procainamide

Summary

Summary: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.

Top Publications

  1. Chew H, Lim S. Broad complex atrial fibrillation. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:459-63 pubmed
    ..The final patient was correctly treated with intravenous procainamide. The diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was eventually made in all these patients...
  2. Hua J, Pero R. Toxicity, antitumor and chemosensitizing effects of 3-chloroprocainamide. Acta Oncol. 1997;36:811-6 pubmed
    ..These results support 3-CPA as a good candidate drug representing a new generation of benzamides for further clinical development as a cancer therapy drug...
  3. Morissette G, Moreau E, C Gaudreault R, Marceau F. N-substituted 4-aminobenzamides (procainamide analogs): an assessment of multiple cellular effects concerning ion trapping. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68:1576-89 pubmed
    b>Procainamide and related triethylamine-substituted 4-aminobenzamides, such as metoclopramide and declopramide, exert cellular effects potentially exploitable in oncology at millimolar concentrations (DNA demethylation, nuclear factor-..
  4. Ablin J, Verbovetski I, Trahtemberg U, Metzger S, Mevorach D. Quinidine and procainamide inhibit murine macrophage uptake of apoptotic and necrotic cells: a novel contributing mechanism of drug-induced-lupus. Apoptosis. 2005;10:1009-18 pubmed
    ..A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the etiology of drug-induced lupus (DIL) but the effect of apoptotic and necrotic cell handling has not been previously examined...
  5. Segura Pacheco B, Trejo Becerril C, Perez Cardenas E, Taja Chayeb L, Mariscal I, Chavez A, et al. Reactivation of tumor suppressor genes by the cardiovascular drugs hydralazine and procainamide and their potential use in cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:1596-603 pubmed
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the demethylating and tumor suppressor-reactivating activity of hydralazine and procainamide.
  6. Chou C, Zhou S, Miyauchi Y, Pak H, Okuyama Y, Fishbein M, et al. Effects of procainamide on electrical activity in thoracic veins and atria in canine model of sustained atrial fibrillation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H1936-45 pubmed
    Focal discharges (FDs) are present in thoracic veins during atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesize that procainamide exerts its anti-AF action by suppressing FDs in the thoracic veins...
  7. Vannozzi M, Ottone M, Mariggio M, Cafaggi S, Parodi B, Cilli M, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of platinum after combined treatment of cisplatin and procainamide hydrochloride in mice bearing P388 leukemia. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:1509-16 pubmed
    Our previous studies showed that procainamide hydrochloride may be an important modulator of cisplatin toxicity and antitumour activity...
  8. Dasgupta A, Hovanetz M, Olsen M, Wells A, Actor J. Drug-herb interaction: effect of St John's wort on bioavailability and metabolism of procainamide in mice. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:1094-8 pubmed
    St John's wort induces the activity of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system causing treatment failure because of increased metabolism of many drugs. Procainamide is metabolized by a different pathway to N-acetyl procainamide.
  9. Yoshizawa N, Niwano S, Moriguchi M, Kitano Y, Inuo K, Saito J, et al. Effect of procainamide on the postrepolarization refractoriness in cardiac muscle: evaluation using the block coupling interval in the artificial isthmus model in the canine right atrium. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2001;24:1100-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the effect of procainamide on PRR was evaluated using the BCI and the effective refractory period (ERP)...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Gao Z, Xu Z, Hung M, Lin Y, Wang T, Gong M, et al. Procaine and procainamide inhibit the Wnt canonical pathway by promoter demethylation of WIF-1 in lung cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:1479-84 pubmed
    ..Procaine, a local anesthetic drug, and procainamide, a drug for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, have been reported as inhibitors of DNA methylation, causing ..
  2. Walter R, Siegmund W, Scheuch E. Effects of interferon-gamma and streptolysin O on hepatic procainamide N-acetyltransferase and various microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases in rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1996;18:571-86 pubmed
    ..Obviously, SLO activated NAT independent of protein synthesis and different from IFN gamma-mediated pathways. Posttranslational processes might be involved in NAT stimulation in the rats...
  3. Halby L, Champion C, Senamaud Beaufort C, Ajjan S, Drujon T, Rajavelu A, et al. Rapid synthesis of new DNMT inhibitors derivatives of procainamide. Chembiochem. 2012;13:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Families of conjugates of procainamide, an inhibitor of DNMT1, were conceived and produced by rapid synthetic pathways...
  4. Li F, Patterson A, Krausz K, Dick B, Frey F, Gonzalez F, et al. Metabolomics reveals the metabolic map of procainamide in humans and mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:1435-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Procainamide, a type I antiarrhythmic agent, is used to treat a variety of atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias. It was reported that long-term therapy with procainamide may cause lupus erythematosus in 25-30% of patients...
  5. Morissette G, Moreau E, C Gaudreault R, Marceau F. Massive cell vacuolization induced by organic amines such as procainamide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;310:395-406 pubmed
    ..artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and COS-1 cells in response to procaine and loosely related amine compounds (procainamide, N-acetyl-procainamide, metoclopramide, lidocaine, triethylamine, nicotine) used at 2.5 mM...
  6. Siraki A, Deterding L, Bonini M, Jiang J, Ehrenshaft M, Tomer K, et al. Procainamide, but not N-acetylprocainamide, induces protein free radical formation on myeloperoxidase: a potential mechanism of agranulocytosis. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:1143-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Procainamide (PA) is a drug that is used to treat tachycardia in postoperative patients or for long-term maintenance of cardiac arrythmias. Unfortunately, its use has also been associated with agranulocytosis...
  7. Quddus J, Johnson K, Gavalchin J, Amento E, Chrisp C, Yung R, et al. Treating activated CD4+ T cells with either of two distinct DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, 5-azacytidine or procainamide, is sufficient to cause a lupus-like disease in syngeneic mice. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:38-53 pubmed
    ..T cells become autoreactive after treatment with various DNA methylation inhibitors, including 5-azacytidine, procainamide, and hydralazine...
  8. Richardson B, Cornacchia E, Golbus J, Maybaum J, Strahler J, Hanash S. N-acetylprocainamide is a less potent inducer of T cell autoreactivity than procainamide. Arthritis Rheum. 1988;31:995-9 pubmed
    ..inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-azacytidine, makes cloned, antigen-specific CD4+ T cells autoreactive, and that procainamide and hydralazine mimic this effect...
  9. Liberg D, Lazarevic B, Pero R, Leanderson T. N-substituted benzamides inhibit NFkappaB activation and induce apoptosis by separate mechanisms. Br J Cancer. 1999;81:981-8 pubmed
    ..We found that while procainamide was biologically inert in our system, the addition of a chloride in the 3' position of the benzamide ring ..
  10. Ujhelyi M, Hadsall K, Euler D, Mehra R. Intrapericardial therapeutics: a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic comparison between pericardial and intravenous procainamide delivery. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002;13:605-11 pubmed
    b>Procainamide delivery into the pericardial space may produce a greater and more prolonged electrophysiologic effect, particularly in thin superficial atrial tissue, compared with intravenous delivery.
  11. Jin Q, Chen X, Smith W, Ideker R, Huang J. Effects of procainamide and sotalol on restitution properties, dispersion of refractoriness, and ventricular fibrillation activation patterns in pigs. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008;19:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interest in combining antiarrhythmic drugs has been prompted by the lack of efficacy of monotherapies and the toxicity resulting from high doses of individual agents...
  12. Lee B, Yegnasubramanian S, Lin X, Nelson W. Procainamide is a specific inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40749-56 pubmed
    ..b>Procainamide has been shown to inhibit DNA methyltransferase activity and reactivate silenced gene expression in cancer ..
  13. Lin X, Asgari K, Putzi M, Gage W, Yu X, Cornblatt B, et al. Reversal of GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation and reactivation of pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) expression in human prostate cancer cells by treatment with procainamide. Cancer Res. 2001;61:8611-6 pubmed
    ..We report here that the drug procainamide, a nonnucleoside inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, reversed GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation and restored ..
  14. Zicca A, Cafaggi S, Mariggio M, Vannozzi M, Ottone M, Bocchini V, et al. Reduction of cisplatin hepatotoxicity by procainamide hydrochloride in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;442:265-72 pubmed
    In preceding papers, we proposed that procainamide hydrochloride, a class I antiarrhythmic agent, was able to protect mice and rats from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and that it could exert its action through accumulation in kidneys ..
  15. Lindgren H, Pero R, Ivars F, Leanderson T. N-substituted benzamides inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB and nuclear factor of activated T cells activity while inducing activator protein 1 activity in T lymphocytes. Mol Immunol. 2001;38:267-77 pubmed
    ..Treatment of the Jurkat cells with procainamide did not influence the transcription factor profile of stimulated cells, while treatment with a derivative ..
  16. Stiell I, Clement C, Symington C, Perry J, Vaillancourt C, Wells G. Emergency department use of intravenous procainamide for patients with acute atrial fibrillation or flutter. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14:1158-64 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) procainamide for acute atrial fibrillation or flutter.
  17. Krahn A, Gollob M, Yee R, Gula L, Skanes A, Walker B, et al. Diagnosis of unexplained cardiac arrest: role of adrenaline and procainamide infusion. Circulation. 2005;112:2228-34 pubmed
    ..Although these may be evident on the ECG, long-term monitoring or provocative testing is often necessary to unmask latent primary electrical disease...
  18. Kubicka Muranyi M, Goebels R, Goebel C, Uetrecht J, Gleichmann E. T lymphocytes ignore procainamide, but respond to its reactive metabolites in peritoneal cells: demonstration by the adoptive transfer popliteal lymph node assay. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993;122:88-94 pubmed
    The drug procainamide (PA) is notorious for causing drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans...
  19. Sangwatanaroj S, Prechawat S, Sunsaneewitayakul B, Sitthisook S, Tosukhowong P, Tungsanga K. New electrocardiographic leads and the procainamide test for the detection of the Brugada sign in sudden unexplained death syndrome survivors and their relatives. Eur Heart J. 2001;22:2290-6 pubmed
    ..We proposed using the higher intercostal space V(1) to V(3) lead ECG, together with procainamide to detect the Brugada sign.
  20. Deng C, Lu Q, Zhang Z, Rao T, Attwood J, Yung R, et al. Hydralazine may induce autoimmunity by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway signaling. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:746-56 pubmed
    ..Hydralazine-induced lupus could be caused in part by inducing the same ERK pathway signaling defect that occurs in idiopathic lupus. ..
  21. Koup J, Abel R, Smithers J, Eldon M, de Vries T. Effect of age, gender, and race on steady state procainamide pharmacokinetics after administration of procanbid sustained-release tablets. Ther Drug Monit. 1998;20:73-7 pubmed
    b>Procainamide hydrochloride is a Class 1A antiarrhythmic agent administered intravenously or orally for treatment of symptomatic ventricular premature depolarizations (VPD), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and life-threatening ..
  22. Bailey D, Briggs J. Procainamide and quinidine inhibition of the human hepatic degradation of meperidine in vitro. J Anal Toxicol. 2003;27:142-4 pubmed
    b>Procainamide and quinidine inhibition of the degradation of meperidine in human liver was investigated by incubation of two concentrations of either drug with meperidine in homogenates of human liver over 24 and 36 h...
  23. Terada H. [Drug-induced hemolytic anemia]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 8:473-7 pubmed
  24. Stiell I, Wells G, Hebert P, Laupacis A, Weitzman B. Association of drug therapy with survival in cardiac arrest: limited role of advanced cardiac life support drugs. Acad Emerg Med. 1995;2:264-73 pubmed
    ..8- 1.0; atropine, 1.2 (1.0-1.3); bretylium. (0.4 (0.1-1.1); calcium 0.8 (0.2-2.4); lidocaine, 0.9 (0.7-1.1); procainamide. 21.0 (5.2-84.0) d sodium bicarbonate 1.2 (1.0-1.6)...
  25. Moffett B, Cannon B, Friedman R, Kertesz N. Therapeutic levels of intravenous procainamide in neonates: a retrospective assessment. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26:1687-93 pubmed
    To evaluate dosing and pharmacokinetic parameters of intravenous continuous-infusion procainamide in neonates, and to identify dosage regimens and factors leading to therapeutic procainamide levels and minimal adverse events...
  26. Yoshida H, Sugiyama A, Satoh Y, Ishida Y, Yoneyama M, Kugiyama K, et al. Comparison of the in vivo electrophysiological and proarrhythmic effects of amiodarone with those of a selective class III drug, sematilide, using a canine chronic atrioventricular block model. Circ J. 2002;66:758-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IKr channel inhibition by amiodarone with its additional ion channel blocking action may contribute to the prevention of TdP. ..
  27. Drobitch R, Tomilo M, Svensson C. Immunomodulation and drug acetylation: influence of the immunomodulator tilorone on hepatic, renal and blood N-acetyltransferase activity and on hepatic cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A content. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992;43:1643-8 pubmed
    ..Addition of tilorone (0.5-8.0 mM) to incubation mixtures containing procainamide (PA, 0.6 mM) and acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA, 0...
  28. Verdier F, Virat M, Descotes J. Applicability of the popliteal lymph node assay in the Brown-Norway rat. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1990;12:669-77 pubmed
    ..3. However, no increase in PLN weight was noted in procainamide- and isoniazide-treated rats as previously reported in the mouse...
  29. Fries R, Saunders A. Use of procainamide for conversion of acute onset AF following pericardiocentesis in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2012;48:429-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Atrial fibrillation (AF) was confirmed by EKG. Procainamide was administered IV over 15 min, resulting in successful conversion of AF to sinus rhythm and clinical ..
  30. Sugiyama A, Hashimoto K. Effects of a typical I(Kr) channel blocker sematilide on the relationship between ventricular repolarization, refractoriness and onset of torsades de pointes. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002;88:414-21 pubmed
  31. Marill K, deSouza I, Nishijima D, Senecal E, Setnik G, Stair T, et al. Amiodarone or procainamide for the termination of sustained stable ventricular tachycardia: an historical multicenter comparison. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:297-306 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) procainamide and amiodarone for the termination of spontaneous stable sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT)...
  32. Payne C, Saeed M, Wolfe A. Ligand stabilization of cholinesterases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;999:46-51 pubmed
    ..stabilized AChE was: edrophonium greater than decamethonium greater than pralidoxime chloride much greater than procainamide. BuChE denaturation was retarded by ligands in the order: decamethonium greater than procainamide greater than ..
  33. Węglarz L, Koceva Chyła A, Gwozdzinski K, Dzierzewicz Z, Jóźwiak Z. Evaluation of hydralazine and procainamide effects on fibroblast membrane fluidity. Biochimie. 2003;85:549-56 pubmed
    ..Two drugs, hydralazine and procainamide, were used to treat the immortalized mouse NIH 3T3 and hamster B14 fibroblasts...
  34. Gillis A, Choi M, Mathison H, Parsons H. Influence of dietary fat on the pharmacodynamics of quinidine, procainamide and tocainide in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994;271:176-83 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, we studied the effects of dietary fat on the pharmacodynamics of the hydrophilic drugs, procainamide and tocainide, and the lipophilic drug, quinidine...
  35. Coyle J, MacKichan J, Boudoulas H, Lima J. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for measurement of procainamide and three metabolites in serum and urine: percent of dose excreted as deethyl metabolites. J Pharm Sci. 1987;76:402-5 pubmed
    We report a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of procainamide (PA) and three of its metabolites, n-acetylprocainamide (NAPA), deethylprocainamide (DEPA), and deethyl-n-acetylprocainamide (..
  36. Jamali F, Alballa R, Mehvar R, Lemko C. Longer plasma half-life for procainamide utilizing a very sensitive high performance liquid chromatography assay. Ther Drug Monit. 1988;10:91-6 pubmed
    The reported biological half-life of the antiarrhythmic drug procainamide (PA) is between 2 and 4 h...
  37. Klapoetke S, Zhang J, Becht S, Gu X, Ding X. The evaluation of a novel approach for the profiling and identification of N-linked glycan with a procainamide tag by HPLC with fluorescent and mass spectrometric detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;53:315-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Procainamide was investigated as a multifunctional oligosaccharide label for glycan profiling and identification in a HPLC-FL/ESI-QTOF system...
  38. Ayer L, Edworthy S, Fritzler M. Effect of procainamide and hydralazine on poly (ADP-ribosylation) in cell lines. Lupus. 1993;2:167-72 pubmed
    The prescription drugs procainamide (PA) and hydralazine (HYD) are associated with the induction of autoimmunity and a clinical syndrome called drug-induced lupus...
  39. Luchi R, Entman M, Harrison D, Eknoyan G. Use of cardioactive drugs in acute myocardial infarction. Heart Lung. 1976;5:44-61 pubmed
  40. Marx S, Kaushansky N, Gratziany N, Barness I, Liron Z. Acoustic and optical transduction of BuChE binding to procainamide modified surfaces. Biosens Bioelectron. 2001;16:239-44 pubmed
    A novel polymer, poly(procainamide), PPA, containing numerous binding sites for cholinesterases was synthesized as a recognition layer for butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) interaction with the ligand procainamide, utilizing TSM and SPR ..
  41. Schaaf L, Robinson D, Vogel G, Wulf B, Drda K, Moses J. Stability of esmolol hydrochloride in the presence of aminophylline, bretylium tosylate, heparin sodium, and procainamide hydrochloride. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47:1567-71 pubmed
    ..compatibility of esmolol hydrochloride mixed with aminophylline, heparin sodium, bretylium tosylate, or procainamide hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection was studied...
  42. Vargas G, Havel J, Hadasova E. Direct determination of procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide by capillary zone electrophoresis in pharmaceutical formulations and urine. J Chromatogr A. 1997;772:271-6 pubmed
    In this work a new sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis method for the direct determination of procainamide (PA) and N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA) in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples without any extraction and/or ..
  43. Dzimiri N. Effects of procainamide, tocainide and phenytoin on guinea pig cardiac mitochondrial ATPase activity. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1993;80:121-4 pubmed
    The effects of three class I antiarrhythmic drugs procainamide, tocainide and phenytoin on undamaged myocardial mitochondrial ATPase [ATP: phosphohydrolase EC 3.6.1.3] activity were evaluated in guinea pig heart preparations...
  44. Wang L, Yong A, Kilpatrick D. Effects of procainamide on transmural ventricular repolarisation. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2002;16:335-9 pubmed
    To investigate the pharmacological effect of procainamide on transmural ventricular repolarisation in normal heart, the transmural activation-recovery intervals (ARI) and their responses to procainamide (20 mg/min i.v...
  45. Yoshiyama Y, Sugiyama T, Kanke M, Tsuchimoto K. Drug-drug interactions between antiarrhythmic drugs in chick embryos. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:128-30 pubmed
    ..Fertilized eggs of White Leghorns were incubated and investigated. Procainamide or flecainide with and without propranolol was injected into the air sac of a fertilized egg...
  46. Haver V, Audino N, Burris S, Nelson M. Four fluorescence polarization immunoassays for therapeutic drug monitoring evaluated. Clin Chem. 1989;35:138-40 pubmed
    We evaluated four fluorescence polarization immunoassays--those for phenytoin, procainamide, N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA), and quinidine--from Roche Diagnostic Systems, done in the Cobas Bio FP centrifugal analyzer...
  47. Chen M, Jackson A. The role of metabolites in bioequivalency assessment. I. Linear pharmacokinetics without first-pass effect. Pharm Res. 1991;8:25-32 pubmed
    ..results have been found to be in agreement with the bioequivalency data for acetohexamide, allopurinol, procainamide, and sulindac...
  48. Cui G, Kobashigawa J, Margarian A, Sen L. Cause of atrioventricular block in patients after heart transplantation. Transplantation. 2003;76:137-42 pubmed
    ..Second-degree AVB and CAVB were mainly the consequences of surgical and catheter intervention injury. ..
  49. Saxena A, Luo C, Doctor B. Developing procedures for the large-scale purification of human serum butyrylcholinesterase. Protein Expr Purif. 2008;61:191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The purification of Hu BChE was accomplished by batch adsorption on procainamide-Sepharose-CL-4B affinity gel followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose column...
  50. Vasbinder E, Annesley T. Liquid chromatographic analysis of mexiletine in serum, with alternate application to tocainide, procainamide, and N-acetylprocainamide. Biomed Chromatogr. 1991;5:19-22 pubmed
    ..0% or less. The relative retention time of mexiletine to internal standard averages 1.3. An adaptation of this method is described for an alternate application to the analysis of tocainide, procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide.
  51. Iost N, Virag L, Varro A, Papp J. Comparison of the effect of class IA antiarrhythmic drugs on transmembrane potassium currents in rabbit ventricular myocytes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2003;8:31-41 pubmed
  52. Cheng H, Incardona J, McCullough B. Isolated perfused and paced guinea pig heart to test for drug-induced changes of the QT interval. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2006;54:278-87 pubmed
    ..Since QT intervals can be generated from paced or spontaneously beating hearts, data so generated can also be used for validating QT(c) correction equations...
  53. Brooks R, Drexler A, Maynard A, Al Khalidi H, Kostreva D. Proarrhythmia of azimilide and other class III antiarrhythmic agents in the adrenergically stimulated rabbit. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000;223:183-9 pubmed
    ..Rabbits treated with azimilide spent significantly less time in SVT and combined NSVT and SVT, followed in order of increasing time by d,l-sotalol, sematilide, clofilium, and dofetilide...
  54. Kudenchuk P. Advanced cardiac life support antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiol Clin. 2002;20:79-87 pubmed
  55. Lu Q, Wu A, Richardson B. Demethylation of the same promoter sequence increases CD70 expression in lupus T cells and T cells treated with lupus-inducing drugs. J Immunol. 2005;174:6212-9 pubmed
    ..How environmental agents interact with the host to cause lupus is poorly understood. Procainamide and hydralazine are drugs that cause lupus in genetically predisposed individuals...
  56. Igawa M, Aonuma K, Okamoto Y, Hiroe M, Hiraoka M, Isobe M. Anti-arrhythmic efficacy of nifekalant hydrochloride, a pure class III anti-arrhythmic agent, in patients with healed myocardial infarction and inducible sustained ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2002;40:735-42 pubmed
    ..tachycardias (VTs) of the pure class III agent nifekalant hydrochloride (MS-551) in comparison with those of procainamide. Programmed ventricular stimulation of up to three extra stimuli was performed for induction of VTs...
  57. Hangaishi A, Kurokawa M. [Drug-induced thrombocytopenia]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 8:465-9 pubmed
  58. Alikhani Koopaei R, Fouladkou F, Frey F, Frey B. Epigenetic regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1146-57 pubmed
    ..Demethylation induced by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and procainamide enhanced the transcription and activity of the 11 beta HSD2 enzyme in human cells in vitro and in rats in vivo...
  59. Baeza I, Leyva E, Campos B, Lara M, Ibáñez M, Farfán N, et al. Antibodies to non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements induce a murine autoimmune disease resembling human lupus. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:576-86 pubmed
    ..had developed the autoimmune disease, or with liposomes treated with the NPA inductors chlorpromazine or procainamide; or with these NPA inductors alone...
  60. Richardson B, Liebling M, Hudson J. CD4+ cells treated with DNA methylation inhibitors induce autologous B cell differentiation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1990;55:368-81 pubmed
    ..This mechanism could play a role in some autoimmune diseases characterized by T cell DNA hypomethylation and polyclonal B cell activation...
  61. Xanthos T, Prapa V, Papadimitriou D, Papadimitriou L. Comparative study of intravenous amiodarone and procainamide in the treatment of atrial fibrillation of recent onset. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2007;55:433-41 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to compare the safety and efficacy of amiodarone and procainamide in the acute cardiology setting.
  62. An J, Geib S, Rosi N. Cation-triggered drug release from a porous zinc-adeninate metal-organic framework. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:8376-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, procainamide HCl is loaded into the pores of bio-MOF-1 using a simple cation exchange process...
  63. Lai P, Walters J. Azithromycin kills invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in gingival epithelial cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1347-51 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations...
  64. Smailys A, Gasiunas V, Gasiuniene G. Evaluation of cardiac vulnerability and antifibrillatory properties of anti-arrhythmic drugs. Resuscitation. 1989;18:21-30 pubmed
    ..In addition to the other methods, the method of accelerating the heart rate differs in that only a small amplitude of stimulating pulses is needed. The present method may be used in the case of an unstable initial cardiac rhythm...
  65. Patel V, Arad M, Moskowitz I, Maguire C, Branco D, Seidman J, et al. Electrophysiologic characterization and postnatal development of ventricular pre-excitation in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:942-51 pubmed
    ..We sought to characterize an animal model of the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome to help elucidate the mechanisms of accessory pathway formation...
  66. Chen P, Chou C, Tan A, Zhou S, Fishbein M, Hwang C, et al. The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17 Suppl 3:S2-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, thoracic vein isolation is an important technique in AF control. We conclude that thoracic veins are important in the generation and maintenance of AF...
  67. Wojnarowska Z, Swiety Pospiech A, Grzybowska K, Hawelek L, Paluch M, Ngai K. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure. J Chem Phys. 2012;136:164507 pubmed publisher
    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials...
  68. Ognio E, Chiavarina B, Peterka M, Mariggio M, Viale M. Study of feasibility of the treatment with procainamide hydrochloride and cisplatin in pregnant mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2006;164:232-40 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our previous observations, demonstrating the usefulness of procainamide hydrochloride for the protection against cisplatin toxic effects in adult mice and rats, we now analyze the ..
  69. Kato T, Ubara Y, Tagami T, Sawa N, Hoshino J, Suwabe T, et al. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease showing rupture of a lateral ventral hernia following paralytic ileus. Intern Med. 2005;44:311-4 pubmed
    ..ADPKD), which was marked by unusually enlarged kidneys, and in whom ileus occurred after administration of procainamide. The bowels became swollen and ruptured the skin and appeared on the outside of the skin...
  70. Okuda M, Saito H, Urakami Y, Takano M, Inui K. cDNA cloning and functional expression of a novel rat kidney organic cation transporter, OCT2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;224:500-7 pubmed
    ..the uptake of tetraethylammonium, and the uptake was markedly inhibited by the presence of cimetidine, procainamide and quinidine. These findings suggest that OCT2 is responsible for the transport of cationic drugs in the kidney...
  71. Sánchez Aquino R, Peinado R, Peinado A, Merino J, Sobrino J. [Recurrent ventricular fibrillation in a patient with Brugada syndrome successfully treated with procainamide]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2003;56:1134-6 pubmed
    ..Endovenous procainamide administration, paradoxically, was effective in preventing new episodes...
  72. Nakahara T, Moriuchi H, Yunoki M, Kubota Y, Tanaka Y, Sakamato K, et al. Involvement of K(+) channel in procainamide-induced relaxation of bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;402:143-9 pubmed
    The relaxant effect of procainamide, a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent, was examined in bovine tracheal smooth muscle...
  73. Hua J, Pero R, Kane R. Pharmacokinetics and central nervous system toxicity of declopramide (3-chloroprocainamide) in rats and mice. Anticancer Drugs. 1999;10:79-88 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the clinical development of declopramide as a sensitizer of radio- and chemotherapies is an improvement over MCA, because it can be administered in a high dose and is devoid of CNS side effects...
  74. Lurie K, Buscemi P, Iskos D, Adkisson W, Fahy G, Sakaguchi S, et al. Comparison of right atrial and peripheral procainamide infusion levels in patients with spontaneous or induced atrial fibrillation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998;21:277-83 pubmed
    ..drug infusion/pacing system to treat atrial fibrillation, this study examined the effects of rapid intracardiac procainamide infusion in humans with pacing-induced atrial fibrillation...
  75. Liu X, Huang S. [Effects of amiodarone on kinetics of procainamide and its major metabolite disposition in rabbit]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1992;13:454-6 pubmed
    The effects of steady state amiodarone on the kinetics of procainamide (PA) and its major metabolite, acetylprocainamide (NAPA), disposition in rabbits were examined...
  76. Strimel W, Woodruff A, Cheung P, Kirmani B, Stephen Huang S. Brugada-like electrocardiographic pattern induced by lamotrigine toxicity. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010;33:265-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Many pharmotherapeutic agents induce an electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern that can be confused with Brugada syndrome in patients who may not have the disease...
  77. Kharidia J, Eddington N. Application of computer-assisted radiotelemetry in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide. J Pharm Sci. 1996;85:595-9 pubmed
    The cardiovascular pharmacodynamics (PD) of procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide have not been well characterized in small rodents without the presence of anesthesia or restraint...
  78. Murray K, Vlasnik J. Procainamide-induced postoperative pyrexia. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;68:1072-4 pubmed
    b>Procainamide is an effective antiarrhythmic that is often used to convert atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm. A side effect of procainamide, rarely reported in the surgical literature, is pyrexia...
  79. Morissette G, Lodge R, Marceau F. Intense pseudotransport of a cationic drug mediated by vacuolar ATPase: procainamide-induced autophagic cell vacuolization. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;228:364-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that procainamide-induced vacuolar cytopathology is driven by intense pseudotransport mediated by the vacuolar (V)-ATPase and ..
  80. Altundag O, Altundag K, Gunduz M. DNA methylation inhibitor, procainamide, may decrease the tamoxifen resistance by inducing overexpression of the estrogen receptor beta in breast cancer patients. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63:684-7 pubmed
    ..b>Procainamide, used for cardiac arrhythmias, has been proposed as being a non-nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methylation and ..
  81. Otten R, Dusa A, Das M. Brugada syndrome in the presence of coronary artery disease and parasympathomimetic drug therapy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2007;30:1039-42 pubmed
  82. Vazzana I, Budriesi R, Terranova E, Ioan P, Ugenti M, Tasso B, et al. Novel quinolizidinyl derivatives as antiarrhythmic agents. J Med Chem. 2007;50:334-43 pubmed
    Eighteen analogues of lidocaine, mexiletine, and procainamide were synthesized, replacing their aminoalkyl chains with the rigid and cumbersome quinolizidine nucleus...
  83. Echt D, Black J, Barbey J, Coxe D, Cato E. Evaluation of antiarrhythmic drugs on defibrillation energy requirements in dogs. Sodium channel block and action potential prolongation. Circulation. 1989;79:1106-17 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we evaluated the effects of the sodium channel blocking drugs lidocaine and procainamide, the action potential prolonging drugs N-acetyl procainamide and clofilium, and the potassium current blocker ..