pyruvaldehyde

Summary

Summary: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.

Top Publications

  1. Lin X, Amore A, Loiacono E, Balegno S, Manniello D, Peruzzi L, et al. Effect of glucose degradation products, glucose-containing dialysate and icodextrin on AQP1 and eNOS expression in cultured endothelial cells. J Nephrol. 2009;22:117-22 pubmed
    ..We aimed at examining the effect of peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDSs) and glucose degradation products (GDPs) on the expression of AQP1 and eNOS in cultured endothelial cells...
  2. Hu T, Liu C, Chyau C, Hu M. Trapping of methylglyoxal by curcumin in cell-free systems and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:8190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, curcumin may prevent MGO-induced endothelial dysfunction by directly trapping MGO...
  3. Wu Y, Yanase E, Feng X, Siegel M, Sparrow J. Structural characterization of bisretinoid A2E photocleavage products and implications for age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas various processes play a role in drusen formation, these findings are indicative of a contribution from lipofuscin photooxidation in RPE...
  4. Kwakman P, te Velde A, de Boer L, Speijer D, Vandenbroucke Grauls C, Zaat S. How honey kills bacteria. FASEB J. 2010;24:2576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..3 to 7.0 reduced the activity to that of sugar alone. Activity against all other bacteria tested depended on sugar, H(2)O(2), MGO, and bee defensin-1. Thus, we fully characterized the antibacterial activity of medical-grade honey...
  5. Sousa Silva M, Gomes R, Ferreira A, Ponces Freire A, Cordeiro C. The glyoxalase pathway: the first hundred years... and beyond. Biochem J. 2013;453:1-15 pubmed publisher
  6. Naito Y, Takagi T, Oya Ito T, Okada H, Suzuki T, Hirata I, et al. Impaired gastric ulcer healing in diabetic mice: role of methylglyoxal. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 7:123-30 pubmed
  7. Matafome P, Sena C, Seica R. Methylglyoxal, obesity, and diabetes. Endocrine. 2013;43:472-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the mechanisms of MG formation, detoxification, and action. Furthermore, we review the current knowledge about its implication on the pathophysiology and complications of obesity and diabetes...
  8. Adams C, Manley Harris M, Molan P. The origin of methylglyoxal in New Zealand manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:1050-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Nectar washed from manuka flowers contained high levels of dihydroxyacetone and no detectable methylglyoxal...
  9. Eberhardt M, Filipović M, Leffler A, de la Roche J, Kistner K, Fischer M, et al. Methylglyoxal activates nociceptors through transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1): a possible mechanism of metabolic neuropathies. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28291-306 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MG is proposed to be a candidate metabolite that causes neuropathic pain in metabolic disorders and thus is a promising target for medicinal chemistry...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Queisser M, Yao D, Geisler S, Hammes H, Lochnit G, Schleicher E, et al. Hyperglycemia impairs proteasome function by methylglyoxal. Diabetes. 2010;59:670-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the influence of MGO-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation on the activity of the proteasome was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
  2. Liu J, Wang R, Desai K, Wu L. Upregulation of aldolase B and overproduction of methylglyoxal in vascular tissues from rats with metabolic syndrome. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;92:494-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylglyoxal (MG) overproduction has been reported in metabolic syndrome with hyperglycaemia (diabetes) or without hyperglycaemia (hypertension), and the underlying mechanism was investigated...
  3. Sena C, Matafome P, Crisóstomo J, Rodrigues L, Fernandes R, Pereira P, et al. Methylglyoxal promotes oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Pharmacol Res. 2012;65:497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides further evidence for methylglyoxal as one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of macrovascular diabetic complication...
  4. Dhar A, Dhar I, Desai K, Wu L. Methylglyoxal scavengers attenuate endothelial dysfunction induced by methylglyoxal and high concentrations of glucose. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:1843-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated if MG induces endothelial dysfunction and whether MG scavengers can prevent endothelial dysfunction induced by MG and high glucose concentrations...
  5. Brouwers O, Niessen P, Ferreira I, Miyata T, Scheffer P, Teerlink T, et al. Overexpression of glyoxalase-I reduces hyperglycemia-induced levels of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1374-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction of oxidative stress by GLO-I overexpression directly demonstrates the link between glycation and oxidative stress...
  6. Lu J, Randell E, Han Y, Adeli K, Krahn J, Meng Q. Increased plasma methylglyoxal level, inflammation, and vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:307-11 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the association of plasma levels of methylglyoxal (MG) and markers of inflammation/endothelial dysfunction with diabetic nephropathy (DN)...
  7. Chang T, Wang R, Olson D, Mousseau D, Ross A, Wu L. Modification of Akt1 by methylglyoxal promotes the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. FASEB J. 2011;25:1746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that MG-induced VSMC proliferation is mediated by the activation of Akt1 via the modification of Akt1 at Cys(77)...
  8. Berner A, Brouwers O, Pringle R, Klaassen I, Colhoun L, McVicar C, et al. Protection against methylglyoxal-derived AGEs by regulation of glyoxalase 1 prevents retinal neuroglial and vasodegenerative pathology. Diabetologia. 2012;55:845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a transgenic rat model that overexpresses GLO1, we investigated if this enzyme can inhibit retinal AGE formation and prevent key lesions of diabetic retinopathy...
  9. Hess C, Stratmann B, Quester W, Tschoepe D, Madea B, Musshoff F. Clinical and forensic examinations of glycaemic marker methylglyoxal by means of high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Int J Legal Med. 2013;127:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..237). This indicates that MG concentrations in the deceased cannot distinguish deaths due to a hyperglycaemic coma from other causes of death...
  10. Mukohda M, Okada M, Hara Y, Yamawaki H. Methylglyoxal accumulation in arterial walls causes vascular contractile dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;120:26-35 pubmed
  11. Lee D, Park C, Paik S, Choi K. The modification of alpha-synuclein by dicarbonyl compounds inhibits its fibril-forming process. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:421-30 pubmed publisher
  12. Li W, Liu J, He P, Ni Z, Hu Y, Xu H, et al. Hydroxysafflor yellow A protects methylglyoxal-induced injury in the cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Neurosci Lett. 2013;549:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results proved that HSYA could inhibit MGO-induced injury in the cultured HBMEC, which was associated with its antiglycation effect...
  13. Synold T, Xi B, Wuenschell G, Tamae D, Figarola J, Rahbar S, et al. Advanced glycation end products of DNA: quantification of N2-(1-Carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine in biological samples by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:2148-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies for dealing with artifactual adduct formation due to oxoaldehyde generation during DNA isolation and enzymatic workup procedures are described...
  14. Subedi K, Choi D, Kim I, Min B, Park C. Hsp31 of Escherichia coli K-12 is glyoxalase III. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:926-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an accumulation of intracellular MG was observed in hchA-deficient strains...
  15. Masterjohn C, Mah E, Guo Y, Koo S, Bruno R. ?-Tocopherol abolishes postprandial increases in plasma methylglyoxal following an oral dose of glucose in healthy, college-aged men. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:292-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Mukohda M, Okada M, Hara Y, Yamawaki H. Exploring mechanisms of diabetes-related macrovascular complications: role of methylglyoxal, a metabolite of glucose on regulation of vascular contractility. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118:303-10 pubmed
    ..These findings may provide further mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of diabetes-related macrovascular complications including hypertension...
  17. Wendler A, Irsch T, Rabbani N, Thornalley P, Krauth Siegel R. Glyoxalase II does not support methylglyoxal detoxification but serves as a general trypanothione thioesterase in African trypanosomes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;163:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..brucei glyoxalase II. This offers a function for the parasite glyoxalase II as general trypanothione thioesterase independent of ketoaldehyde detoxification...
  18. Mukohda M, Morita T, Okada M, Hara Y, Yamawaki H. Long-term methylglyoxal treatment causes endothelial dysfunction of rat isolated mesenteric artery. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:151-7 pubmed
    ..The present results demonstrated that long-term MGO treatment impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation through NOX-derived increased superoxide-mediated endothelial apoptosis...
  19. Krautwald M, Munch G. Advanced glycation end products as biomarkers and gerontotoxins - A basis to explore methylglyoxal-lowering agents for Alzheimer's disease?. Exp Gerontol. 2010;45:744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, methylglyoxal could be scavenged by various types of carbonyl scavengers...
  20. Sankaralingam S, Xu H, Jiang Y, Sawamura T, Davidge S. Evidence for increased methylglyoxal in the vasculature of women with preeclampsia: role in upregulation of LOX-1 and arginase. Hypertension. 2009;54:897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MG-induced LOX-1 expression is mediated via arginase upregulation likely because of uncoupling of NO synthase, which may have implications in preeclampsia...
  21. Brouwers O, Niessen P, Haenen G, Miyata T, Brownlee M, Stehouwer C, et al. Hyperglycaemia-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric arteries is mediated by intracellular methylglyoxal levels in a pathway dependent on oxidative stress. Diabetologia. 2010;53:989-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of hyperglycaemia on impaired vasoreactivity and a putative role therein of the AGE precursor methylglyoxal...
  22. Kimura R, Okouchi M, Fujioka H, Ichiyanagi A, Ryuge F, Mizuno T, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) protects against methylglyoxal-induced PC12 cell apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/GCLc/redox signaling pathway. Neuroscience. 2009;162:1212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The GLP-1-induced redox restoration was also attenuated by rapamycin. In conclusion, the neuroprotective effect of GLP-1 is due to an enhancement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/GCLc/redox signaling...
  23. Nguyen T, Eiamphungporn W, Mäder U, Liebeke M, Lalk M, Hecker M, et al. Genome-wide responses to carbonyl electrophiles in Bacillus subtilis: control of the thiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase AdhA and cysteine proteinase YraA by the MerR-family regulator YraB (AdhR). Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:876-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that AdhR is redox-regulated via thiol-(S)-alkylation by aldehydes and that AdhA and YraA are specifically involved in reduction of aldehydes and degradation or repair of damaged thiol-containing proteins respectively...
  24. Price C, Hassi H, English N, Blakemore A, Stagg A, Knight S. Methylglyoxal modulates immune responses: relevance to diabetes. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1806-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MG is a potent suppressor of myeloid and T-cell immune function and may be a major player in diabetes-associated susceptibility to infection...
  25. Fleming T, Cuny J, Nawroth G, Djuric Z, Humpert P, Zeier M, et al. Is diabetes an acquired disorder of reactive glucose metabolites and their intermediates?. Diabetologia. 2012;55:1151-5 pubmed publisher
  26. Bierhaus A, Fleming T, Stoyanov S, Leffler A, Babes A, Neacsu C, et al. Methylglyoxal modification of Nav1.8 facilitates nociceptive neuron firing and causes hyperalgesia in diabetic neuropathy. Nat Med. 2012;18:926-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This previously undescribed concept of metabolically driven hyperalgesia provides a new basis for the design of therapeutic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy...
  27. Oya Ito T, Naito Y, Takagi T, Handa O, Matsui H, Yamada M, et al. Heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) as a target of methylglyoxal in gastrointestinal cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1812:769-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that posttranslational modification of heat-shock protein 27 by methylglyoxal may have important implications for epithelial cell injury in gastrointestinal cancer...
  28. Su Y, Lei X, Wu L, Liu L. The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in leucocyte recruitment induced by exogenous methylglyoxal. Immunology. 2012;137:65-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment in microvasculature, an inflammatory condition related to diabetic vascular complications...
  29. Lv L, Shao X, Wang L, Huang D, Ho C, Sang S. Stilbene glucoside from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: a novel natural inhibitor of advanced glycation end product formation by trapping of methylglyoxal. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the ability of THSG to trap reactive dicarbonyl species makes it a potential natural inhibitor of AGEs...
  30. Mukohda M, Yamawaki H, Okada M, Hara Y. Methylglyoxal enhances sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation in rat aorta. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;112:176-83 pubmed
    ..The present study revealed that MGO enhanced SNP-induced relaxation in a ROS-independent manner via in part opening smooth muscle BK(Ca) channels...
  31. Ogawa S, Nakayama K, Nakayama M, Mori T, Matsushima M, Okamura M, et al. Methylglyoxal is a predictor in type 2 diabetic patients of intima-media thickening and elevation of blood pressure. Hypertension. 2010;56:471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..DG is an independent risk factor for the percentage change of ACR. MG is a predictor in type 2 diabetic patients of intima-media thickening, of increase of PWV, and of elevation of SBP...
  32. Wang H, Liu J, Wu L. Methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;77:1709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These discoveries will help unmask molecular mechanisms for various MG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction-related cellular disorders...
  33. Kuntz S, Kunz C, Rudloff S. Carbonyl compounds methylglyoxal and glyoxal affect interleukin-8 secretion in intestinal cells by superoxide anion generation and activation of MAPK p38. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that multiple pathways were simultaneously activated; however, superoxide dependent MAPK p38 activation seems to be the most dominant pathway for IL-8 secretion in intestinal cells...
  34. Ni Z, Zhuge Z, Li W, Xu H, Zhang Z, Dai H. Inhibitory effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on the formation of advanced glycation end products in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:2050-3 pubmed
    ..Overall, our present study provides the first evidence of the antiglycation effects of HSYA on AGEs formation in vitro...
  35. Gawlowski T, Stratmann B, Stork I, Engelbrecht B, Brodehl A, Niehaus K, et al. Heat shock protein 27 modification is increased in the human diabetic failing heart. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:594-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows an association between diabetes and increased argpyrimidine-modification of myocardial Hsp27, a protein which is involved in apoptosis, oxidative stress, and cytoskeleton stabilization...
  36. Guo Q, Mori T, Jiang Y, Hu C, Osaki Y, Yoneki Y, et al. Methylglyoxal contributes to the development of insulin resistance and salt sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Hypertens. 2009;27:1664-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to investigate whether methylglyoxal could directly induce insulin resistance and salt sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rats...
  37. Distler M, Plant L, Sokoloff G, Hawk A, Aneas I, Wuenschell G, et al. Glyoxalase 1 increases anxiety by reducing GABAA receptor agonist methylglyoxal. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2306-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of GLO1 reduced anxiety, suggesting that GLO1 is a possible target for the treatment of anxiety disorders...
  38. Turk Z. Glycotoxines, carbonyl stress and relevance to diabetes and its complications. Physiol Res. 2010;59:147-56 pubmed
    ..Their role in the advanced glycation process and detrimental effects on vascular tissue are discussed...
  39. Thangarajah H, Yao D, Chang E, Shi Y, Jazayeri L, Vial I, et al. The molecular basis for impaired hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in diabetic tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define molecular defects that underlie impaired VEGF production in diabetic tissues and offer a promising direction for therapeutic intervention...
  40. Price C, Knight S. Methylglyoxal: possible link between hyperglycaemia and immune suppression?. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009;20:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that MG could be a missing link between hyperglycaemia and immune suppression in diabetes...
  41. Chang T, Untereiner A, Liu J, Wu L. Interaction of methylglyoxal and hydrogen sulfide in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;12:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction of MG with H(2)S may be one of future directions for the studies on glucose metabolism and the development of insulin resistance syndromes...
  42. Greig N, Wyllie S, Patterson S, Fairlamb A. A comparative study of methylglyoxal metabolism in trypanosomatids. FEBS J. 2009;276:376-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the predominant mechanism for methylglyoxal detoxification in the African trypanosome is via the methylglyoxal reductase pathway to l-lactate...
  43. Dhar A, Dhar I, Jiang B, Desai K, Wu L. Chronic methylglyoxal infusion by minipump causes pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and induces type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetes. 2011;60:899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..MG levels are elevated in diabetic patients. We investigated the effects of chronic administration of MG on glucose tolerance and ?-cell insulin secreting mechanism in 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats...
  44. Ozyamak E, Black S, Walker C, Maclean M, Bartlett W, Miller S, et al. The critical role of S-lactoylglutathione formation during methylglyoxal detoxification in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:1577-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are discussed in terms of how cell fate is determined by the relative abundance of the enzymes and KefGB...
  45. An S, Kang J. Oxidative damage of DNA induced by the reaction of methylglyoxal with lysine in the presence of ferritin. BMB Rep. 2013;46:225-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that DNA cleavage caused by the ferritin/MG/lysine system via the generation of ROS by the Fenton-like reaction of free iron ions released from oxidatively damaged ferritin...
  46. Lee H, Seo I, Suh D, Lee H, Park H. A novel mechanism of methylglyoxal cytotoxicity in neuroglial cells. J Neurochem. 2009;108:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that MGO affects cell viability via desensitization of gp130/STAT3 signaling, which is the key signaling pathway for cell survival, and thereby promotes cytotoxicity...
  47. Rath J, Gowri V, Chauhan S, Padmanabhan P, Srinivasan N, Madhubala R. A glutathione-specific aldose reductase of Leishmania donovani and its potential implications for methylglyoxal detoxification pathway. Gene. 2009;429:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the role of an ALR in the metabolic disposal of methylglyoxal in L. donovani and of thiol binding to a kinetoplastid aldose reductase...
  48. Xue M, Rabbani N, Momiji H, Imbasi P, Anwar M, Kitteringham N, et al. Transcriptional control of glyoxalase 1 by Nrf2 provides a stress-responsive defence against dicarbonyl glycation. Biochem J. 2012;443:213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that dicarbonyl stress is countered by up-regulation of Glo1 in the Nrf2 stress-responsive system, protecting protein and DNA from increased damage and preserving cell function...
  49. Cao D, Zhong L, Hsieh T, Abooj M, Bishnoi M, Hughes L, et al. Expression of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and its role in insulin release from rat pancreatic beta cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38005 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPA1 is an attractive candidate for inducing insulin release because it is calcium permeable and is activated by molecules that are produced during oxidative glycolysis...
  50. Dhar A, Desai K, Wu L. Alagebrium attenuates acute methylglyoxal-induced glucose intolerance in Sprague-Dawley rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether alagebrium attenuated the acute effects of exogenous MG on plasma MG levels, glucose tolerance and distribution of administered MG in different organs in Sprague-Dawley rats...
  51. Bento C, Fernandes R, Ramalho J, Marques C, Shang F, Taylor A, et al. The chaperone-dependent ubiquitin ligase CHIP targets HIF-1? for degradation in the presence of methylglyoxal. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15062 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we suggest that accumulation of MGO is likely to be the link between high glucose and the loss of cell response to hypoxia in diabetes...
  52. Bento C, Fernandes R, Matafome P, Sena C, Seica R, Pereira P. Methylglyoxal-induced imbalance in the ratio of vascular endothelial growth factor to angiopoietin 2 secreted by retinal pigment epithelial cells leads to endothelial dysfunction. Exp Physiol. 2010;95:955-70 pubmed publisher
  53. Desai K, Chang T, Wang H, Banigesh A, Dhar A, Liu J, et al. Oxidative stress and aging: is methylglyoxal the hidden enemy?. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific and effective scavengers and crosslink breakers of MG and AGEs are being developed and can become potential treatments to slow the aging process and prevent many diseases...