glyoxal

Summary

Summary: A 2-carbon aldehyde with carbonyl groups on both carbons.

Top Publications

  1. Gupta K, Jabrail F. Glutaraldehyde and glyoxal cross-linked chitosan microspheres for controlled delivery of centchroman. Carbohydr Res. 2006;341:744-56 pubmed
    Glutaraldehyde and glyoxal cross-linked microspheres were prepared using chitosan with different molecular weights (MWs) and degrees of deacetylation (DDAs) for sustained release of centchroman under physiological conditions...
  2. Han Y, Randell E, Vasdev S, Gill V, Gadag V, Newhook L, et al. Plasma methylglyoxal and glyoxal are elevated and related to early membrane alteration in young, complication-free patients with Type 1 diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;305:123-31 pubmed
    The reactive aldehydes methylglyoxal and glyoxal, arise from enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation of glucose, lipid and protein catabolism, and lipid peroxidation...
  3. Kuntz S, Kunz C, Rudloff S. Carbonyl compounds methylglyoxal and glyoxal affect interleukin-8 secretion in intestinal cells by superoxide anion generation and activation of MAPK p38. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1458-67 pubmed publisher
    The carbonyl compounds methylglyoxal (MG) and glyoxal (GL) are reactive intermediates of glucose degradation pathways and capable of inducing cellular damage...
  4. Banach M, Dong Q, O Brien P. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonylation model): prevention by bioactive nut extracts or catechins. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;178:324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in cell toxicity models of diabetes-related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide)...
  5. Massari J, Tokikawa R, Medinas D, Angeli J, Di Mascio P, Assunção N, et al. Generation of singlet oxygen by the glyoxal-peroxynitrite system. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:20761-8 pubmed publisher
    Diacetyl, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal are ?-dicarbonyl catabolites prone to nucleophilic additions of amino groups of proteins and nucleobases, thereby triggering adverse biological responses...
  6. Hsieh C, Lin Y, Ko W, Peng C, Huang C, Peng R. Inhibitory effect of some selected nutraceutic herbs on LDL glycation induced by glucose and glyoxal. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102:357-63 pubmed
    ..01-0.625 mg/mL, low density lipoprotein (LDL; 100 microg protein/mL) and inducers glucose (400 mM) and glyoxal (2.5 mM) were incubated at 37 degrees C...
  7. Mirza M, Kandhro A, Memon S, Khuhawar M, Arain R. Determination of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in the serum of diabetic patients by MEKC using stilbenediamine as derivatizing reagent. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:3940-7 pubmed
    An analytical method has been developed for the separation of glyoxal (Go), methylglyoxal (MGo), and dimethylglyoxal (DMGo) by MEKC using stilbenediamine (SD) as derivatizing reagent, separation time 6...
  8. Rabbani N, Thornalley P. The dicarbonyl proteome: proteins susceptible to dicarbonyl glycation at functional sites in health, aging, and disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1126:124-7 pubmed publisher
    Reactive, physiological, dicarbonyl, glycating agents, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, are arginine-directed glycating agents forming mainly hydroimidazolone residues...
  9. Wu M, Chen B, Chang C, Huang M, Wu T, Chang D, et al. A novel derivatization approach for simultaneous determination of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1204:81-6 pubmed publisher
    A two-step derivatization approach has been developed to enable the simultaneous analysis of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone by the most efficient and widely applied GC-MS methodology...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Reber F, Kasper M, Siegner A, Kniep E, Seigel G, Funk R. Alteration of the intracellular pH and apoptosis induction in a retinal cell line by the AGE-inducing agent glyoxal. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;240:1022-32 pubmed
    Methylglyoxal and glyoxal, intermediate products of glycation, are known to accelerate glycation and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs)...
  2. Shen J, Wu Y, Xu J, Zhang J, Sinclair S, Yanoff M, et al. ERK- and Akt-dependent neuroprotection by erythropoietin (EPO) against glyoxal-AGEs via modulation of Bcl-xL, Bax, and BAD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:35-46 pubmed publisher
    To characterize the neuroprotective mechanisms of erythropoietin (EPO) against the stress of glyoxal-advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in retinal neuronal cells.
  3. da Silva G. Hydroxyl radical regeneration in the photochemical oxidation of glyoxal: kinetics and mechanism of the HC(O)CO + O(2) reaction. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:6698-705 pubmed publisher
    b>Glyoxal, HC(O)CHO, is an important trace component of the Earth's atmosphere, formed in biomass burning and in the photooxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like isoprene and aromatic hydrocarbons...
  4. Wang Y, Lee K, Pai S, Ledoux W. Histomorphometric comparison after fixation with formaldehyde or glyoxal. Biotech Histochem. 2011;86:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glyoxal-based fixatives now are among the most popular formaldehyde alternatives...
  5. Lederer M, Klaiber R. Cross-linking of proteins by Maillard processes: characterization and detection of lysine-arginine cross-links derived from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999;7:2499-507 pubmed
    Alpha-dicarbonyl compounds, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, are crucial intermediates in the browning and cross-linking of proteins by reducing sugars in the course of the Maillard reaction...
  6. Rabbani N, Thornalley P. Dicarbonyls linked to damage in the powerhouse: glycation of mitochondrial proteins and oxidative stress. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:1045-50 pubmed publisher
    Protection of mitochondrial proteins from glycation by endogenous dicarbonyl compounds, methylglyoxal and glyoxal, was found recently to prevent increased formation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative and nitrosative damage to the ..
  7. Wang H, Cao H, Wang Y. Quantification of N2-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in calf thymus DNA and cultured human kidney epithelial cells by capillary high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope dilution method. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:74-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Glyoxal is generated endogenously from the degradation of glucose and the oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and the 2-deoxyribose moieties of DNA. Glyoxal is also widely used in industry and is present in cigarette smoke and food...
  8. Knels L, Worm M, Wendel M, Roehlecke C, Kniep E, Funk R. Effects of advanced glycation end products-inductor glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide as oxidative stress factors on rat retinal organ cultures and neuroprotection by UK-14,304. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1876-87 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate these mechanisms in detail, we exposed rat whole mounts to glyoxal or H(2)O(2) and treated them with either UK-14,304 alone or additionally with the phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (..
  9. Shokri L, McCauley M, Rouzina I, Williams M. DNA overstretching in the presence of glyoxal: structural evidence of force-induced DNA melting. Biophys J. 2008;95:1248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..during the transition, we held DNA overstretched to different lengths within the transition in the presence of glyoxal. If overstretching involved strand separation, then force-melted basepairs would be glyoxal-modified, thus ..
  10. Hall B, Wilkinson S. Activation of benznidazole by trypanosomal type I nitroreductases results in glyoxal formation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The breakdown of this product released the reactive dialdehyde glyoxal, which, in the presence of guanosine, generated guanosine-glyoxal adducts...
  11. Burnett W. Northern blotting of RNA denatured in glyoxal without buffer recirculation. Biotechniques. 1997;22:668-71 pubmed
    A rapid and easy procedure for preparing Northern blots is described. RNA is denatured with glyoxal in the presence of ethidium bromide and glycerol, then electrophoresed through agarose in a buffer that does not require recirculation...
  12. Glomb M, Monnier V. Mechanism of protein modification by glyoxal and glycolaldehyde, reactive intermediates of the Maillard reaction. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10017-26 pubmed
    The role of glyoxal and glycolaldehyde in protein cross-linking and N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) formation during Maillard reaction under physiological conditions was investigated...
  13. Thornalley P, Yurek George A, Argirov O. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of aminoguanidine with the alpha-oxoaldehydes glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone under physiological conditions. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;60:55-65 pubmed
    ..agent for the preventive therapy of diabetic complications, reacts with the physiological alpha-oxoaldehydes glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) to form 3-amino-1,2,4-triazine derivatives (T) and prevent glycation ..
  14. Lapolla A, Flamini R, Dalla Vedova A, Senesi A, Reitano R, Fedele D, et al. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal levels in diabetic patients: quantitative determination by a new GC/MS method. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003;41:1166-73 pubmed
    Determination of glyoxal and methylglyoxal levels in plasma is of great interest, since it allows us to evaluate oxidation processes occurring in glycated proteins...
  15. Kumar M, Reddy P, Kumar P, Surolia I, Reddy G. Effect of dicarbonyl-induced browning on alpha-crystallin chaperone-like activity: physiological significance and caveats of in vitro aggregation assays. Biochem J. 2004;379:273-82 pubmed
    ..Dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal have been identified as the predominant source for the formation of advanced glycation end-products in various ..
  16. Olsen R, Molander P, Øvrebø S, Ellingsen D, Thorud S, Thomassen Y, et al. Reaction of glyoxal with 2'-deoxyguanosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, cytidine, thymidine, and calf thymus DNA: identification of DNA adducts. Chem Res Toxicol. 2005;18:730-9 pubmed
    b>Glyoxal (ethanedial) is an increasingly used industrial chemical that has been found to be mutagenic in bacteria and mammalian cells...
  17. Yoon K, Yamamoto K, Ueda K, Zhou J, Sparrow J. A novel source of methylglyoxal and glyoxal in retina: implications for age-related macular degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41309 pubmed publisher
    ..ESI-MS) we demonstrate that photodegradation of A2E and all-trans-retinal dimer generates the dicarbonyls glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MG), that are known to modify proteins by advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation...
  18. Shiryaeva Y, Krylin V, Titov V. Chromatographic determination of methyl glyoxal in blood plasma as the test for glycotoxicity and accumulation of glycation end-products. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;153:114-7 pubmed
    We developed a method of measuring methyl glyoxal concentration in blood serum using HPLC with UV detection. Methyl glyoxal concentration was determined in healthy subjects...
  19. Thornalley P, Langborg A, Minhas H. Formation of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone in the glycation of proteins by glucose. Biochem J. 1999;344 Pt 1:109-16 pubmed
    ..The formation of the alpha-oxoaldehydes, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone, in early glycation was investigated. Glucose (50 mM) degraded slowly at pH 7...
  20. Kasper M, Roehlecke C, Witt M, Fehrenbach H, Hofer A, Miyata T, et al. Induction of apoptosis by glyoxal in human embryonic lung epithelial cell line L132. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;23:485-91 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to test the hypothesis that glyoxal, an intermediate product in the glycation reaction leading to advanced glycation end products (AGEs), may induce ..
  21. Glomb M, Lang G. Isolation and characterization of glyoxal-arginine modifications. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:1493-501 pubmed
    ..1) was identified as the only product of the early reaction of arginine with glyoxal, which was slowly degraded to N(5)-[[(carboxymethyl)amino](imino)methyl]ornithine (3, N(7)-carboxymethylarginine)...
  22. Akhand A, Hossain K, Kato M, Miyata T, Du J, Suzuki H, et al. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal induce lyoxal and methyglyoxal induce aggregation and inactivation of ERK in human endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31:1228-35 pubmed
    Increased production of glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) under oxidative stress is harmful to the cells. In this study, we examined the early signaling effect of GO/MGO on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
  23. Lapolla A, Flamini R, Tonus T, Fedele D, Senesi A, Reitano R, et al. An effective derivatization method for quantitative determination of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in plasma samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2003;17:876-8 pubmed
  24. Fleming T, Rabbani N, Thornalley P. Preparation of nucleotide advanced glycation endproducts--imidazopurinone adducts formed by glycation of deoxyguanosine with glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1126:280-2 pubmed publisher
    An analytical procedure was developed for nucleotide advanced glycation endproducts formed by the reaction of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with deoxyguanosine under physiological conditions...
  25. Kawaguchi M, Shibata N, Horiuchi S, Kobayashi M. Glyoxal inactivates glutamate transporter-1 in cultured rat astrocytes. Neuropathology. 2005;25:27-36 pubmed
    ..CML is a product of post-translational protein modification by glyoxal, a reactive aldehydic intermediate...
  26. Kuhla B, Lüth H, Haferburg D, Boeck K, Arendt T, Munch G. Methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and their detoxification in Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1043:211-6 pubmed
    ..As reactive intermediates of AGE formation, neurotoxic reactive dicarbonyl compounds such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal have been identified...
  27. Cervantes Laurean D, Roberts M, Jacobson E, Jacobson M. Nuclear proteasome activation and degradation of carboxymethylated histones in human keratinocytes following glyoxal treatment. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38:786-95 pubmed
    ..We have used glyoxal, a product of environmental exposures that readily leads to the formation of CML, to study nuclear protein ..
  28. Manini P, La Pietra P, Panzella L, Napolitano A, d Ischia M. Glyoxal formation by Fenton-induced degradation of carbohydrates and related compounds. Carbohydr Res. 2006;341:1828-33 pubmed
    In this paper, we provide a systematic analysis of glyoxal (1) formation from a range of monosaccharides and related compounds, to determine their potential role as sources of this alpha-oxoaldehyde in vivo...
  29. Singh D, Kumar R, Malik V, Tyagi P. Template synthesis, spectroscopic studies and biological activities of macrocyclic complexes derived from thiocarbohydrazide and glyoxal. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007;22:177-82 pubmed
    ..Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)or Cd(II); X = Cl-, CH3COO- or NO3- have been synthesized by template condensation of glyoxal and thiocarbohydrazide in the presence of divalent metal salts in methanolic medium...
  30. Hoemann C, Chenite A, Sun J, Hurtig M, Serreqi A, Lu Z, et al. Cytocompatible gel formation of chitosan-glycerol phosphate solutions supplemented with hydroxyl ethyl cellulose is due to the presence of glyoxal. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007;83:521-9 pubmed
    ..This solution was still thermogelling but only at 73 degrees C. We next discovered that glyoxal, a common additive in ether cellulose manufacturing, was responsible for chitosan gelation...
  31. Akhand A, Hossain K, Mitsui H, Kato M, Miyata T, Inagi R, et al. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal trigger distinct signals for map family kinases and caspase activation in human endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31:20-30 pubmed
    ..we compared intracellular signals delivered into cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which differ only by a methyl group...
  32. Wang Y, Ho C. Flavour chemistry of methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Chem Soc Rev. 2012;41:4140-9 pubmed publisher
    Methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO), known as reactive carbonyl species, can be generated endogenously and exogenously (human body and food system)...
  33. Lee C, Kim I, Lee J, Lee K, Min B, Park C. Transcriptional activation of the aldehyde reductase YqhD by YqhC and its implication in glyoxal metabolism of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4205-14 pubmed publisher
    The reactive alpha-oxoaldehydes such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MG) are generated in vivo from sugars through oxidative stress...
  34. Sejersen H, Rattan S. Glyoxal-induced premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1100:518-23 pubmed
    ..Our present studies show that early-passage human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM glyoxal for 72 h undergo premature senescence in terms of enlarged cell size, inhibition of cell division, slowing down ..
  35. Arribas Lorenzo G, Morales F. Analysis, distribution, and dietary exposure of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in cookies and their relationship with other heat-induced contaminants. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2966-72 pubmed publisher
    Thermal processing of food leads to the formation of dicarbonyls such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which are potentially harmful because they are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
  36. Feierabend K, Zhu L, Talukdar R, Burkholder J. Rate coefficients for the OH + HC(O)C(O)H (glyoxal) reaction between 210 and 390 K. J Phys Chem A. 2008;112:73-82 pubmed
    ..k1(T), over the temperature range of 210-390 K are reported for the gas-phase reaction OH + HC(O)C(O)H (glyoxal) --> products at pressures between 45 and 300 Torr (He, N2)...
  37. Sliman S, Eubank T, Kotha S, Kuppusamy M, Sherwani S, Butler E, et al. Hyperglycemic oxoaldehyde, glyoxal, causes barrier dysfunction, cytoskeletal alterations, and inhibition of angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells: aminoguanidine protection. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;333:9-26 pubmed publisher
    Vascular endothelium is vulnerable to the attack of glucose-derived oxoaldehydes (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) during diabetes, through the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
  38. Nozière B, Dziedzic P, Córdova A. Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by ammonium ions (NH4(+)). J Phys Chem A. 2009;113:231-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Glyoxal, a common atmospheric gas, has been reported to be depleted in some regions of the atmosphere...
  39. Tippelt S, Ma C, Witt M, Bierbaum S, Funk R. Collagen type I prevents glyoxal-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells cultured on titanium alloy. Cells Tissues Organs. 2004;177:29-36 pubmed
    ..b>Glyoxal is a highly reactive glycating agent involved in the formation of AGEs and is known to induce apoptosis, as ..
  40. Thornalley P. Protein and nucleotide damage by glyoxal and methylglyoxal in physiological systems--role in ageing and disease. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2008;23:125-50 pubmed
    Glycation of proteins, nucleotides and basic phospholipids by glyoxal and methylglyoxal--physiological substrates of glyoxalase 1--is potentially damaging to the proteome, genome and lipidome...
  41. Chen H, Chen Y. Analysis of glyoxal-induced DNA cross-links by capillary liquid chromatography nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1334-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Glyoxal (gx) is an alpha-dicarbonyl species derived endogenously from the metabolism of carbohydrates or nitrosamines and from oxidation of lipids and nucleic acids. It is also widely distributed in foods and the environment...
  42. Marcon N, Bressenot A, Montagne K, Bastien C, Champigneulle J, Monhoven N, et al. [Glyoxal: a possible polyvalent substitute for formaldehyde in pathology?]. Ann Pathol. 2009;29:460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the non-alcoholic formalin substitute, glyoxal has been hailed as the best alternative...
  43. Nagai R, Unno Y, Hayashi M, Masuda S, Hayase F, Kinae N, et al. Peroxynitrite induces formation of N( epsilon )-(carboxymethyl) lysine by the cleavage of Amadori product and generation of glucosone and glyoxal from glucose: novel pathways for protein modification by peroxynitrite. Diabetes. 2002;51:2833-9 pubmed
    ..This experiment led to identification of glucosone and glyoxal by HPLC...
  44. Reber F, Geffarth R, Kasper M, Reichenbach A, Schleicher E, Siegner A, et al. Graded sensitiveness of the various retinal neuron populations on the glyoxal-mediated formation of advanced glycation end products and ways of protection. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241:213-25 pubmed
  45. Corrigan A, Hanley S, De Haan D. Uptake of glyoxal by organic and Inorganic aerosol. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:4428-33 pubmed
    The uptake of glyoxal by a variety of organic and inorganic aerosol types was examined in a Teflon chamber. Rapid glyoxal uptake was observed for all liquid-phase aerosols at all relative humidity levels tested (< 5 to 50% RH)...
  46. Yang K, Qiang D, Delaney S, Mehta R, Bruce W, O Brien P. Differences in glyoxal and methylglyoxal metabolism determine cellular susceptibility to protein carbonylation and cytotoxicity. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with protein glycation and the formation of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO)...
  47. Li Y, Cohenford M, Dutta U, Dain J. The structural modification of DNA nucleosides by nonenzymatic glycation: an in vitro study based on the reactions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with 2'-deoxyguanosine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;390:679-88 pubmed
    Methylglyoxal and glyoxal are generated from the oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids, and like D-glucose have been shown to nonenzymatically react with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
  48. Shangari N, O Brien P. The cytotoxic mechanism of glyoxal involves oxidative stress. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;68:1433-42 pubmed
    b>Glyoxal is a reactive alpha-oxoaldehyde that is a physiological metabolite formed by lipid peroxidation, ascorbate autoxidation, oxidative degradation of glucose and degradation of glycated proteins...
  49. Liggio J, Li S, McLaren R. Heterogeneous reactions of glyoxal on particulate matter: identification of acetals and sulfate esters. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:1532-41 pubmed
    Reactive uptake of glyoxal onto particulate matter has been studied in laboratory experiments in a 2 m3 Teflon reaction chamber...
  50. Pampati P, Suravajjala S, Dain J. Monitoring nonenzymatic glycation of human immunoglobulin G by methylglyoxal and glyoxal: A spectroscopic study. Anal Biochem. 2011;408:59-63 pubmed publisher
    The accumulation of dicarbonyl compounds, methylglyoxal (MG) and glyoxal (G), has been observed in diabetic conditions...
  51. Shangari N, Mehta R, O Brien P. Hepatocyte susceptibility to glyoxal is dependent on cell thiamin content. Chem Biol Interact. 2007;165:146-54 pubmed
    b>Glyoxal, a reactive dicarbonyl, is detoxified primarily by the glyoxalase system utilizing glutathione (GSH) and by the aldo-keto reductase enzymes which utilizes NAD[P]H as the co-factor...
  52. Dong Q, Banaich M, O Brien P. Cytoprotection by almond skin extracts or catechins of hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) versus glyoxal or methylglyoxal (carbonylation model). Chem Biol Interact. 2010;185:101-9 pubmed publisher
  53. Awada M, Dedon P. Formation of the 1,N2-glyoxal adduct of deoxyguanosine by phosphoglycolaldehyde, a product of 3'-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001;14:1247-53 pubmed
    ..residue generated by 3'-oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA, reacts with dG and DNA to form the diastereomeric 1,N2-glyoxal adducts of dG, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuransyl)-6,7-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxyimidazo[1,2-a]purine-9(3H)-one...