine (mPCV) over chemotherapy with VM-26 and CCNU for malignant gliomas. J Chemother. 1992;4:123-6 pubmed
    ..36 AA and 31 GBM patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of CCNU 100 mg/m2 day 1, procarbazine 60 mg/m2 days 1-14, and vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 (max...