Summary: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.

Top Publications

  1. Friedman B, Garber L, Yoon A, Solorzano C, Wollowitz A, Esses D, et al. Randomized trial of IV valproate vs metoclopramide vs ketorolac for acute migraine. Neurology. 2014;82:976-83 pubmed publisher
    We compared the efficacy of IV valproate with metoclopramide and with ketorolac in patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) with acute migraine.
  2. El Enany N. Second derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of metoclopramide and pyridoxine in syrup and human plasma. J AOAC Int. 2008;91:542-50 pubmed
    ..second derivative synchronous fluorometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of metoclopramide (MT) and pyridoxine (PY) in a binary mixture...
  3. Ozucelik D, Karaca M, Sivri B. Effectiveness of pre-emptive metoclopramide infusion in alleviating pain, discomfort and nausea associated with nasogastric tube insertion: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59:1422-7 pubmed
    Aim of this study was to demonstrate that intravenous metoclopramide can reduce pain, nausea and discomfort during nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion in ED...
  4. Grüning T, Brogsitter C, Khonsari M, Jones I, Nevin S, Burchert W. Can administration of metoclopramide reduce artefacts related to abdominal activity in myocardial perfusion SPECT?. Nucl Med Commun. 2006;27:953-7 pubmed
    Myocardial perfusion SPECT is frequently affected by artefacts related to abdominal activity. Metoclopramide has been suggested to relieve this, but two previous studies have shown conflicting results.
  5. Gunter J, McAuliffe J, Beckman E, Wittkugel E, Spaeth J, Varughese A. A factorial study of ondansetron, metoclopramide, and dexamethasone for emesis prophylaxis after adenotonsillectomy in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16:1153-65 pubmed
    We conducted a factorial study of emesis prophylaxis with ondansetron (OND), metoclopramide (MET), and dexamethasone (DEX).
  6. Kerstan A, Seitz C, Brocker E, Trautmann A. Anaphylaxis during treatment of nausea and vomiting: IgE-mediated metoclopramide allergy. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1889-90 pubmed
  7. Verna C, Soares J, Martins F, Teixeira R, Mosquette R, Simoes R, et al. [Effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the murine corneal]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2006;69:645-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the morphological changes in murine cornea upon metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia during the proestrous phase or pregnancy.
  8. Almeida N, Figueiredo P, Freire P, Lopes S, Lérias C, Gouveia H, et al. The effect of metoclopramide in capsule enteroscopy. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial was to determine if metoclopramide is useful in CE by increasing the rate of complete enteroscopy...
  9. Wallenborn J, Gelbrich G, Bulst D, Behrends K, Wallenborn H, Rohrbach A, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by metoclopramide combined with dexamethasone: randomised double blind multicentre trial. BMJ. 2006;333:324 pubmed
    To determine whether 10 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg metoclopramide combined with 8 mg dexamethasone, given intraoperatively, is more effective in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting than 8 mg dexamethasone alone, and to assess benefit in ..

More Information


  1. Dingli K, Morgan R, Leen C. Acute dystonic reaction caused by metoclopramide, versus tetanus. BMJ. 2007;334:899-900 pubmed
  2. Wang X, Yu J, Du Z, Xu R, Jiang C, Gao X. Electroacupoint stimulation for postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2010;22:128-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at the P6 acupoint for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy...
  3. Pasricha P, Pehlivanov N, Sugumar A, Jankovic J. Drug Insight: from disturbed motility to disordered movement--a review of the clinical benefits and medicolegal risks of metoclopramide. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;3:138-48 pubmed
    b>Metoclopramide, the only drug approved by the FDA for treatment of diabetic gastroparesis, but used off-label for a variety of other gastrointestinal indications, has many potentially troublesome adverse neurologic effects, particularly ..
  4. Messini C, Dafopoulos K, Chalvatzas N, Georgoulias P, Anifandis G, Messinis I. Effect of ghrelin and metoclopramide on prolactin secretion in normal women. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34:276-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of ghrelin to women stimulates the secretion of PRL but the mechanism is not known...
  5. Radwanski N, Cerundolo R, Shofer F, Hanley M, Court M. Effects of powdered whole grapefruit and metoclopramide on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72:687-93 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether oral administration of metoclopramide or a commercially available powdered whole grapefruit (PWG) nutraceutical in combination with cyclosporine enhances systemic availability of cyclosporine in dogs.
  6. Raedsch R, Hanisch J, Bock P, Sibaev A, Vinson B, Gundermann K. [Assessment of the efficacy and safety of the phytopharmacon STW 5 versus metoclopramide in functional dyspepsia--a retrolective cohort study]. Z Gastroenterol. 2007;45:1041-8 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the phytopharmacon STW 5 versus metoclopramide in functional dyspepsia.
  7. MacLaren R, Kiser T, Fish D, Wischmeyer P. Erythromycin vs metoclopramide for facilitating gastric emptying and tolerance to intragastric nutrition in critically ill patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008;32:412-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate erythromycin vs metoclopramide for facilitating gastric emptying and tolerance to intragastric enteral nutrition (EN).
  8. Okamura K, Sasaki N, Yamada M, Yamada H, Inokuma H. Effects of mosapride citrate, metoclopramide hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, and cisapride citrate on equine gastric emptying, small intestinal and caecal motility. Res Vet Sci. 2009;86:302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compared the effects of mosapride, metoclopramide, cisapride, and lidocaine on equine gastric emptying, jejunal and caecal motility and evaluated these agents' ..
  9. Nguyen N, Chapman M, Fraser R, Bryant L, Holloway R. Erythromycin is more effective than metoclopramide in the treatment of feed intolerance in critical illness. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:483-9 pubmed
    This study aimed to a) compare the efficacy of metoclopramide and erythromycin in the treatment of feed intolerance in critical illness; and b) determine the effectiveness of "rescue" combination therapy in patients who fail ..
  10. Krobbuaban B, Pitakpol S, Diregpoke S. Ondansetron vs. metoclopramide for the prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecologic surgery. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91:669-74 pubmed
    ..The present study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of ondansetron with metoclopramide for prophylaxis of PONV in patients undergoing major gynecological surgery.
  11. Azzopardi T, Brooks N. Oral metoclopramide as an adjunct to analgesics for the outpatient treatment of acute migraine. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:397-402 pubmed publisher
    To compare the combination of oral metoclopramide plus an analgesic with oral triptan monotherapy in the treatment of migraine attacks in outpatients.
  12. Rossi A, Teixeira Gomes R, de Jesus Simões M, Dos Santos Simões R, Oliveira P, Soares J, et al. Effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the prolactin receptor of murine endometrium. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1643-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the prolactin receptor of murine endometrium.
  13. Deane A, Fraser R, Chapman M. Prokinetic drugs for feed intolerance in critical illness: current and potential therapies. Crit Care Resusc. 2009;11:132-43 pubmed
    ..intolerance is as yet unclear, but current evidence supports the administration of erythromycin combined with metoclopramide as first-line therapy...
  14. Panzan M, Junior J, da Motta E, Haapalainen E, de Jesus Simões M, Baptista H, et al. Metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinaemia caused marked decline in pinopodes and pregnancy rates in mice. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:2514-20 pubmed
    ..This article examines whether experimental hyperprolactinaemia can affect mouse ovarian function, endometrial pinopodes and embryo implantation...
  15. Rao A, Camilleri M. Review article: metoclopramide and tardive dyskinesia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31:11-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Metoclopramide is a dopamine receptor antagonist which has been used for treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms over the last thirty years...
  16. Mahajan H, Gattani S. In situ gels of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride for intranasal delivery: in vitro evaluation and in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits. Drug Deliv. 2010;17:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Metoclopramide Hydrochloride (MET HCl) is a potent antiemetic, effective even for preventing emesis induced by cancer ..
  17. Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, Rezaiie M, Farhadifar F. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:817-20 pubmed
    This study assesses the effects of ginger on nausea and vomiting caused by pregnancy and compares it with metoclopramide medicine. This study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial...
  18. Bakhshayesh B, Seyed Saadat S, Rezania K, Hatamian H, Hossieninezhad M. A randomized open-label study of sodium valproate vs sumatriptan and metoclopramide for prolonged migraine headache. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31:540-4 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous valproic acid (iVPA) with intramuscular metoclopramide + subcutaneous (SQ) sumatriptan for prolonged acute migraine.
  19. Habib A, George R, McKeen D, White W, Ituk U, Megalla S, et al. Antiemetics added to phenylephrine infusion during cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121:615-23 pubmed publisher
    To estimate whether the addition of metoclopramide or its combination with ondansetron to a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion provides improved intraoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis compared with phenylephrine infusion alone.
  20. Guillemot J, Compagnon P, Cartier D, Thouennon E, Bastard C, Lihrmann I, et al. Metoclopramide stimulates catecholamine- and granin-derived peptide secretion from pheochromocytoma cells through activation of serotonin type 4 (5-HT4) receptors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:281-90 pubmed publisher
    The gastroprokinetic agent metoclopramide is known to stimulate catecholamine secretion from pheochromocytomas...
  21. Mishriky B, Habib A. Metoclopramide for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis during and after Caesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2012;108:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Metoclopramide is a prokinetic agent reported to be safe in parturients...
  22. Hennessy S, Leonard C, Newcomb C, Kimmel S, Bilker W. Cisapride and ventricular arrhythmia. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;66:375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to examine the association between cisapride and ventricular arrhythmia, and examine the relationship to dose and CYP3A4 inhibitors...
  23. El Khodery S, Sato M. Ultrasonographic assessment of the reticular motility in cows after administration of different doses of metoclopramide and neostigmine. Vet Res Commun. 2008;32:473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of ten Holstein cows were used in six trials in each one single dose of each drug was used. Metoclopramide was used at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/kg intramuscularly, whereas neostigmine was used at 0.02, 0.03, and 0...
  24. Kenney C, Hunter C, Davidson A, Jankovic J. Metoclopramide, an increasingly recognized cause of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;48:379-84 pubmed publisher
  25. Walkembach J, Bruss M, Urban B, Barann M. Interactions of metoclopramide and ergotamine with human 5-HT(3A) receptors and human 5-HT reuptake carriers. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;146:543-52 pubmed
    The actions of metoclopramide and ergotamine, drugs which are used as a combined migraine medication, on human (h)5-HT3A receptors and 5-HT reuptake carriers, stably expressed in HEK-293 cells, were studied with patch-clamp- and ([3H]5-HT)..
  26. Zaki N, Awad G, Mortada N, Abd Elhady S. Enhanced bioavailability of metoclopramide HCl by intranasal administration of a mucoadhesive in situ gel with modulated rheological and mucociliary transport properties. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2007;32:296-307 pubmed
    ..gel with reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of the antiemetic drug, metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP HCl)...
  27. Hibbs A, Lorch S. Metoclopramide for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2006;118:746-52 pubmed
    b>Metoclopramide is a commonly used drug to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants...
  28. Tas C, Ozkan C, Savaser A, Ozkan Y, Tasdemir U, Altunay H. Nasal absorption of metoclopramide from different Carbopol 981 based formulations: In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo evaluation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2006;64:246-54 pubmed
    There is a need for nasal drug delivery of metoclopramide HCI (MTC) in specific patient populations where the use of commercially available intravenous and oral dosage forms may be inconvenient and/or unfeasible...
  29. Singh S, Singh J, Muthu M, Balasubramaniam J, Mishra B. Gastroretentive drug delivery system of metoclopramide hydrochloride: formulation and in vitro evaluation. Curr Drug Deliv. 2007;4:269-75 pubmed
    The present investigation concerns the development of floating matrix tablets of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MHCl) for improving its bioavailability by prolonging gastric residence time...
  30. van der Padt A, Van Schaik R, Sonneveld P. Acute dystonic reaction to metoclopramide in patients carrying homozygous cytochrome P450 2D6 genetic polymorphisms. Neth J Med. 2006;64:160-2 pubmed
    Extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) are clinically relevant side effects of metoclopramide which are often not anticipated.
  31. Gupta V. Metoclopramide aborts cough-induced headache and ameliorates cough--a pilot study. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:345-8 pubmed
    b>Metoclopramide (MTCL) can abort attacks of migraine headache. I report swift resolution of cough-induced headache as well as suppression of cough in six male patients following parenteral administration of MTCL...
  32. Lou E, Abou Zeid N. A case of metoclopramide-induced oculogyric crisis in a 16-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis. South Med J. 2006;99:1290-1 pubmed
    ..dopamine receptor blocking agents or neuroleptic medications and traditional antipsychotic or antiemetic drugs, such as prochlorperazine or metoclopramide. A case of oculogyric crisis induced by metoclopramide is described in this paper.
  33. Unal Y, Ozsoylar O, Arslan M, Sariguney D, Akcabay M. Comparison of the efficacy of propofol and metoclopramide in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery. Saudi Med J. 2009;30:778-82 pubmed
    To compare the administration of sub hypnotic dose of propofol with metoclopramide and placebo in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after middle ear surgery.
  34. Sandhu T, Tanvatcharaphan P, Cheunjongkolkul V. Ondansetron versus metoclopramide in prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective double-blind randomized study. Asian J Surg. 2008;31:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This prospective, randomized, double-blind study compared the prophylactic use of metoclopramide and ondansetron for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent elective ..
  35. Chaudhary K, Gupta P, Gogia A. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study to compare the efficacy of lidocaine + metoclopramide and lidocaine + ketamine combinations in preventing pain on propofol injection. J Anesth. 2013;27:402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the efficacy of the lidocaine + metoclopramide and lidocaine + ketamine combinations on modulating propofol injection pain.
  36. Hamamoto K, Mizuno Y, Kato M, Yamagishi N, Furuhama K. Simple and sensitive method for measurement of metoclopramide in cattle plasma by LC-MS/MS using a multimode chromatography. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:509-13 pubmed
    ..05 ng/ml. Mean recoveries were 96-103%, and the coefficient of variation was less than 6.5%. Plasma MCP concentrations after intravenous administration at 0.4 mg/kg to 12 cattle were determined by the LC-MS/MS method...
  37. Ingram J, Taylor H, Churchill C, Pike A, Greenwood R. Metoclopramide or domperidone for increasing maternal breast milk output: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012;97:F241-5 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on the breast milk output of mothers with infants in neonatal intensive care.
  38. Uchida M, Endo N, Shimizu K. Simple and noninvasive breath test using 13C-acetic acid to evaluate gastric emptying in conscious rats and its validation by metoclopramide. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005;98:388-95 pubmed
    ..b>Metoclopramide dose-dependently increased the Cmax and shortened Tmax of (13)CO2 excretion compared with those of the control ..
  39. Moos D, Hansen D. Metoclopramide and extrapyramidal symptoms: a case report. J Perianesth Nurs. 2008;23:292-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Metoclopramide is a useful medication in the anesthesia provider's armamentarium...
  40. Leblanc T, Da Costa L, Marie I, Demolis P, Tchernia G. Metoclopramide treatment in DBA patients: no complete response in a French prospective study. Blood. 2007;109:2266-7 pubmed
  41. Matok I, Gorodischer R, Koren G, Sheiner E, Wiznitzer A, Levy A. The safety of metoclopramide use in the first trimester of pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2528-35 pubmed publisher
    In various countries, metoclopramide is the antiemetic drug of choice in pregnant women, but insufficient information exists regarding its safety in pregnancy.
  42. Nesek Adam V, Grizelj Stojcić E, Rasic Z, Cala Z, Mrsić V, Smiljanić A. Comparison of dexamethasone, metoclopramide, and their combination in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:607-12 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone, metoclopramide, and their combination to prevent PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  43. Yu J, Paine M, Marechal J, Kemp C, Ward C, Brown S, et al. In silico prediction of drug binding to CYP2D6: identification of a new metabolite of metoclopramide. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:1386-92 pubmed
    ..61. Importantly, the docked conformation of the commonly prescribed antiemetic metoclopramide predicted a new site of metabolism that was further investigated through in vitro analysis with recombinant ..
  44. Bassil A, Dass N, Murray C, Muir A, Sanger G. Prokineticin-2, motilin, ghrelin and metoclopramide: prokinetic utility in mouse stomach and colon. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;524:138-44 pubmed
    ..mouse isolated stomach and colon was determined and compared with the prokinetic and 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, metoclopramide. Circular muscle preparations were electrically field-stimulated (EFS) to evoke cholinergically mediated ..
  45. Hosono K, Endo H, Sakai E, Sekino Y, Uchiyama T, Watanabe S, et al. Optimal approach for small bowel capsule endoscopy using polyethylene glycol and metoclopramide with the assistance of a real-time viewer. Digestion. 2011;84:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Capsule endoscopy is limited by the poor image quality of the distal bowel and incomplete small bowel transit. The aim of this study was to establish an optimal medication protocol for capsule endoscopy performed using a real-time viewer...
  46. Friedman B, Esses D, Solorzano C, Dua N, Greenwald P, Radulescu R, et al. A randomized controlled trial of prochlorperazine versus metoclopramide for treatment of acute migraine. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52:399-406 pubmed
    We compare prochlorperazine 10 mg intravenously versus metoclopramide 20 mg intravenously for the emergency department (ED) treatment of acute migraine.
  47. Oksuz H, Zencirci B, Ezberci M. Comparison of the effectiveness of metoclopramide, ondansetron, and granisetron on the prevention of nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2007;17:803-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of the current study was to compare the antiemetic activity of different 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists with that of metoclopramide.
  48. Sakha K, Behbahan A. Training for perfect breastfeeding or metoclopramide: which one can promote lactation in nursing mothers?. Breastfeed Med. 2008;3:120-3 pubmed publisher
    ..aspects of infants' health, we planned this study to find out whether training of nursing mothers for breastfeeding can enhance their lactation; also, we tried to compare the effects of metoclopramide on lactation with those of training.
  49. Wittek T, Constable P. Assessment of the effects of erythromycin, neostigmine, and metoclopramide on abomasal motility and emptying rate in calves. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:545-52 pubmed
    To determine and compare the effects of erythromycin, neostigmine, and metoclopramide on abomasal motility and emptying rate in suckling calves.
  50. Petroianu G, Arafat K, Kosanovic M, Saleh A, Camasamudram V, Hasan M. In vitro protection of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase by metoclopramide from inhibition by organophosphates (paraoxon and mipafox). J Appl Toxicol. 2003;23:447-51 pubmed
    b>Metoclopramide (MCP) is a dopamine receptor antagonist and serotonin receptor agonist widely used as an antiemetic and gastric prokinetic drug...
  51. Seta M, Kale Pradhan P. Efficacy of metoclopramide in postoperative ileus after exploratory laparotomy. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21:1181-6 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy of metoclopramide for treatment of postoperative ileus in patients who underwent exploratory laparatomy.
  52. Akiyama M, Yanagisawa T, Yuza Y, Yokoi K, Ariga M, Fujisawa K, et al. Successful treatment of Diamond-Blackfan anemia with metoclopramide. Am J Hematol. 2005;78:295-8 pubmed
    ..b>Metoclopramide has recently been used to treat DBA...
  53. Friedman B, Corbo J, Lipton R, Bijur P, Esses D, Solorzano C, et al. A trial of metoclopramide vs sumatriptan for the emergency department treatment of migraines. Neurology. 2005;64:463-8 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of 20 mg of IV metoclopramide, given up to four times over 2 hours as needed for persistent headache, with 6 mg of subcutaneous sumatriptan for the emergency department treatment of migraine headaches.